A few flowers at his feet and above him the stars. At seven I wanted to be Napoleon. And my ambition has been growing steadily ever since. But when did that ever stop any dreamer from dreaming. I feel as if I've come to a place I never thought I'd have to come to. And I don't know how I got here.
It's a strange place. It's a place where a little harmless dreaming and then some sleepy, early-morning talk has led me into considerations of death and annihilation. No one tires of dreaming, because to dream is to forget, and forgetting does not weigh on us, it is a dreamless sleep throughout which we remain awake.
In dreams I have achieved everything. I was flying past the stars on silver wings," Matilda said. No art passes our conscience in the way film does, and goes directly to our feelings, deep down into the dark rooms of our souls. Schwab, A Darker Shade of Magic. Never stop fighting. Never stop dreaming. The champagne was non-alcoholic.
You didn't notice, and laughed at my jokes anyway. You were an escalator, and I was a flight of stairs. Furthermore, there are important between-subjects and within-subjects variability Scarpelli et al. Also, taking into account that specific microstructural features have been related to DE, further examination of the EEG pattern in healthy and clinical sample of dreaming may follow two steps: a protocols collecting DE in healthy subjects with EEG at high spatial i. Within-subjects design, a control of homeostatic and circadian factors as well as technique to better distinguish rhythmic from EEG background signal e.
Also, longitudinal data could be collected to observe the potential changes in the EEG pattern and dream contents. In particular, the findings discussed point out that both the theta and gamma EEG activities are essential for dreaming and emotional processes. From a translational perspective, it could be interesting to investigate how these frequency bands modulate emotional and traumatic memories incorporated in dreaming. In fact, it could be useful to implement new methods to change the dream content in something of neutral, not disturbing or positive for patients who suffer from nightmares.
For example, the tACS techniques allow eliciting lucid dreams through a frontal gamma activity stimulation Voss et al. In this perspective, considering lucid dreams as a sort of coping strategies to deal with the negative emotional contents of DE, it could be promising as intervention for nightmare disorder Zadra and Pihl, ; Spoormaker et al. More in general, the parasomnias as RBD may be considered a privileged model to study both REM abnormalities and sleep mentation with high emotional load since that these manifestations are often characterized by aggressiveness and negative emotions.
LD and SS made substantial contributions to the conception and design of the work. LD, SS, CB, AD, and MG contributed by drafting the work and revising it critically for important intellectual content, responsible for the final approval of the version to be published, and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Addante, R. Prestimulus theta activity predicts correct source memory retrieval. Agargun, M. Nightmares, suicide attempts, and melancholic features in patients with unipolar major depression. Alfonsi, V. Sleep talking: a viable access to mental processes during sleep.
Sleep Med. American Psychiatric Association CrossRef Full Text. Anderson, K. Theta oscillations mediate interaction between prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe in human memory. Cerebral Cortex. Antrobus, J. Dreaming in the late morning: Summation of REM and diurnal cortical activation. PubMed Abstract Google Scholar. Armony, J. Current emotion research in behavioral neuroscience: the role s of the amygdala. Arnulf, I. REM sleep behavior disorder: motor manifestations and pathophysiology.
Asada, H. Frontal midline theta rhythms reflect alternative activation of prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex in humans. Benca, R. Sleep and psychiatric disorders: a meta-analysis. Psychiatry 49, — Sleep and mood disorders. Biervoye, A. Impaired spontaneous belief inference following acquired damage to the left posterior temporoparietal junction. Blagrove, M. A replication of the 5—7 day dream-lag effect with comparison of dreams to future events as control for baseline matching. Bohbot, V.
Gray matter differences correlate with spontaneous strategies in a human virtual navigation task. Bourguignon, A. Guillerminault, W. Dement WC, and P. Google Scholar. Boyce, R. Casual evidence for the role of REM sleep theta rhythm in contexual memory consolidaiton.
Why do we dream?
Science , — Bradley, K. Modified leucotomy: report of cases. Braun, A. Regional cerebral blood flow throughout the sleep-wake cycle: an H2O positron emission tomography study. Brain , — Dissociated pattern of activity in visual cortices and their projections during human rapid eye movement sleep. Science , 91— Breslau, N. Sleep in lifetime posttraumatic stress disordera community-based polysomnographic study. Psychiatry 61, — Cairney, S. Complementary roles of slow-wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep in emotional memory consolidation.
Canolty, R. High gamma power is phase-locked to theta oscillations in human neocortex. Cantero, J. J Neurosci. Carr, M. Valli, R. Hoss, and R. Cartwright, R. REM sleep reduction, mood regulation and remission in untreated depression. Psychiatry Res. The effects of REM time on what is recalled. Psychophysiology 12, — Role of REM sleep and dream affect in overnight mood regulation: A study of normal volunteers. Castelnovo, A. Scalp and source power topography in sleepwalking and sleep terrors: a high-density EEG study. Sleep 39, — Cavallero, C. Slow wave sleep dreaming.
Sleep 15, — Chang, L. Decoding the role of the insula in human cognition: functional parcellation and large-scale reverse inference. Cortex 23, — Chellappa, S. Cipolli, C. Beyond the neuropsychology of dreaming: insights into the neural basis of dreaming with new techniques of sleep recording and analysis. Cohen, M. Assessing transient cross-frequency coupling in EEG data. Methods , — Corsi-Cabrera, M. Sleep Res. Cowdin, N. Brain Res. Dahl, R. The regulation of sleep and arousal: development and psychopathology. D'Atri, A. Cortical activation during sleep predicts dream experience in narcolepsy.
De Carli, F. Activation of the motor cortex during phasic rapid eye movement sleep. De Gennaro, L. Amygdala and hippocampus volumetry and diffusivity in relation to dreaming. Brain Mapp. An electroencephalographic fingerprint of human sleep. NeuroImage 26, — Dopaminergic system and dream recall: an MRI study in Parkinson's disease patients. How we remember the stuff that dreams are made of: neurobiological approaches to the brain mechanisms of dream recall. De Zambotti, M. Facing emotions in narcolepsy with cataplexy: haemodynamic and behavioural responses during emotional stimulation. Deliens, G.
Sleep and the processing of emotions. Desseilles, M. Cognitive and emotional processes during dreaming: A neuroimaging view. Diekelmann, S.
What Is Dreaming and What Does It Tell Us about Memory? [Excerpt] - Scientific American
The memory function of sleep. Dodet, P. Lucid dreaming in narcolepsy. Sleep 38, — Domhoff, G. New York, NY: Plenum. Donaldson, P. Noninvasive stimulation of the temporoparietal junction: a systematic review. Dresler, M. Volitional components of consciousness vary across wakefulness, dreaming and lucid dreaming. Dreamed movement elicits activation in the sensorimotor cortex. Durrant, S. Schema-conformant memories are preferentially consolidated during REM sleep. Eichenlaub, J.
Axmacher, B. Rasch Switzerland: Springer Cham , — Resting brain activity varies with dream recall frequency between subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology 39, — Incorporation of recent waking-life experiences in dreams correlates with frontal theta activity in REM sleep. Erlacher, D. Esposito, M. Psychophysiology 41, — Etkin, A. Functional neuroimaging of anxiety: a metaanalysis of emotional processing in PTSD, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia. Am J Psychiatry , — Fagioli, I. Mental activity during sleep.
Forbes, D. Fosse, R. REM mentation in narcoleptics and normals: an empirical test of two neurocognitive theories. Brain-mind states: reciprocal variation in thoughts and hallucinations. Emotional experience during rapid-eye-movement sleep in narcolepsy. Sleep 25, — Foulkes, D.
Dream reports from different stages of sleep. Psycholy 65, 14— Appropriateness of dream feelings to dreamed situations. Freud, S. The Interpretation of Dreams J. Strachey, Trans. Friese, U. Successful memory encoding is associated with increased cross-frequency coupling between frontal theta and posterior gamma oscillations in human scalp-recorded EEG. NeuroImage 66, — Genzel, L. The role of rapid eye movement sleep for amygdala-related memory processing. Germain, A. Sleep disturbances as the hallmark of PTSD: where are we now? Psychiatry , — Sleep-specific mechanisms underlying posttraumatic stress disorder: Integrative review and neurobiological hypotheses.
Clinical correlates of poor sleep quality in posttraumatic stress disorder. Stress 17, — Gillin, J. Sleep deprivation as a model experimental antidepressant treatment: findings from functional brain imaging. Anxiety 14, 37— Gottesmann, C. To what extent do neurobiological sleep-waking processes support psychoanalysis?
Gruber, M. States of curiosity modulate hippocampus-dependent learning via the dopaminergic circuit. Neuron 84, — Guderian, S. Induced theta oscillations mediate large-scale synchrony with mediotemporal areas during recollection in humans.
Get smart. Sign up for our email newsletter.
Hippocampus 15, — Gujar, N. Sleep deprivation amplifies reactivity of brain reward networks, biasing the appraisal of positive emotional experiences. Habukawa, M. Sleep findings in young adult patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatry 62, — Harvey, A. Sleep and circadian rhythms in bipolar disorder: seeking synchrony, harmony, and regulation. Psychiatric , — Hebert, M. Hobson, J. Virtual reality and consciousness inference in dreaming. Frontiers in Psychology. The cognitive neuroscience of sleep: neuronal system, consciousness and learning.
Dreaming and the brain: toward a cognitive neuroscience of conscious states. Brain Sci. Hong, S. Cerebral perfusion changes during cataplexy in narcolepsy patients. Neurology 66, — Horikawa, T. Neural decoding of visual imagery during sleep. Horne, J. New York, NY: Oxford medical publications.
Horton, C. Autobiographical memory and hyperassociativity in the dreaming brain: Implications for memory consolidation in sleep. Hsieh, L. Frontal midline theta oscillations during working memory maintenance and episodic encoding and retrieval. Neuroimage 85, — Hutchinson, I. The role of REM sleep theta activity in emotional memory.
Iaria, G. Neural activity of the anterior insula in emotional processing depends on the individuals' emotional susceptibility. Ioannides, A. MEG identifies dorsal medial brain activations during sleep. Neuroimage 44, — Ishii, R. Medial prefrontal cortex generates frontal midline theta rhythm. Neuroreport 10, — Jeurissen, D. Jin, J. Prefrontal-hippocampal interactions in memory and emotion. Joo, E. Cerebral perfusion abnormality in narcolepsy with cataplexy.
Neuroimage 28, — Kahn, D. Dreaming as a function of chaos-like stochastic processes in the self-organizing brain. Nonlinear Dyn Psychol.
Life Sci. Kaplan, A. Macrostructural EEG characterization based on nonparametric change point segmentation: application to sleep analysis. Methods , 81— Kellner, R. Changes in chronic nightmares after one session of desensitization or rehearsal instructions. Kirov, R. REM sleep and dreaming functions beyond reductionism. The sleeping brain and the neural basis of emotions. Slow oscillation electrical brain stimulation during waking promotes EEG theta activity and memory encoding. Klimesch, W. Memory processes, brain oscillations and EEG synchronization. EEG alpha and theta oscillations reflect cognitive and memory performance: a review and analysis.
Theta band power in the human scalp EEG and the encoding of new information. Neuroreport 7, — Theta synchronization and alpha desynchronization in a memory task. Psychophysiology 34, — Theta synchronization during episodic retrieval: neural correlates of conscious awareness. Koulack, D. Dream recall and dream recall failure: an arousal-retrieval model. Krakow, B. Imagery rehearsal treatment for chronic nightmares. Treatment of chronic nightmares in adjudicated adolescent girls in a residential facility. Health 29, 94— Nightmare frequency in sexual assault survivors with PTSD. Anxiety Disord.
Kramer, M. Sharp edge artifacts and spurious coupling in EEG frequency comodulation measures. Kuiken, D. Stickgold and M. LaBerge, S. An hour of wakefulness before morning naps makes lucidity more likely. NightLight 6, 1—5. Lai, Y. Mallick and S. Inoue London: Narosa , 69— Landolt, H. Sleep and sleep electroencephalogram in depressed patients treated with phenelzine. Psychiatry 58, — Lara-Carrasco, J. Overnight emotional adaptation to negative stimuli is altered by REM sleep deprivation and is correlated with intervening dream emotions. Lee, J. Dream disturbed sleep in insomnia and narcolepsy.
Lega, B. Human hippocampal theta oscillations and the formation of episodic memories. Hippocampus 22, — Legrand, D. What is self-specific? Theoretical investigation and critical review of neuroimaging results. Levin, R. Disturbed dreaming and emotion dysregulation. Disturbed dreaming, posttraumatic stress disorder, and affect distress: a review and neurocognitive model.
Pych Bull. Li, S. Prevalence and correlates of frequent nightmares: a community-based 2-phase study. Sleep 33, — Lisman, J. The theta-gamma neural code. Neuron 77, — Luo, Q. Theta band activity in response to emotional expressions and its relationship with gamma band activity as revealed by MEG and advanced beamformer source imaging. Maguire, E. Patterns of hippocampal-cortical interaction dissociate temporal lobe memory subsystems.
Hippocampus 10, — Malinowski, J. Evidence for the preferential incorporation of emotional waking-life experiences into dreams.
- Message sent successfully.
- The New Adventures of Diamondstone the Magician.
- Beyond Fear!
- In the Light of Gods Love:A journey to acceptance, self-discovery, spiritual truths, and healing.
- The Oxford Book of French Short Stories (Oxford Books of Prose & Verse)!
Dreaming 24, 18— Mangiaruga, A. Spotlight on dream recall: the ages of dreams. Sleep 10, 1— Maquet, P. Functional neuroimaging of normal human sleep by positron emission tomography. Experience-dependent changes in changes in cerebral activation during human REM sleep. Functional neuroanatomy of human rapid eye movement sleep and dreaming. Nature , — Human cognition during REM sleep and the activity profile within frontal and parietal cortices: a reappraisal of functional neuroimaging data.
Marek, R. The amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex: partners in the fear circuit. Maren, S. Seeking a spotless mind: extinction, deconsolidation, and erasure of fear memory. Neuron 70, — The contextual brain: implications for fear conditioning, extinction and psychopathology. Marinova, P. Nightmares and suicide: predicting risk in depression. Psychiatria Danubina. Marks, I. Rehearsal relief of a nightmare. Marquis, L. REM sleep theta changes in frequent nightmare recallers. Sleep zsx Marshall, L. Transcranial electrical currents to probe EEG brain rhythms and memory consolidation during sleep in humans.
Martel, M. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 50, — Marzano, C. Recalling and forgetting dreams: theta and alpha oscillations during sleep predict subsequent dream recall. McNamara, P. Meaidi, A. Dreams in narcoleptic patients with and without cataplexy. Meletti, S. The brain correlates of laugh and cataplexy in childhood narcolepsy. Menz, M. The role of sleep and sleep deprivation in consolidating fear memories. Neuroimage 75, 87— Merritt, J.
Emotion Profiles in the Dreams of Men and Women. Mignot, E. The role of cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin measurement in the diagnosis of narcolepsy and other hypersomnias. Misane, I. Time-dependent involvement of the dorsal hippocampus in trace fear conditioning in mice. Mitchell, D. Frontal med-line theta from the perspective of hippocampal theta.
Modell, S. The Munich vulnerability study on affective disorders: Premorbid polysomnographic profile of affected high-risk probands. Grouping of spindle activity during slow oscillations in human non-rapid eye movement sleep. Monroe, L. Morris, J. Conscious and unconscious emotional learning in the human amygdala. Murkar, A. Nakajima, S. Psychiatry S. Neidhardt, E. The beneficial effects of one treatment session and recording of nightmares on chronic nightmare sufferers.
Nielsen, T. Nightmares: a new neurocognitive model. Dream-enacting behaviors in a normal population. Sleep 32, — Emotions in dream and waking event reports. Dreaming Immediate and delayed incorporations of events into dreams: further replication and implications for dream function. The day-residue and dream-lag effects: a literature review and limited replication of two temporal effects in dream formation. What are the memory sources of dreaming? Nature Nir, Y. Dreaming and the brain: from phenomenology to neurophysiology.
Trends Cogn. Nishida, M. Theta oscillation in the human anterior cingulate cortex during all-night sleep: an electrocorticographic study. REM sleep, prefrontal theta, and the consolidation of human emotional memory. Nofzinger, E. Onslow, A. Quantifying phase-amplitude coupling in neuronal network oscillations. Oudiette, D. Nonviolent elaborate behaviors may also occur in REM sleep behavior disorder. Dreaming without REM sleep. Upgrading the sleeping brain with targeted memory reactivation. Pace-Schott, E. Mood Anxiety Disord. Sleep promotes consolidation and generalization of extinction learning in simulated exposure therapy for spider fear.
Palagini, L. REM sleep dysregulation in depression: state of the art. Paton, J. The primate amygdala represents the positive and negative value of visual stimuli during learning. Patton, M. The infralimbic cortex bidirectionally modulates mesolimbic dopamine neuron activity via distinct neural pathways. Payne, J. Napping and the selective consolidation of negative aspects of scenes. Emotion 15, — Penny, W. Testing for nested oscillation. Methods , 50—