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But another economist said that. Not only was the story a big snore, but it was like white noise - in the end, nothing there. Made worse by being immediately followed by a rather long featurette on some forgettable topic. They could have used the combined time to do a REAL story. My reply was, "then why did they call him the Third? I'd like to say we came from different gene pools Instead, the big numbers came from groups "unified by economic fear," as Mr. Douthat put it. Indeed: single women, Hispanics and African-Americans are for a stronger welfare state because such groups can require the security such a welfare state can provide.

Where I would part ways with Mr. Douthat is in his suggestions that a rising insecurity reflects "social disintegration" and that b turning to the welfare state is a dead end. The truth is that while single women and members of minority groups are more insecure at any given point in time than married whites, insecurity is on the rise for everyone, driven by changes in the economy. Every time you read an article by someone extolling the dynamism of the modern economy, the virtues of risk-taking and declaring that everyone has to expect to have multiple jobs in his or her life and that you can never stop learning, etc.

And nothing people can do in their personal lives or behavior can change this. Your church and your traditional marriage won't guarantee the value of your k or make insurance affordable on the individual market. So here's the question: isn't this exactly the kind of economy that should have a strong welfare state? Isn't it much better to have guaranteed health care and a basic pension from Social Security rather than simply hanker for a corporate safety net that no longer exists?

Might one not even argue that a bit of basic economic security would make our dynamic economy work better, by reducing the fear factor? Giroux discusses the state sponsored assault being waged against young people across the globe, especially in the United States. For Giroux, what is no longer a hidden order of politics is that American society is at war with its children, and that the use of such violence against young people is a disturbing index of a society in the midst of a deep moral and political crisis.

Only a fundamental rethinking of our political priorities can rescue us from this tragic foreclosure of hope. A close friend of the late Paolo Friere, Henry has made groundbreaking contributions to numerous fields, including education, critical theory, youth studies, media studies and public pedagogy.

It would have been wrong to burden future generations with the mistakes of the financial system. Where everyone else bailed out the bankers and made the public pay the price, Iceland let the banks go bust and actually expanded its social safety net. Where everyone else was fixated on trying to placate international investors, Iceland imposed temporary controls on the movement of capital to give itself room to maneuver.

Iceland told the banks to pound sand. And experts continue to reiterate that European officials should look to Iceland for lessons regarding austerity measures and similar issues. They are now much much better for it than the countries like the US and Ireland who did not. Unlike other nations, including the U. That brought the country to the brink of ruin, forcing it to accept a rescue package from the European Union in December. Now they say they might soon be ready to lend again. The U.

Having long enjoyed the sweet life, the end was a bit bitter, for the dearly departed's estate had been mercilessly plundered in recent years by unscrupulous money managers. This left 18, surviving family members in dire straits. This is the drama behind the sudden death of Twinkies. Fondly remembered as "the cream puff of the proletariat" and less fondly as a sugar-and-fat bomb that delivered a toothache in one bite and a heart attack in the next , this industrial concoction of 37 ingredients became, for better or worse, an icon of American food processing.

Yes, the Twinkie was actually conceived as "food" for idle machines. How fitting is that?

Report #2: "Sungo"

But we humans happily swallowed this extruded marvel of comestible engineering. The Twinkie was the best-seller of Hostess Brands, a conglomerate purveyor of some 30 nutritionally challenged but moneymaking brand-name food products, ranging from Wonder Bread to Ho Hos. Thus, on Nov. Because it was burdened with overly generous labor contracts, the firm's executives declared, adding that greedy union officials refused to save the company by taking cuts Wait a minute.

They claim that the bereaved loved ones of the Hostess family killed the Twinkie? Holy Agatha Christie, that can't be right At the killer's trial, his lawyer argued for leniency on the grounds that his client subsisted on a steady diet of junk food, which had addled his brain. This claim entered the annals of American jurisprudence as the "Twinkie Defense. Even less defensible is the campaign by Ripplewood financial manipulators to lay the death of Hostess at the feet of loyal, longtime employees who, after all, need the jobs. In fact, far from greedy, Hostess workers and their unions have been both modest and faithful.

The true perfidy in this drama is not in the union, but inside Ripplewood's towering castle of high finance in New York City. After buying Hostess in a bankruptcy sale, these equity hucksters proceeded to feather their own nests, rather than modernize Hostess's equipment and upgrade its products, as the unions had urged. Also, they siphoned millions of dollars out of Hostess directly into their corporate pockets by charging "consulting and management fees" that did nothing to improve the snack-makers financial health. But it was not until this year that their rank managerial incompetence and raw ethical depravity fully surfaced.

While the Ripplewood honchos in charge of Hostess were demanding a new round of deep cuts in worker's pay, health care, and pensions, they quietly jacked up their own pay. By a lot! Along with the livelihoods of 18, workers. The two brothers were the only sons of Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville alive at the time of their father's death.

Then 12 and 9 years old, they were lodged in the Tower of London by the man appointed to look after them, the Lord Protector, Richard, Duke of Gloucester. This was supposed to be in preparation for Edward's coronation as king. After Richard took the throne for himself, it is assumed that they were murdered.

This may have occurred sometime around , but apart from their disappearance, the only evidence is circumstantial In May Edward arrived in London for his coronation and was accommodated in the Tower of London, then a royal residence. Richard at that point was with his mother in sanctuary, but joined his brother in the Tower in June. There are reports of the two princes being seen playing in the Tower grounds shortly after Richard joined his brother, but there are no recorded sightings of either of them after the summer of Their fate remains an enduring mystery, but historians and contemporary popular opinion agree that the princes may have been murdered in the Tower.

There is no record of a funeral. In , the skeletons of two children were discovered under the staircase leading to the chapel, during the course of renovations to the White Tower. At that time, these were believed to have been the remains of the two princes, and on the orders of Charles II the remains were reburied in Westminster Abbey. In , the grave was opened to see if modern science could cast any light on the issues, and the skeletons were determined to be those of two young children, one aged around seven to eleven and the other around eleven to thirteen.

If the boys were indeed murdered, there are several major suspects for the crime. The evidence is ambiguous, and has led people to various conflicting conclusions. Richard III had eliminated the princes from the succession. However, his hold on the monarchy was not secure, and the existence of the princes would remain a threat as long as they were alive. The boys could have been used by Richard's enemies as figureheads for rebellion.

Rumours of their death were in circulation by late , but Richard never attempted to prove that they were alive by having them seen in public, which strongly suggests that they were dead by then. However he did not remain silent on the matter. Raphael Holinshed, in his Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland reports that Richard, "what with purging and declaring his innocence concerning the murder of his nephews towards the world, and what with cost to obtain the love and favour of the communaltie which outwardlie glosed, and openly dissembled with him Many modern historians, including David Starkey,[3] and Michael Hicks,[4] or writers such as Alison Weir,[5] do regard Richard himself as the most likely culprit.

There never was a formal accusation against Richard III on the matter; the Bill of Attainder brought by Henry VII made no definitive mention of the Princes in the Tower, but it did include the accusation of "shedding of Infants blood", which may be an accusation of the Princes' murder especially since no other specific accusation of harming infants has ever been made against Richard. James Tyrrell was an English knight who fought for the House of York on many occasions. Some, notably William Shakespeare, regard him as the most likely culprit. Tyrrell was arrested by Henry VII's forces in for supporting another Yorkist claimant to the throne.

Shortly before his execution, it is said that Tyrrell admitted, under torture, to having murdered the princes at the behest of Richard III; however, no written record of such an important confession has ever been found or referred to. Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham was Richard's right-hand man and sought personal advantage through the new king.

Some, notably Paul Murray Kendall, regard Buckingham as the likeliest suspect: his execution, after he had rebelled against Richard in October , might signify that he and the king had fallen out because Buckingham had taken it on himself for whatever reason to dispose of Richard's rival claimants; alternatively, he could have been acting on behalf of Henry Tudor later to become King Henry VII.

On the other hand, if Buckingham were guilty he could equally well have been acting on Richard's orders, with his rebellion coming after he became dissatisfied with Richard's treatment of him. Buckingham's guilt depends on the princes having already been dead by October , since he was executed the following month. In the s, within the archives of the College of Arms in London, further documentation was discovered which states that the murder was conducted "be by the vise of the Duke of Buckingham".

Henry VII Henry Tudor following his accession, proceeded to find a legal excuse to execute some of the rival claimants to the throne. Realistically, Henry's only opportunity to murder the princes would have been after his accession in This theory leaves open the question of why the princes were not seen after and why Richard did not produce them when he was suspected of their murder.

Besides, Holinshed states quite unequivocally that Richard commented on the "murder of his nephews" during his Richard's reign see above. There were subsequently a number of apparent pretenders claiming to be Prince Richard, Duke of York,[9] although there seem to have been none claiming to be Edward V. It has been suggested that this is because Edward V was well known and would have been difficult to impersonate; this would be less true of his younger brother.

The best-known Pretender was Perkin Warbeck. The fact that Henry VII did not provide an official public version of the fate of the Princes, despite Warbeck's activities, until the Tyrell confession, has been interpreted as meaning either that he was unaware of the true story or that publishing it would have not been in his interests. The Croyland Chronicle, Dominic Mancini, and Philippe de Commines all state that the rumour of the princes' deaths was current in England by the end of In his summary of the events of , Commines says quite categorically that Richard was responsible for the murder of the princes; Commines was present at the meeting of the Estates-General of France in January The other two sources do not suggest who was responsible.

Only Mancini's account, written in , is truly contemporary, the other two having been written three and seven years later, respectively. The Great Chronicle, compiled 30 years later from the contemporary London municipal records, says the rumour of the princes' death did not start circulating in London until after Easter of However, if the princes were not already dead by the end of , this of course removes any possibility that Buckingham, who was executed on 2 November , could have murdered them.

The possibility of Henry Tudor later Henry VII being the culprit has been suggested; however, Henry became king in , whereas the Princes went missing in He identified Sir James Tyrrell as the murderer, acting on Richard's orders, and told the story of Tyrrell's confession, which took place after he had been arrested for treason against Henry VII. Tyrrell was the loyal servant of Richard III who is said to have confessed to the murder of the princes in The Great Chronicle of London, written around the year , also identified Tyrrell.

In , Thomas More named Miles Forrest as a murderer. Henry had More beheaded in In the same year or in the above history references both dates , Henry awarded the manor to Miles Forrest, the documented bailiff of the Abbot of Peterborough. In , some workmen remodelling the Tower of London dug up a wooden box containing two small human skeletons. The bones were found in the ground close to the White Tower, consistent with More's description of the original burial place of the princes, but not consistent with More's later claim that the bodies had been subsequently removed and buried elsewhere under the tower stairs.

One anonymous report was that they were found with "pieces of rag and velvet about them", the velvet indicated that the bodies were those of aristocrats. The rags and velvet were not mentioned again and, presumably were not included in the reinterrment. In the bones were taken out and examined, and then replaced in the urn. They were found to have been interred carelessly along with chicken and other animal bones. There were also 3 very rusty nails. One skeleton was larger than the other, but many of the bones were missing, including part of the smaller jawbone and all of the teeth from the larger one.

Many of the bones had been broken by the original workmen. No further scientific examination has since been conducted on the bones, which remain in Westminster Abbey, and DNA analysis if DNA could be obtained , which would now determine the sex, has not been attempted. In , workmen carrying out repairs in St. George's Chapel, Windsor, rediscovered and accidentally broke into the vault of Edward IV and Queen Elizabeth Woodville, discovering in the process what appeared to be a small adjoining vault.

This vault was found to contain the coffins of two unidentified children. However, no inspection or examination was carried out and the tomb was resealed. The tomb was inscribed with the names of two of Edward IV's children: George, 1st Duke of Bedford who had died at the age of 2, and Mary of York who had died at the age of 14; both had predeceased the King. Royal consent would be necessary to open any royal tomb, so it was felt best to leave the medieval mystery unsolved for at least the next few generations.

The few facts that are known do not, however, support the traditional story, which was that they had been smothered by James Tyrell, Master of the Horse to Richard III, with the help of two men, Miles Forest and John Dighton. The bodies were then buried at the foot of a flight of stairs in the Tower. The Bones from the Tower This story is often said to have been confirmed by the discovery of the bones of two children within the foundations of a staircase in the Tower of London in In some bones, said to be the same ones, were interred in an urn in Westminster Abbey as the bones of the princes by order of Charles II.

In they were exhumed and, after examination, were declared to be the bones of two children of the right age and thus assumed to be the bones of the princes. Neither sex nor century of death could be determined, however. With the advance of knowledge and with new techniques available, the conclusions of the examination are now disputed. The categorical statements made in the report which followed the examination would not now be made by modern forensic scientists, who would stress the uncertainties in the determination of age, sex, family relationship, date of death and so on.

To take just one example, modern forensic techniques show that the ages arrived at for the two skeletons are highly disputable and they may both be younger than they would be if they were the princes. Furthermore, the age gap between the two children appears to be less than the three years that separate the births of Edward and Richard, the two princes.

Assigning a date to the bones could not be done at all in Using radiocarbon dating, it would now be possible to at least assign a century to them, and indeed probably come as close as a date with a margin of error of plus or minus about 15 years. This would at least enable us to know whether we were talking about late medieval bones or Roman bones, for example.

It is likely that in the future even more accurate dates will be possible. Another major deficiency in was the lack of a reliable method for establishing a family relationship between the two bodies. In the report a relationship was largely assumed, and unreliable techniques then applied to prove it. No attempt was made to determine their sex. With such young children this is difficult, but new techniques being developed will soon make it possible.

More reliable methods have been developed since , particularly DNA testing. With this powerful new technique it is possible to determine whether the children were male or female, to show if a relationship existed between them and whether they were both descended from the same person. The drawback in this particular case is that for this test to work a comparison between the mitochondrial DNA in the bones and that in a person descended in an unbroken female line from Elizabeth Woodville, the mother of the princes, must be made. This is because only mitochondrial DNA descends unchanged, through the female line, through the generations.

No such descent from Queen Elizabeth Woodville is currently known. An alternative would be to disinter her body and, to check their paternity, that of Edward IV their father. It is therefore apparent that a further examination of these bones could tell us much more than could be determined in However, in a few years it may be possible to find out even more and it is not desirable to disinter bodies just to satisfy our curiosity now.

The Society will, however, welcome a re-examination as and when the authorities are prepared to give permission. We have to be content to wait for that and when scientific advances will have made the results much more meaningful. The transfer of ownership from the Lueken family to the employees will begin on Jan.

The amount of shares each employee receives will be based on length of service and salary. The program is expected to pay the Lueken family off for the sale in three to five years, according to a report by the Minneapolis Star Tribune. You also have to give back. Anna has not had a single day off from work in 15 months. She works for a family of four in Midtown Manhattan, waking up at 6 a.

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She teaches the children to read, prepares family meals and does the laundry and the house cleaning. Anna takes her rest on a small mattress at 10 p. By freeing the time for employers to pursue their more lucrative careers, domestic workers provide a crucial building block of the American economy, but because work agreements are often informal and few regulations and personnel standards exist for those who work in their employers' homes, many domestic workers struggle with low wages, tough working conditions and even abuse Low pay is common in the field, and 23 percent of the workers surveyed are paid below the minimum wage in their state.

Nearly half of those surveyed are not paid enough to adequately support a family, the survey found. Ten percent reported being paid less than they originally agreed on or not at all in the past year, and 23 percent reported being paid late, an obvious source of stress for working families who need to pay the bills. Many of the people she works with are immigrants; some are undocumented, and the isolated nature of their work makes it difficult to build solidarity. But once workers start talking about their experiences and working conditions, Jakubek said, the abuse they face becomes obvious to them and they want to do something about it.

Coalitions of groups like the NDWA and Domestic Workers United DWU are organizing workers across the country to push for legislative reforms that will recognize domestic workers like the rest of the workforce. In , they won a victory when New York City adopted a bill of rights for domestic workers, but Jakubek said the local policy only covers basic concerns. Again, we presume real money means the investments of real people individuals or managed funds into productive businesses with the hope of generating a decent return.

Nearly 15 million households were on food stamps at some point last year, up from Some 47 states and the nation's capital experienced an increase in their residents receiving nutrition assistance, with the District of Columbia, Alabama and Hawaii seeing the largest jump. No state experienced a statistically significant decrease. Oregon had the highest share of households receiving food stamps at Wyoming had the lowest at 5.

In an analyst note, Citigroup updated its forecast for a Greek exit from the nation currency union from a previous estimate of 50 percent to 75 percent, and said it would most likely happen in the next two to three quarters. Specifically, the bank assumes a Greece exit would occur on Jan. We expect banking union and limited fiscal integration to be insufficient to eliminate financial and fiscal imbalances in the EA.

For now, political leaders in the EA maintain that Greece is special and that sovereign debt restructuring is neither necessary nor desirable in other EA periphery countries. We expect Italy and Spain to enter sovereign bail-out programmes in , and that debt restructuring will only be considered and implemented there and in Ireland in later years.

Sovereign yield spreads vs Bunds and bank funding stress indicators are likely to remain high in many EA countries in coming years and are only expected to come down gradually. We do not, however, expect the euro area to break up in or the following years other than Grexit , nor do we expect the disorderly default of an EA sovereign except possibly in the case of Greece. The risk that either or both of these adverse scenarios materialise remains, however, non-negligible The closer you read Willem Buiter's imperial uber-blick of the world economy, the more astonishing it becomes.

It sentences Europe to slow economic death Spain is not much better. Portugal will contract 4. They will all need debt restructuring. France is dead until So there you have it, the "flawed EMU structures" have doomed Europe to a generation of depression. The euro itself has become a force of economic destruction The Eurozone just wasn't an "organic" organization, growing out of natural developments.

That the sheeple wouldn't mind, really, as their lives shrank into poverty. That this would prevent WAR--as if Germany were on the march at a moment's notice. Well, this time the war is economic, Germany's been on the march for a decade, and the fighting is going to be civil war, ala French Revolution, across the Continent.

Because what cannot continue, will not continue. And then, there's Goldman Sachs, the Fifth Column, fomenting further chaos, theft and disruption. Another fine mess, as Ollie would say Human rights groups and nervous citizens fear that technological advances in autonomy will slowly lead to the day when robots make that critical decision for themselves. But according to a new policy directive issued by a top Pentagon official, there shall be no SkyNet, thank you very much.

No Predator, for instance, can fire its Hellfire missile without a human directing it. The video below is of the XB being loaded on a ship. But this is how a very deadly slope can slip But if the United States Navy has its way, it might be an operation no pilot ever has to complete again. With a wingspan of feet Engineers had originally planned 50 test flights from the XB, but after performing beyond expectations, they stopped after 16 trials.

Following the dozen-plus successful trials, the next step came on Monday, when the drone was hoisted on to the flight deck of aircraft carrier USS Harry S Truman. The subsonic stealth drone, first dreamed up by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DARPA and later taken over by the navy, has been given a robot brain, putting it miles above the thousands of other unmanned drones currently circling the skies.

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While automation has long been a feature of robots, the XB will truly be autonomous. And we, the audience in the cheap seats, must take some responsibility as well. Of Proconsuls, Imperators, and the End of Democracy In Roman times, a proconsul was a military ruler of imperial territories, a man with privileges as sweeping as his powers. Executive jets on call. Large retinues. Personal servants. Private chefs Put simply, Americans need to stop genuflecting to our paper Caesars before we actually produce a real one, a man ruthless enough to cross the Rubicon or the Potomac and parlay total military adulation into the five stars of absolute political authority.

I'll be back later this evening, to see what you all post. Knoxville, Tenn. That's why the party last night was so surreal. I wore a skirt and sweater, pearls, dressy boots, and makeup The good news is that the measure climbed to Any reading above 50 signals growth. November October Output Meanwhile in the eurozone, unemployment hit a new high of And in the US, citizens saw their incomes stagnate in October, while spending fell slightly, in large part due to disruption from Storm Sandy. US personal incomes rose less than 0. Judge sentences Tim Durham to 50 years in prison for defrauding investors Note that Durham is already listed above Durham, 49, former CEO of Fair Financial Company, convicted of one count conspiracy to commit wire and securities fraud, 10 counts of wire fraud, and one count of securities fraud.

Then she sentenced him to 50 years in prison, which essentially is a life sentence for Durham, His associates, James F. Cochran, 57, and Rick D. Snow, 49, also were convicted of some of those charges. Nothing to see here folks. Please move along. It follows a downgrade earlier this month of key ESM-backer France. ElBulli served its last supper and closed in July last year with Adria and business partner Juli Soler planning to establish "an experimental center looking at the process of innovation and creativity.

El Bulli maintained an almost unattainable Michelin three-star status for over a decade and was rated the world's best restaurant five times by British magazine The Restaurant. But Angela Merkel also insists that helping debt-ridden Greece is in her country's self-interest because it helps stabilize the nation eurozone on which Germany's prosperity depends. In an interview released Saturday, Merkel told Sunday tabloid Bild am Sonntag: "I obviously feel many citizens' skepticism, and partly understand it, because Greece has often disappointed its partners in the past.

The grim irony here is that the ratio of private wealth to GDP in some of the countries in need of support from the ECB and northern eurozone members is equal to or higher than that in more solvent countries. By contrast, the ratio in Germany, Europe's largest creditor, is only 3.

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It will rain, first. Haven't had fogs like this in decades, and that was in Massachusetts in the 70's, while I was learning to drive. Talk about a crash course! Yet what's in a name? Not much, because now China is all about structural attack; how to tweak the model of breakneck economic growth coupled with political stagnation - while at the same time battling corruption. Xi has already warned the Politburo, "If corruption becomes increasingly serious, it will inevitably doom the party and the state".

Well, it is already so serious that Xi himself is losing his sleep with the very real possibility of an Arab Spring in Mandarin, even though fast developing China is not exactly an economic underdeveloped Egypt. Yet autocracy and corruption remain very much in the picture. Chinese culture is all about numbers. The Top 3 sources of sleepless nights for the majority of Chinese are inflation, corruption and inequality.

So, essentially, it's the economy, stupid. But as the economy hits a rockier path, the masses inevitably start asking questions about all things dysfunctional inbuilt in single party rule. Thus, in the end, this surge of corruption as an "existential threat" to the system Let's take a geopolitical diversion.

Game, set, match Beijing. It's not hard to see why. One number is enough: Up to , turbo-capitalist globalisation - centred on the US - was the name of the game. After the greatest economic crisis since and including the Great Depression, the US number one competitive advantage - its unbounded innovation drive - went downhill, as venture capital for high-tech manufacturing simply disappeared. Asia wants and needs from the US high-tech, high-value-added manufactured products. What it does not need is a superpower borrowing like there's no tomorrow to finance a multi-trillionaire government debt.

Meanwhile, in parallel, we had trade between China and the rest of Asia overtaking trade between Asia and the US. China is exporting 50 per cent more to the rest of Asia - no less than three times more than it exports to the US. Chinese exports to the US are not moving up. Ten years ago, China imported five times as much from Asia as it did from the US.

Now it imports 10 times as much from Asia, compared to the US. Virtually, every Asian currency is trading more closely with the yuan than with the US dollar. Everyone travelling to East Asia will notice that the yuan is already the de facto reference currency. This is an inevitable outcome of increasing regional trade integration China will end up growing 8 per cent in - certainly 1.

That's due to a boom in domestic consumption and a lot of investment in infrastructure; at the same time, there are no signs of mass unemployment or deflation. This may be a sign that the CCP is doing the basics right - before the much-vaunted internal fight against corruption. According to the Institute of Economic Research, by China will be growing again at an astonishing 9.

Washington think-tanks of the exceptionalist school should start considering a stark fact; it is getting increasingly more complex and more expensive for the US to maintain its hegemony. All over Asia, the US dollar is in relative decline. And historically this decline does mirror the decline of the British pound - as well as Britain's imperial power - from to the mids.

Obviously, the decline of the US dollar happens in parallel to the rise of the yuan. The yuan will become fully convertible even before the usually brandished deadline of This means that within the next five years, most if not all of East Asia will be part of the yuan bloc.

Inevitably, China will be the top trading partner of every nation in East Asia. And more especially in a world where the moral outlook is if the buyer will sign, the deal must be a good one. Like selling crack, or perpetrating fraud with mortgage-backed securities.

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This one shows that we live in a country in which the 97 percent of the population without education beyond a master's degree experienced declining income over the past decade. A master's degree! Enough said? Remember this next time you hear about how union members or public employees or middle class taxpayers or pretty much any person who's not already at the top of the income and wealth ladders just needs to sacrifice to set everything straight in our economy. Look at table A6: 1. The numbers are actually median numbers. Not average. Also the data is wages for full time workers.

So people who are unemployed are not factored in there. This monarch, unjustly maligned, initially by Tudor historians and in perpetuity by the plays of William Shakespeare, deserves a more honored place in history. The crimes were examined in two ways - as Shakespeare intended them to be perceived and then, using primary, contemporary and modern revisionist sources for the historical details, how events were really played out.

It is also the intent of this work to cause the reader of Shakespeare to question the history behind the drama. What did Richard have to gain in murdering his nephews? Had he really been plotting for the throne his entire life? To accept the play as history is to ignore the true timeline of events and the reality of human nature In it, he has created a character of evil incarnate in the form of Richard III.

But what are the historical facts behind all this? First and foremost, we must remember that Shakespeare was a playwright, not a historian. To him, the drama of the piece would have been of infinitely greater importance than a meticulous attention to historical truth. Often times, one scene would contain incidents that had occurred months or even years apart. Albans, which took place in Shakespeare has Richard killing the Duke of Somerset, when in actuality Richard was only three years old. In fact, Richard was eight years old and living in Burgundy.

This telescoping of events and characters has done much to warp the true chain of events and, while it may serve to make the play flow better, has left us with having to separate the truth from dramatic license. When attempting to ferret out the truth, it is always important to keep in mind the sources William Shakespeare used for writing his play.

Richard III, on the other hand, was in a no-win situation. Sir Thomas More had been born in , seven years before the Battle at Bosworth, too young to remember anything first hand. More spent a portion of his youth in the household of Dr. John Morton. Sir Thomas More is considered to be a man of integrity, but with Morton as his source, his account cannot be considered reliable.

Another probable source would have been Ralph Holinshed, born circa to a Cheshire family. He lived in London from about , where Reginald Wolfe, who was preparing a universal history, employed him as a translator. In , after Wolfe's death, the extent of the work was shortened, and it appeared, with many illustrations, as the Chronicles of England, Scotlande, and Irelande, 2 vol. The Chronicles was compiled from many sources of varying degrees of trustworthiness. The texts of the first and second editions were refined by order of the Privy Council, with the deleted entries from the second edition being published separately in The complete, unchanged edition of was edited by Henry Ellis and given the title of Holinshed's Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland.

This was published in six volumes The only veering off that Holinshed did was to include the name of Dorset to the list of those who had killed Edward of Lancaster While Holinshed may have provided a needed source for Shakespeare, it must be concluded that as a historical source he should be discounted. His writing must be subjected to the same criticism that is applied to that of the works of More, Vergil, et al. There appears to be nothing new that can be gleaned from his work that would in any way be construed as a reliable, unbiased piece of history.

Upon the writings of these early vilifiers of Richard, Shakespeare would build his foundation for his play More's personal history has many connections to both the Yorks and the Tudors. By the time More was writing his History of King Richard III, printing had made the dissemination of written works much more easy, and that in turn spurred the increased literacy of the general population.

Printers and booksellers needed a literate population to whom to sell their works. And by the time Shakespeare was writing, producing, and publishing his plays a century and more after Bosworth, there were few who could, even if they dared, speak up to defend Richard. And in he was canonized by the Catholic Church as a martyr in the schism that would become the Protestant Reformation. They truly are an embarrassment--trying to use the Constitution to impose theocracy. More himself was that kind of contradiction I never trust people who either can't make up their minds about major issues or compartmentalize their conflicting beliefs to such a point that they no longer see the contradictions.

Let the Middle Class believe our BS and pay our taxes directly. We like that better. See you all on SMW Monday! I'm confused. Maybe I need to leave for a while and have some beer! I especially like the part where they say he wasn't such a bad monarch. I guess we can thank Will for sucking up to Liz for some of the historical perception.. Edited to add I posted this before I had a chance to read Demeter and Tansy's excellent summary. And yes, in England they do keep track of historical things.

I and reminded of the time we visited a professor friend of our in Lewis. He knew I loved history so he went to great lengths to show me the 'old' stuff. A new wall incorporated parts of an old stone wall around the castle wall. He went to great lengths to tell me all about the battle. But my favorite part of the tour came when he ask me if I wanted to see an yo beam of English Oak that once formed the beam of a long house. I said that I would and we trugded off to what I thought would be another historical grounds. We walked up to this very typical English house and the professor knocked on the door.

A man opened the door in his stocking feet. The professor asked if we could see the beam. The gentleman was not put out at all and proudly showed up the beam in his ceiling and even offered us some tea. I asked if he got that often. He said he got it occasionally, but the people that tracked it down were always most interesting. We chatted for a while and thanked his for his time. I love small English towns. I also visited the house that Henry sent his wife of the Holbein portrait fame Catherine of Cleeves I think. He was kind to her and she was smart enough to take his offer. From all I have read, she seems to have been very intelligent and politically astute.

Fresh Air had an interview with an author that had finished the second of her third book on the rise of Cromwell. It dealt with the execution of Anne Bolyn. Falling membership, the web, etc. How about a MK IV? Just where is "Southern California"? Big Thanks to Fleet 1! Hello - and if Chuck's numbers are correct Fleet in S. What race was that Rob? Rules Follow up - What we Did.

I agree Dave about the rules example Inner Wall Covering Tricks? Keel HELP! Thanks Mike - I went with 6. Mainsail pre-feeder - George A. Where to drill new stop bolt hole? How Many? How many? Motor mount travel - George A. Best amount of travel in motor mount? Trailer bunk measurement - George A. Butler vs. Florida P. PHRF Spinnaker? Sailors in North East Kansas? Question for spin boats? NCAA: Butler vs. Roller vs. Should I buy? Class Measured Boat?

Eastern Nationals Charter - Rob A. Mast rake? Bushing or Bumper? Keel Angle SJ 21 Keel sweep angle? Keel Bolt Stop Pin Help? The Duck has a new home! Thank you's What size halyards came on the 21? San Juan 21 Mk 1 for sale Who are the mystery visitors? MK I vs. MK II vs. P-I-E-J and whatever San Juan 21 Vs. SJ 21 vs Catalina 22 - George A. Possible Cruising Events Some of the SE events include A special day Strictly Sail Philadelphia boat show Shroud Tension - George A.

Two thoughts , One for Ted! Tiller Tamer? Merry Christmas! Keel Gaskets, One design specifications, etc. Thoughts on the Season Bridle for tapered spin pole? Midwinter Championships - Hermione in March????? Spinnaker block placement? Daily Log No. Daily Log Nov. Lights on SJ - Junus R. Daily log Nov. Good News!! RE: Class Future Questions Class Future Questions Great conversation Here's an'ther North Americans thought Class Racing - Roy H.

I have an SJ21 too. Membership - Ken. Future of the class.. Handicap racing - John T. North American and Western nationals. New girl Uh maybe a dumb question but Trailor Lights - Roy H. Portsmouth; - Roy H. SJ21 sunk???? Advice with possibly buying a San Juan RE: RE: interior cushions RE interior cushions Paddle wheel -- knotmeter - Roy H.

Kayak enthusiasts? What's a Masthead latch? Masthead Lock - Rob A. Main Sheet Routing - Roy H. Spud Cup regatta, Sept. Sailing for a good cause. Stability - Asymmetrical Spins? Old Jib? How much flex is ok in SJMk1 roof? How to build a control bridge? Insurance value vs. I have heard Gettin it Done! Someone has to know what happened!!! Masts, Outboards, etcetras - Roy H. Is the San Juan 21 a good boat for a rookie sailor? Quarterberth seperating from hull?

Centerboard Winch - R. Is this a SanJuan21 Spinnaker? It's been asked a times Halyard length? Rudder Trade? Storage of Gasoline and Propane, dangerous inside boat!! Main Sheet Rigging - Roy H. Spinnaker Poles vs. Pintels and Gudgeons? Bow Pulpit still needed! Spinnake Pole Diameter - Roy H.

Balance Point - Roy H. Motor Size and shaft? Finding a boat. Two questions Any one able to fulfil my fantsasy? What paint to use for the rudder? Reefing main - D. Juaners in So. Explorer Bashing - D. Class Genoa ? Where are all the NW San Juans for sale??? Bottom Painting - Roy H. Are you guys hibernating? Cushions - Grant C. Mast etc. How is a Fleet started? Used Main? Fleet 25 - Roy H. Re: Fleets, fleets, fleets!!!!!! Mast Rake and Weather helm - Joel P. Decks, rotted cores or delaminated??? Hull Pox or not? North Carolina lake sailing Last Visitors Jan. OLd vs new What do I need to look for?

RE: What to look for. Mast Rake - D. Individual Boats What about Statesville, NC? Logo's and othe stuff - Roy H. Be Careful! Looking for SJ21 to buy - R. Outboard - Roy H. Hull flotation - wayne g. Mast Base Plate. Spinnaker Pole - Roy H. Wichita Area Sailing? San juan American national race? Spinnaker Info. Thanks Jay!! Block on top of keel - barryinnes netscape. Smaller Mainsail? New life to old sails? The Duck has a new home Never ever say Hull ID or how old is Dan Cassedy How old am I?

I'll never tell San Juan 21 for Sale? Sent in our Hospice registration this past week. Towing a SJ21 - William S. What are you using for tow vehicles? Championship of Champions Thanks to San Juan 21 Harbor San Juan 21 trailering question? If you could make new San Juan 21's, What would you change? Spinnaker Size? SJ21 FS post - where is it? Do mast step positions vary - John C. Do mast step positions vary? Two other QC problems on a few boats. Would like to purchase a rudder! Mike tells all Aluminum Keel gasket - John C.

Racing Sails vs. SJ Main Sail for sale!!! Bent mast? Sails - n. Mainsail - Rob O. They are not all te same - Mike"hate to disagree.. Hull Flexing - Art Caples Jr. Mast - John C. San Juan 21 cabin decals? New mast and spreader attachments on the way! Spinnaker - Mike'what's that spec? Main Sail Specs. Parts source for SJ 21 - C. Location - Charles H. Genoas and such Re: Adm. Lets all do it our way! Loer Sr. Can't we all get along and do it my way! Sarasota Midwinters?? Stirring the pot! Composite Lumber for Trailer Bunks?

San Juan 21 Harbor - All Postings

Quit Stirring the Pot - Sid R. Blades vs. Wonderful SJ21's! Blade vs. Loose footed Mains allowed? Have Q's on rotted deck, water in hull, centerboard etc. Next Western Nat. Replacing lower shroud?? RE: Spreader bolt fix. San Juan 21 for sale. Genoa vs vs?? Smallest Motor Feasible? Better to paint or epoxy? Weight and girth? To Paint or epoxy? Cedar as a replacement? Mark II Hull Thickness? Genoa for sale - Steve W. Cedar to replace Balsa in Deck Core?

RE: Contacting Fred R. Pictures from East Coast Nat's. Apologies for undeliverable messages!!! Best Hoist system ever! Serial Number? Bay mainsheet sys. Be away for the weekend gang RE Main Sheet Rigging,and other fixes. Blowdown with no sails? Deck Core - Always Balsa? Re: overpowered? Wanted: SJ21 Mk. NACRA 5. SJ21 for sale in Greenville, SC??? Motor mount for a 4 stroke outboard? Tension tool? Need Crew for E. Nationals - Art Caples Jr. Huston we have Launch!!!!!!!!!!!

Bell Helicopter Records, | University of North Texas Special Collections

Wanted SJ21 - Jonathan M. SJ21s in SF bay area? Re; Mistakes? Mistakes Keels Down! Is "Sails4Free. Whatta Great Crew! What's the best trailer for a SJ21? Sj Ratings???????? Out board eng. Best Racing Spinnaker Sailmaker??? San Juan 21 Book Found! Main Reefing System?

Texas St. Call for pictures of your boat, and Searching for a St. Petersburg, FL. Trailer problems and bow eye. Who's going to Sarasota for the MidWinters? SJ 21 wanted. Western Nationals wants your suggestions for courses Western Nationals Web Site Who'da Thunkit! Winch handle???? Hey, Tom! Can you repost the link to your page? Used Main, have I gotta a deal for you!

Cost for orginal main sail refirb? My web page has interior pictures of a SJ - Tom Photos anyone? Rig tuning - Steve W. Re: Summer cruise? Bragging Rights??? S J 21 For Sale SJ Genoa Tracks re-post? Spring is almost here - Mike "snow and ice? Midwest Winter Meeting Plans! Any SJ21s in San Diego?? Start planning for the Sarasota mid-winters! Keels and Hole Repairs - J.

Colorado Sailing? Don't forget to write San Juan Sails - 4 sale? It's not always good to be first!!! How many SJ21's made? Greetings Maureen! A great season! But What's the rest of the story? Fit this boat through a gate? Prospective owner - John D. Re: MK I vs. Re: Spinnaker help Comment on mast step organizers. New photos - Ben S. Scheduled Events - Paul H.

New Gallery Photos - Ben S. Want to buy San Juan Re: Looking for a pattern for a rudder Looking for a pattern for a rudder How stable is the MrkII, wind force and weight. Boat painting? Max Capacity? Best place for new sails? North Americans are in the Books now! Mast hooked? Rolling a San Juan 21 - Gary M. Traveler too! Jib or Jenny! Gone Sailing? Gone sailing?

For sale - Where? RE:Sailing on one sail! Sailing with only one sail. Christina Lk B. RE: Source for windows etc. Pre-race measurerment practice forms. A first mate for Jennifer????? Depth sounders - Mike "Is that now "Bloddy Knuckles? Our Midwest Friends Jennifer's Manager Removing Bottom paint - Charles H. Crew positions nationals?

What kind of trailer for SJ21? How to lighten up! RE:Request for Membership Info. North Americans Northeast SJ21??? Shorter spreaders?? San Juan 4 sail Gudgeon below water line. Gudgeon below waterline? Website Above? Battery Site - good one! Sarasota Mid-winters - anyone going? Mast hinge info. LazyJacks - Charles H. Bare Gelcoat vs. Epoxy Bottom - Which is faster? One dropped molding Horsepower - Mike "What, me worry?

RE: Spin. Midwest Meeting Time! Thanks for the help folks! Gasket for the foward Hatch - Jimmy G. What's a good economical VHF radio? Using a drogue or sea anchor with my San Juan 21? Hatch Door - Tim F. SJ21 Mk2 - Charles H. Keel Indicator?

2002 Chrysler news: from the Allpar archives

New Sails-Best Deal? Mid Boom or End-of-Boom? Price for SJ21? Sail Maker info. Gatherings - Allen F. Fest Dec. Anyone know anything about Knighton Sails? Epoxy - UV damage? Fred Rehm? Gellcoat OR 2-part expoxy OR?? Double posting; the number 1. What's the best motor? Bearing Buddies vs. Specs needed! Sunk SanJuan 21!!! Update of National photo page! I would like to put a sink in my san juan any ideas?? SJ21 old color sales brochure - Tom Re: Not Jennifer, but the real deal. Jennifer fanciers will appreciate puppy pics. Working Sails Class at C. Mast light - Marc W.

Western Nationals!!

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Update of National page photo section! Sunset on Kaw Lake, Okla. Sunset on Ben's Kaw Lake! Nats and more Columbia River Cruiser??