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From a fortean point of view, it is the second series of Stuart books that is of particular interest. Sam claims he was a priest in the Temple of Nabu at Nineveh in the seventh century BC, and that his partner was a priestess of Ishtar. The Norton kills or injures its next three owners, before Sam buys it back. The book ends in a climactic scene at Stonehenge, with Sam ascending in violet light… only to return again in the sequel The Bike From Hell The focus on a hexed motorbike is interesting.

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Later in life, Richard Gordon moved on from writing pseudonymous youth culture pulps for NEL to more explicitly fortean work. What is clear is that the FT Some of the works mentioned above were created by people on the outside of biker culture looking in, others by those for whom riding motorbikes was a way of life. NOTES 1 www. Originally published by Macmillan in , it is set in a post-nuclear holocaust America. While out on a beer raid they encounter, and rescue, the drug addled President of the United States.

For a long time, British fans of custom motorbikes had to be content with occasional articles in the mainstream motorcycle press or magazines like Easyriders imported from across the Atlantic. In , this changed with the arrival of Back Street Heroes. Authenticity is an overused word, but there was a sense of clarity and genuine knowledge in his work, and he regularly touched on fortean themes. In Rat Bike, 14 the narrator is searching for some bike parts and goes to see Mould, a reclusive magickal practitioner who is hunting the Rat King.

World Enough and Time 15 is a story about time-slips, while Gabriel Hounds 16 features an encounter with the Wild Hunt. He encounters the ghost twice. Whether or not Jim Fogg really believed the story was true, he passed away in , so we can no longer ask him , it reads as if it was written with personal conviction. See www. He has too many books and not enough motorbikes. We cover the whole spectrum of technology news, reviews and features. Uneasy riders ROB GANDY investigates some of the unusual cases in which motorcyclists, rather than drivers, have encountered road ghosts and phantom hitchhikers in that liminal zone between hauntings, local folklore and urban legend.

To summarise: It was late at night, dark and cold, and the road was greasy and treacherous. Harold was tired and concerned about a car moving erratically behind. Entering Mersey Square, he saw what he thought was a female motorcyclist thumbing a lift. One described a motorcyclist picking up a girl hitchhiker of similar appearance in almost the same place. He gave her a lift on his pillion, but on approaching their destination she disappeared.

They said many young men had had the same experience. Of course, the story describes the classic phantom hitchhiker urban legend; but the tantalising point is that although both events took place in Mersey Square, Harold had his experience before he read the ghost story. The Local Heritage Library in Stockport kindly ascertained that the article was actually published on 30 October , 2 but indicated the event had happened in Their daughter had died in a motorcycle five years earlier in a recently published book: Supernatural Stockport by Martin G Mills.

This is the classic friendof-a-friend link common to urban legends, albeit with names and relationships. Perhaps he was taking in more information from the environment than would otherwise have been the case, which might somehow have triggered his experience. I was left with the suspicion that Mr Mills, also a York ghost tour guide, had picked up on some anecdote or rumour and embellished it for his book by using the standard phantom hitchhiker motif.

Phantom motorcycles are not all that unusual: probably the most famous is that attributed to TE Lawrence, who died following a motorbike accident near his home in Dorset see FT The throaty sound of his beloved Brough Superior is sometimes heard at night, with the noise of the engine stopping abruptly, and always at some distance from the listener.

About 10 years ago, Peter was returning home to Lutterworth from Burton-on-Trent, travelling south on the A5, approaching the junction with the B at High Cross in Leicestershire. The latter continues north towards Leicester as the B At the High Cross junction, the A5 is a section of dual. His headlight gave a clear view along the road, and when he was approximately yards from the junction he saw a man with a bag on his back, standing on the grass of the central reservation. He appeared to be waiting to cross the road on which Peter was travelling, but as he was making no attempt to cross, Peter did not slow down.

Peter says he must have passed this point when the man stepped forward and began walking slowly across the road. Peter sounded his horn and swerved slightly to avoid the man, which is all that can be done at 70mph. By this time, Peter was almost level with the man and passed to the right of him, close enough to have reached out and touched him. The next morning, Peter mentioned the incident to his partner, who informed him he must have seen the High Cross Ghost. She had lived in Lutterworth for a long time, and was aware of other stories of the ghost. Peter says the hairs on the back of his neck stood on end.

Peter has travelled the same route many times since, and although always keeping an eye out has never seen this person or apparition again. I sought references to the High Cross Ghost but only found stories of marching Roman soldiers in the broader area, with their knees below the current road level. Michael, of Moreton on the Wirral, told me about an experience he had in They had been to the Gallery nightclub in Birkenhead, which stayed open until 2am.

Michael remembered clearly that he had only had one pint on the night in question. Between 2. There was sparse street lighting, and none at all between Frankby and Newton. He was facing towards Michael and away from the sign, with his arms crooked behind him as though clinging to it. He appeared to be over 5ft 10in 1. The man was wearing a dark cloth jacket or coat and dark trousers. His legs, like his arms, were bent backwards at the knee, and Michael could see that he was wearing heavy boots. They did a U-turn back to the sign, but there was nothing and nobody there.

Michael suggested the sighting must have been an. One dark, wet evening the three of them were sitting together when they were startled by screeching tyres and brakes, and then a loud bang. A week later, Roy and his wife were awoken at around 2am by an identical sequence of sounds, but on investigating there was no sign of an accident or any vehicle to account for it. The Sinister Side, , p63 Apparently, in a motorcyclist dressed in leathers and crash helmet died in a Blackwall Tunnel accident; it is said he is unable to leave. Also in , a motorcyclist picked up a young man thumbing a lift on the south side of the tunnel.

Emerging on the north side, he looked over his shoulder and found the pillion empty. He turned round and drove back through the tunnel, fearing his passenger had fallen off. However, he found no trace and so the following day went to the given address.

On describing the young man he was told he had died some years before. In legend there used to be a burial ground and gibbet nearby. One accident was witnessed by a policeman on point duty and an assisting AA patrolman. Both signalled a motorcyclist to stop, who yelled out that he was unable to pull up. He knocked the policeman down, skidded. The Kentucky motorcyclist had crashed and passed away in hospital and seriously injured himself. Nothing was wrong with the motorcycle and his speed had not been excessive. Both men heard the sound of a motorcycle fast approaching from the direction of Ingham, but could see no lights, machine or rider.

The sound ceased suddenly and they had the impression there had been a crash. On reaching the spot they found nothing. Both then recalled that about a year previously a young man riding a motorcycle had been involved in a fatal crash, dying at the spot. Despite being mocked, Mr Boast remained convinced they had heard a re-enactment of the fatal crash, and the sound of a phantom motorcycle. They pulled over to offer a lift to a girl dressed in motorcycling leathers and crash helmet who appeared by the roadside thumbing a lift. The couple retraced their steps to Fox House but found no trace of the hitchhiker.

Concerned, they reported the incident to the police. Resuming their journey, they decided to call at the address the girl had given. The woman who answered the door burst into tears when asked if she knew anyone answering the description. Recovering her composure, she said her daughter had been killed in a motorcycling accident on that very stretch of road. The family had attended her funeral just days before. The description of the daughter exactly matched the girl hitchhiker. But the road was short, and he realised he was running out of space approaching the intersection with the 9th Concession.

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Some say he died having banged his head on a rock. This story is supposed to account for reports of a large round white light heading down. Occasionally sounds of a motorcycle accompany the light. He stopped and offered her a ride. The man was overcome by sleep and did not wake until the morning, alone. He approached the house to speak with the girl, only to be told that she had died several years before. DH adds pertinent cultural comments: young men in Indonesia nearly always ride motorcycles; Indonesians to a man are afraid of the dark; young Indonesian women would never go out at night alone because of the strict religious nature of the society; and she has never heard of or met a promiscuous Indonesian woman excluding government sanctioned prostitutes.

It was taken by a truck driver. The lone motorcyclist had crashed and passed away later in hospital see FT He offered her his jacket because it was cold. On arriving at her home they went in and he was introduced to members of the family. When he arrived home he realised he had forgotten his jacket, and so went to collect it next day. A week later he was killed in an accident. Sussex, a man sitting on a stone stood up and walked into the path of an oncoming motorcycle.

The motorcyclist felt the impact, but retained his balance and took several seconds to stop and turn back to the scene of the accident. However, the old man had vanished. Ali established that the girl in question had also been killed by a truck when walking along that road in search of her lover. It was supposed that she was continuing to do so, luring unfortunate men to their deaths as a sort of revenge.

It was raining, so he stopped to give an attractive brunette a lift, though keeping his wits about him in case she was a decoy for a criminal gang. He handed her his spare crash helmet. When he looked round, his passenger had disappeared. He retraced his journey, slewing the bike from side to side so his headlight scanned the darkness. After a couple of kilometres, the bumping returned; he found it was the spare helmet strapped to the rear seat.

Van Jaarsveld went directly to the Petros cafe in Uniondale, where he walked in like the proverbial man who had just seen a ghost. A young man was returning home by motorcycle to Bradford, Yorkshire, from the Lake District. Around 2am he was about four miles from home, approaching the Saltaire roundabout.


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He was waved down by a young woman in some distress. She asked him to take her to Bradford. He felt her mount the pillion and rode through the almost deserted streets before stopping to ask her precise destination. Of course, she had disappeared. Fearing she had fallen off, the man rushed to the nearest police station to report what had happened.

The desk sergeant calmed him down and said he was just the latest in a long series of motorcyclists who had picked up this phantom at Saltaire Roundabout. On reaching her house he said he would collect it next day. When he called to do so he was shocked to learn she had been dead for three years. Like van Jaarsveld, Coetzee drove to a local cafe for help. If a car driver sees the motorcycle in his mirror, it is said to warn of an accident to come.

This has happened more than once, around 2am. It is not known if a motorcycle was ever involved in an accident there, but several fatalities have occurred along this very stretch of road. Michael took the same route home, looking out for a chortling hippy walking along the otherwise deserted B, but there was no sign of anyone. As with Peter, there can be little doubt that Michael had a genuine experience; but there is little likelihood of someone going to such elaborate lengths to scare passing motorists in such a remote spot at that time of night.

Besides, as Michael pulled up very quickly, it left little chance for any prankster to climb back over the wall without being spotted. Chris was a member of a Hertfordshire motorcycle club in the s. Most, if not all, members were in their early 20s. He pulled over to check the bike; but, as he did so, he became aware of an old lady standing in the road looking at him. She was in her 70s or 80s, with short curly hair, dressed in a long overcoat and holding a handbag.

The rider was alarmed to see an old lady out on her own in the cold weather so late at night and asked her if she was alright. She stood motionless, saying nothing, and continued to stare at him. He persisted in trying to help, and asked where she lived, to no avail. After a while, the motorcyclist became a bit spooked. He started pushing his machine down the lane, and eventually got it started and rode home. When this information was given, he opened the local newspaper he had with him and displayed the front page, which had a photo of an old lady.

Apparently, on the afternoon of the day that the rider had his odd experience, an old lady had wandered into the road at that very same spot and been run over and killed by a car. Unsurprisingly, the club members all assumed the rider had seen the ghost of the poor old lady. I provided Chris with the summaries of these cases, and he forwarded them to his daughter, who still lives in Welwyn. She kindly agreed to pop into the library to investigate further. Unfortunately, she drew a blank. So yet again we are left with a tantalising case. Tunnel and becoming its ghostly hitchhiker in residence.

I also asked if details might be held of any episodes where Tunnel Police have investigated circumstances similar to those described by Slemen, although I doubted if any would exist. He explained that Merseytravel often pointed people in his direction because he was familiar with the technical aspects and history of the tunnels, as well as the myths, legends and downright mistruths that had circulated over the years.

There is indeed a story about the appearance of a young female hitchhiker, but it relates to the Kingsway rather than the Queensway Tunnel. She has been seen standing at the left-hand entrance portal to the south tube of the Tunnel, dressed in black motorcycle leathers, with her arm out, seemingly beckoning passing cars to stop and give her a ride. The Kingsway Tunnel was opened in and has two portals, with two parallel running tubes. In both cases they appeared genuine about their experiences.

The approach to the tunnel portal is about yards long and completely straight, with the last part being under the. She was standing on the hard shoulder in front of the concrete wall, near the steps which lead to the tunnel walkway which is somewhere no pedestrians, hitchhikers or cyclists are allowed. In the seven-month period April-October , pedestrian incidents were recorded: 82 in the Queensway Tunnel and 71 in the Kingsway Tunnel. Standing right at the entrance portal means that cars cannot stop.

He had heard that not long after the Kingsway Tunnel was opened in a girl pillion passenger on a motorcycle was killed at that location, but he has never seen any evidence to support this, and he considers the story one of the many myths and legends surrounding the tunnels. He speculated that there might have been some confusion with an actual event from the s, when a motorcyclist came off his bike in the Queensway Tunnel on a bend near the Birkenhead end, hitting the tubular pedestrian guard rails and suffering fatal injuries, but he accepts that this involves a different tunnel and a different sex for the motorcyclist.

In any case, he believes any speculation about ghosts in the tunnels somehow causing further fatal accidents to occur is ridiculous. What should we make of the various testimonies and tales? Some are strong, others weak; some are clearly friend-of-a-friend stories, and some can be attributed to mis perceptions created by environment and circumstances. Another thing that strikes me is that several of the cases I have gathered relate to. I later moved to Wallasey on the Wirral and my wife would regularly drop me off at the Liverpool end of the Wallasey, or Kingsway,Tunnel.

We were due to move into a house near Newton, before ending up in South Wirral. Looking at the geography of the above motorcycle cases, I wonder if I am hunting road ghosts, or if they are hunting me I would like to thank Peter Bishop and all the people who provided testimonies together with Pure Radio, the Stockport Express and Motor Cycle News for enabling me to appeal for these , together with staff at Stockport Local Heritage Library for their records search. A regular contributor to FT, he has written on ghostlore, football curses, hoaxes and phantom hitchhikers. The short-lived series remains as weird and off-thewall as when it was first broadcast 50 years ago.

Hired by mogul Lew Grade, he took on the lead role in Danger Man, a spy series initially made up of minute episodes in which his character of John Drake used brains rather than brawn to solve problems. Although fairly successful, the initial incarnation of Danger Man lasted just one season.

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Debate continues as to what it all meant. His unique view of the world and how it works informed the stories he wanted to tell and the style in which he wanted to tell them, packing the episodes with fortean notions. When an actor fell ill, he stepped into the vacant role and by the mids was pursuing an acting career in his own right. In a sign of things to come, McGoohan clashed with Rank executives and his contract was. McGoohan, always restless, felt the format had been played out and he quit the show, forcing its cancellation. Central to The Prisoner are questions of free will, individual freedom, and state control.

So, where did all this come from?

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McGoohan was clearly an individualist with a strong moral code, a man who stuck to his principles even when it damaged his career; that much is clear. The story he wanted to tell in The Prisoner sprang directly from his own concerns with the world he saw developing in the midth century. In an. Tired of the grind on Danger Man, he went to Lew Grade with a new concept about a secret agent imprisoned against his will in a mysterious Village, to be shot in Portmeirion. Grade heard a verbal pitch from McGoohan, and professed not to understand a word of it. With The Prisoner, McGoohan had a message he wanted the world to hear: the question was, would anyone watching understand it?

From its very opening, The Prisoner raises questions of identity. It is also central to much occult thinking, especially Gnosticism. The series is packed with Gnostic notions, hidden meanings, secret messages, and other occult symbolism that can be decoded by a perceptive viewer who has the time and patience to tease out the esoteric meanings of the text.

Disharmony will not be tolerated. While Number 2 is nominally in charge like the various presidents and prime ministers of individual countries , they are all controlled in turn by the seemingly absent or invisible. The series is packed with Gnostic notions and hidden meanings Number 1, the true power behind the scenes take your pick: Bilderbergers, the Illuminati, the Freemasons, or the aliens. The real power remains hidden. Or are both forms of alternative or virtual reality? Made and broadcast in a UK election year, the episode saw McGoohan questioning the legitimacy of the democratic process.

Is it all nothing more than a game to keep the populace feeling involved in wider events? After all, no matter how you vote, the politicians always win. Village democracy is revealed to be a stage-managed pretence, with a manipulated electorate, and even when Number 6 ultimately wins, he also loses. Is he really John Drake? Is he, as the exchange played at the opening of each episode seemingly reveals, really the elusive Number 1? Secrecy is the power gained through control over information. They are the ones who run things, the Number 2s of the Village. The new location Number 6 inhabits is simply a distorted, even satirical, version of the classridden world he attempted to leave behind.

This was just one of many dichotomies from which The Prisoner was built. He tears off a mask — the face of an ape — revealing the bestial self which has been his greatest enemy. His other half, his alter ego. However, looking at some of the things he did say about the show over the years, it is possible to discern some idea of what its driving force thought The Prisoner was all about.

I question everything. You can be a prisoner and free, at least temporarily. When you get a mob like that, you can turn them into the sort of gang that Hitler had. Be seeing you…. Buyacar is an independent credit broker and not a lender. Drugs based on venoms, toxins and poisonous blood sausages are medical mainstays. Now, the venom from a creature that 18th century naturalists believed was a hoax might lead to new treatments for a common, deadly disease. Six died. We now know that botulinum toxin kills by excessively relaxing and paralysing muscles; but in tiny doses, it is invaluable for treating, among other conditions, spasticity, excessive sweating, chronic migraine, bladder problems and, of course, reducing the appearance of wrinkles.

Yet just a gram of inhaled crystalline botulinum toxin would kill more than one million people. In the s, researchers discovered that extracts of the venom of the Brazilian pit viper Bothrops jararaca inhibited angiotensin converting enzyme ACE , a. The platypus sank its spurs into his right arm and held on protein that helps control blood pressure. The discovery led to the development of captopril, the first of a now widely used group of drugs called ACE inhibitors. More recently, a toxin from a marine cone snail — which fires a venomladen harpoon at its prey — led to ziconotide, which often alleviates otherwise intractable pain.

Meanwhile, drugs based on venoms from other species help treat diabetes, which causes about 24, premature deaths each year in England alone. Your gut, for example, produces a protein called glucagon-like peptide-1 GLP-1 that has several anti-diabetes actions. However, GLP-1 is rapidly broken down: about half the amount in the blood is gone in just two minutes or so. Then, in the early s, researchers extracted a protein called exendin-4 from the venom of the Gila monster Heloderma suspectum. Exendin-4 triggers the same biological pathways as GLP But the sequence differs. Human GLP-1 is usually 30 amino acids long.

Amino acids are, of course, the building blocks of protein. Now switch 15 bricks. The differences make exendin-4 resistant to DPP Exenatide — synthetic exendin-4 — is now a mainstay of diabetes treatment. A recent study suggests that future drugs for diabetes might trace their heritage to venom from the duck billed platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus.

There are, however, three families of living monotremes; the longand short-beaked echidnas and the platypus. In common with reptiles, amphibians and birds, but unlike most mammals, the alimentary and reproductive tracts share an exit — thus the name monotreme, from the Greek for one hole. The male platypus has a sharp spur in the ankle of its hind legs connected to a venom gland behind the knee.

Some fossil mammals from the Mesozoic to 66 million years ago have similar structures. Such characteristics led some authors to describe monotremes as primitive. Yet they are remarkable survivors and masters of their environmental niches. When the overseer picked the injured animal up,. In , a platypus spiked a fisherman in the finger. However, several dogs died after being spiked.

Nevertheless, the amateur naturalist Augustus Simson, who experienced excruciating pain after being spiked, reported that some indigenous people would rather hold a snake than a platypus. Platypus GLP-1 differs in about a third of the amino acids from humans, including the site at which DPP-4 cleaves the hormone. In the platypus gut, GLP-1 regulates blood glucose.

This probably triggered the evolution of a stable form of GLP These findings could lead to a new diabetes drug. After all, venom from a single species can contain hundreds or even several thousands of chemicals. And biologists have studied few venomous animals in detail. Regular readers of Fortean Times will need no introduction to the concept of pareidolia — the propensity of the human mind to see meaningful structures in random patterns. The same could be said of quite a few people on the Internet today, who scour every new image released by NASA in.

The regularly arranged hollows between the hills and the longitudinal valley suggested to his fertile imagination that he had at last found a veritable city in the Moon… At any rate, he was firmly convinced that it was the work of intelligent beings, and not due to. Franz von Gruithuisen — was a well-respected academic, who later became a professor of astronomy at the University of Munich.

He contended that a particular pattern of light and shadows — seen only for a few hours at a particular phase of the Moon — was caused by sunlight passing through the arch of a bridge. Some astronomers agreed with this interpretation, others disagreed. But that in. He discovered a small bridge on the border of the Mare Crisium. Other astronomers, of course, laughed at him — but less prejudiced ones confirmed the existence of the bridge. Within a few years, however, it had vanished.

Obviously, our interest had alarmed the Saucer people, and they had dismantled it. Near the centre of the sea, a small telescope will reveal two craters, called Messier and Messier A, which are a similar size and close together. These two craters were almost certainly created by the same impact event, with the incoming meteorite hitting at a low angle and then bouncing across the surface. In the process, this created an interesting optical illusion. He claims that through a good telescope not only can the tunnel be seen but the entrance and the exit of that tunnel are clearly discernible.

It is in effect a section of the spaceship hull or shell that has been ruptured or otherwise damaged that creates this unusual feature. More than 60miles 96km long, this feature was. Such evidence notwithstanding, there are still people who insist the Straight Wall is an artificial. Open your mind with Fortean Times. Humans, mammals and ingenuity Animals were food, co-workers and companions, and their remains served hugely practical and possibly ritual purposes, according to this valuable and — huzzah! Animals were food, workers hunting dogs, for instance and companions.

Sometimes the same species was all three. Molluscs and their shells, for example, have been used worldwide as food, bait, dye, medicines, containers, material for tools and adornment, a construction material and in pottery manufacture. If our ancestors could find a use for a part of an animal, they did. Catfish pectoral fins helped, for example, release points and tips stuck in the body. Otoliths ear stones offer a striking example of this. Otoliths are tiny lumps of calcium carbonate in the ear including in humans that are involved in hearing and sensing gravity.

Fishing cultures use otoliths and the tiny ear bones as medicines and in divination. Some wore pouches or necklaces of otoliths for their magical properties. Certain fishing communities in northeastern Brazil still make a tea from otoliths to treat kidney disease. Two pits from Brazil dating from about 3, years ago were too small to hold fish heads, but contained otoliths.

These tiny objects were removed deliberately. Using whale bone as a building material could have structural, ritual and symbolic significance — or pick any two or all three. Domestication is also more complex than it might appear. Sometimes domestication may have been pragmatic, such as turning to meat and animal products when cereals were limited. In many parts of the world, however, the elite perpetuated their socio-political dominance by community feasting.

Animal sacrifices and elite grave goods, often representing animals, helped cement Neolithic power structures. So, domestication.

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Indeed, in some cases, production of animistic ritual objects reached an industrial scale. The ancient Egyptian catacomb of Anubis at Saqqara contained 7. The Ibis galleries contained at least four million mummies of these once sacred birds. In what is now the Swiss Alps, Neolithic hunters killed red deer for food and for making tools such as sockets to fit wood handles to stone axes.

But about BC, the number of antler artefacts declined markedly, probably following over-hunting. So the ancient Swiss developed ways of attaching the stone directly to the wood. Are the remains livestock, companions or commensals — animals that adopted the environment for the. For instance, there are five subspecies of the wildcat.

Their skeletons are essentially indistinguishable from each other and from domestic cats eurekalert. Cats can be domesticated pest control, feral commensals, companions and even a source of food and pelts. Often context is everything. Yet this accessible guide shows how patience, collaboration and scientific rigour is beginning to unlock the secrets and stories in the bones. An almost forgotten and very strange alien abduction episode is re-examined but not solved, though CIA involvement is unlikely. No Return revives a curious episode from Originally investigated soon after its occurrence by pioneering ufologists Jim and Coral Lorenzen and mentioned by Jacques Vallee in a couple of his books, it is remembered only by ufologists with a taste for the historical arcana of their subject.

Ironically, those who know of it recall it vividly. From this distance or, probably, from any distance no certain explanation is recoverable, given the nature of the event. At least Booher has answered the question posed in the subtitle. That answer, respectively, is probably yes and probably no. A qualifying note: one need not believe in literal alien kidnappings to acknowledge that UFO abductions are experiences, however generated and whatever their true nature, it is possible to undergo.

Driving through rural Utah on the evening of 20 February, Army Private Gerry Irwin spotted a light falling silently from the sky. Concerned that it might be an airplane, he stopped his car and stared out at the ridge it had disappeared under. A brilliant glow flashed, then faded. Irwin scrawled. The next thing he knew, 24 hours had passed, and he lay in a Cedar City hospital. No plane was missing. The story gets complicated after that. Booher sometimes belabours the notion of an official coverup without demonstrating one.

Most readers are likely to detect only understandable confusion. Neither then nor later would Irwin evince the slightest interest in UFOs. None of this made sense at the time to anyone, but it resonates with a body of testimony waiting to be culled in the coming era of abduction narratives. In his reconstruction of the incident, Booher uncovers evidence, missed by all previous analysts, that Irwin was transported more than 20 miles during the blackout.

There is also the matter of the jacket on the bush. In the infrequent citations in UFO literature, Irwin is said to have vanished mysteriously. Booher tracked him to his native Idaho, where he lives happily, his one encounter with notoriety the incident attracted national press coverage at the time only uncertainly remembered. No evidence supports the proposition that Irwin suffered the effects of a mind-control experiment.

His interactions with doctors and hospitals did not happen till after his initial sighting and amnesiac episode. For a decade between the mids and mids, under the MKUltra code name, the CIA conducted secret behaviouraltering experiments on hapless uninformed subjects e. In then-CIA director Richard Helms ordered all surviving records burned, a gift to conspiracy theorists everywhere.

Fanciful speculation notwithstanding, proof that the CIA engineered faux-UFO encounters remains as elusive as evidence for crashed saucers. No Return is admirable work, clearing up — to the limited extent possible — a curious case from the early UFO age, among the first to hint that even higher strangeness was lurking just over the horizon.

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PillPack Pharmacy Simplified. Amazon Renewed Like-new products you can trust. Amazon Second Chance Pass it on, trade it in, give it a second life. They held the day of rest inviolate; made no fire, nor cooked on that day, nor moved any vessel from its place; nor evacuated their digested food.

On other days, when about to free themselves of digested food, they dug a hole into the earth with an axe, and covered themselves round about with their lowered garments so that they might not offend the divine rays of the sun with indecency. Having eased themselves, they filled the hole with the earth they had dug up. While he lived, Herod Antipas honored these Essenes or Essei. V, chap. VIII, pars. The Essenes are not mentioned in the Old Testament, for they lived in isolated communities, and thus Jesus and his apostles did not encounter them.

They represent the mystic and ascetic forms of Judaism, while the Pharisees represented the orthodox, and the Sadducees the rationalistic forms. Their name has never been sat in office isfactorily explained. Some believe it means "the retiring," or "the Puritans;" others, "the healers. They believed in an unconditional Providence and the immortality of the soul, but not in the resurrection of the body; in future rewards to the righteous and the future punishment of the wicked. Their celibacy, sun-homage, and abstinence from sacrifice, were their non-Jewish qualities derived from the Zoroastrian religion; to these must be added their magical rites and intense striving after purity.

In their life they were noted for their kindness to the sick and the poor. They opposed slavery; made medicines from herbs which were healing; and were modest and retiring in manner. According to Philo their general conduct was directed by three rules — "the love of God, the love of virtue, and the love of man. The last sentence of this paragraph is not found in the German edition of the Chronicle.

In fact, it is followed by another sentence, also not found in the German edition, which the current editor cannot quite make sense of. It runs in Latin thus: nec inhonestus? Veronica, a woman of Jerusalem, disciple of Christ, and esteemed for her piety and virtue, was at this time called to Rome with the handkerchief of Christ by Tiberius the emperor, through his strongest man, Volusianus. For this same emperor as some relate had been seized with a serious malady. As soon as he had received this holy woman and had touched the picture of Christ, he was cured of all illness.

For this reason the emperor afterwards held this Veronica in great esteem, and she remained at Rome with the apostles Peter and Paul to her end. Pope Clement erected church to her. This is the woman who suffered with an issue of blood as the Gospels state , and was cured of it by the Lord after touching the hem of his garment. At the time of his suffering she received from him as a token of his love this picture of his face.

This same picture, impressed on cloth, Veronica bequeathed to Pope Clement and his successors in her will. To this day it is viewed with great devotion and contemplation at St.


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The name of the image was insensibly transferred to the woman of whom the legend is related. According to the active imagination of the people, she was Veronica, or Berenice, the niece of King Herod, being the daughter of his sister Salome, who had been devoted to the pomps and vanities of the world, but on witnessing the sufferings and meekness of Jesus, was suddenly converted. The miraculous power of the sacred image impressed upon her napkin being universally recognized, she was sent for by the emperor Tiberius to cure him of a mortal malady; but since the emperor had already died by the time she arrived, she remained at Rome with Peter and Paul until she suffered martyrdom under Nero; or, according to another legend, she came to Europe in the same vessel with Lazarus and Mary Magdalene, and suffered martyrdom either in Provence or Aquitaine.

According to Anna Jameson from whose work the above is taken , these legends have been rejected by the Church since the eleventh century; but the memory of this compassionate woman, and the legend of the miraculous image, lingered on in the imagination of the people. Xenarchus, a peripatetic philosopher, worthy of commemoration, and whom Strabo the historian heard in his youth, died at Seleucia in Cicilia during the time of the emperor Tiberius. And, as it is said, he did not reside there for long but went to Alexandria, Athens, or Rome to study.

To old age he was always held in great esteem. Augustus the emperor favored him. But not long before this time and since his death, his works were lost. He taught successively at Alexandria, Athens and Rome, where he enjoyed the friendship of Augustus. Philo the Jew, a native of Alexandria, and a highly educated man, was held in great esteem during these times. He wrote many excellent and daring things, and with his skill and versatility he silenced the evil writings of Appianus Appionis against the Jews.

Many have spoken of his versat in office ility, saying that either Philo followed Plato, or Plato followed Philo. He finally came to Rome and had speech and dealings with Saint Peter. By him he was so well instructed in the faith that he afterward wrote much in praise of the Christian religion and practices; and these writings as Jerome attests are reckoned among the books called Ecclesiastes.

And foremost of all he wrote enlightening interpretations upon the five books of Moses, and many other works. He had already reached an advanced age when he went to Rome 40 CE on an embassy to the emperor Caligula in order to procure the revocation of a decree that exacted from the Jews divine homage to the statue of the emperor.

His most important works treat of the books of Moses, and are generally cited under different titles. His great object was to reconcile the Hebrew Scriptures with the doctrines of Greek philosophy, and to point out the conformity between the two. He maintained that the fundamental truths of the former were derived from the Mosaic revelation, and to work out an agreement, he had recourse to an allegorical interpretation of the books of Moses.

Agrippina was born to Marcus Agrippa by Julia, the daughter of the emperor Octavian. She was the mother of the emperor Caius Caligula and was esteemed among the intelligent and renowned women. She was, in those times, deliberately caused so much sorrow by the emperor Tiberius, that she starved herself to death. She was married in her youth to Germanicus, a handsome and virtuous youth, whom Tiberius had been obliged to adopt. She bore him three sons. One, called Caligula, afterward ruled over the Romans.

She also bore him three daughters, one of whom was called Agrippina and was the mother of Nero. Her husband was done away with by poison through Tiberius; and because she mourned the death of her husband with great lamentations, as was the custom of women, Tiberius therefore hated her, and those of his people who held her by the arms increased her sorrow by mockery and unbecoming conduct. She determined to escape his haughtiness by starvation, and soon she refrained from eating her food.

When Tiberius learned of this, being accustomed to compel women to eat by threats and beatings, he caused her to be fed by force. But being still more embittered against Tiberius in consequence, she gradually accomplished her own death by this means. And as by her death she earned much praise on the part of her own people, so she at the same time caused Tiberius much harm and ill repute.

Vipsanius Agrippa and of Julia, the daughter of Augustus, married Germanicus, by whom she had nine children, among whom was the emperor Caligula, and Agrippina, the mother of Nero. On his death in 17 CE she returned to Italy; but the favor in which she was received by the people increased the hatred and jealousy which Tiberius and his mother Livia had long entertained toward her.

For some years Tiberius disguised his hatred, but at length under the pretext that she was forming ambitious plans, he banished her to the island of Pandataria 30 CE , where she died three years later, probably by voluntary starvation. Agrippa the Great, son of king Aristobulus, succeeded his father and ruled over the Jews for seven years. He was by nature a good man, and he adorned the city of Jerusalem at his own expense. But the son of Aristobulus, whom the father of Herod killed, came to Tiberius; but as the latter would not entertain his complaint, he stayed at Rome to secure assistance by various means.

Now Agrippa was very friendly with Caius Caligula , the son of Germanicus, and after he said that Germanicus should be emperor, he was accused before Tiberius, and by him imprisoned and held in severe confinement for six months, until the death of Tiberius, when he was liberated by Caius, who gave him the region called Philippi, and so made him a king. In lieu of the iron chain that he wore in prison, Caius gave him a golden one. When he left Rome and came to Jerusalem, he went into the temple and made a sacrifice, and there hung up the same chain as a perpetual memorial.

But as he finally went to Caesarea, and permitted himself to be called a god, he was slain by an angel, and with a bloated body he said: I was formerly called a god, so now here I lie in the bondage of death. He died at the age of 57 years, and left a seventeen-year-old son Agrippa, and three daughters, Berenice, Maria, and Drusilla. He had a brother named Herod, king of Chalcis, who acted as regent for the young king.

Having given offense to Tiberius, he was imprisoned; but Caligula, on his accession, released him, and gave him the tetrarchies of Abilene, Batanaea, Trachonitis, and Auranitis. On the death of Caligula, Agrippa, who was at the time in Rome, assisted Claudius in gaining possession of the empire. As a reward for his services Judea and Samaria were annexed to his dominions.

His government was mild and gentle, and he was exceedingly popular among the Jews. It was probably to increase his popularity with them that he caused the apostle James to be beheaded, and Peter to be cast into prison. The manner of his death that took place in the same year at Caesarea 44 CE is related in Acts According to Acts "upon a certain day Herod, arrayed in royal apparel, sat upon his throne, and made an oration to them.

And the people gave a shout, saying, It is the voice of a god and not of a man. And immediately the angel of the Lord struck him, because he gave not God the glory; and he was eaten by worms, and gave up the Spirit. Regensburg Ratisbona , the celebrated and memorable free city on the Danube, was built by Tiberius Nero in the year Jesus Christ suffered for the salvation of the human race; and at one time it was the capital city of Bavaria.

In ancient times this region was occupied by the Norici, for which reason a portion of it is still called Norica to this day. After the Norici came the Baioaria; and it is now called Bavaria. This same Bavarian name originated from the Boii,[Boii, one of the most powerful of the Celtic people, said to have originally dwelt in Gaul Transalpine , but in what part of the country is uncertain. At an early time they migrated in two great swarms, one of which crossed the Alps and settled in the country between the Po and the Apennines; the other crossed the Rhine and settled in that part of Germany called Boihemum Bohemia after them, and between the Danube and the Tyrol.

The Boii in Germany were subdued by the Marcomanni, and expelled from the country. They were subsequently called Norici by the Romans after their capital Noreia. Although, according to Strabo, this region was at one time a wilderness, it is now built up, and has renowned cities and noble fortifications.

But of these Regensburg excels all others in beauty. In Bavaria there are five episcopal cities. The capital is the archi-episcopal city of Salzburg, so called from the river on which it lies. The ancients called it Juvanum or Juvavia , that is, Helffenburg. The bishopric of Regensburg was very celebrated, and all of Bohemia was subject to it. The city has seven names: Firstly, it is named Tiberina, or Tiburina, after its builder; for Tiberius, son of Livia, the wife of Augustus, and step-son of Augustus, was sent by Augustus with a great army against the Norici, or Bavarians, and against the Vindelici.

He subdued them; and he built the city; and after him it was called Tiberina. Secondly, for some time the city was called Quadrata, the square city; for it was built in that form and was surrounded by a wall of large square stones, of which remains may be seen behind St. The Danube, Nab, and Regen flow into one another toward the north. Fourthly, it was called Germansheim, after the German people who frequented the city; or after Germanicus, who ruled over the city. Fifthly, Reginopolis, or Koenigsburg, because kings and princes assembled there, as the palatial towers and tall buildings of the lords indicate.

Sixthly, it was named after the river Imber in German, Regen ;[ Imber , the Latin for rainwater; water or liquid in general; a rain cloud or storm cloud. The German regen means rain. For it the city was named Regensburg, which name has remained to this day. Seventhly, it is called Ratisbona, after the small merchant vessels or boats that came there, and the vessels that during the war laid about it for protection in the time of Charlemagne.

And the city was strengthened with fortifications, and is to this day is called Ratisbona in the Latin. The Danube,. It flows by this renowned city, and over it is a very strong bridge with many arches built in the year of the Lord one thousand one hundred and fifteen. The most Christian emperor, Charlemagne Karolus Magnus , subjugated the whole of Bavaria by force of arms; but Taxillo Taxilo , the Duke of Bavaria, together with his neighbors, the Huns, made war against Charlemagne.

Before long he made peace with them, receiving a number of hostages. And he turned against the city of Regensburg and the unbelievers in it, capturing the city and compelling them to accept the Christian faith. In the same war a great number of unbelievers and Huns were slain before Regensburg. Charlemagne lost a number of men there, who lie buried in the Basilica of St. Peter outside the city.

Afterwards this city greatly prospered and increased, and was thereafter adorned with an episcopal church dedicated to St. Before that time it was called the church of St. Many fictions have grown up around his name; for example, that he anointed Clovis with oil from the sacred ampulla, and that Pope Hormisdas had recognized him as primate of France. The city is also adorned with a large cloister, that of St. Emmeran, of the Benedictine Order. Here also are two abbeys to Our Lady, an upper and a lower, and in the lower, Bishop Erhard lies at rest.

Many houses in this city have consecrated churches and their own priests. Emperor Arnolfus, out of particular affection for this city above all other cities of the realm, enlarged it with a wall, comprehending the cloister of St. Emmeran, which he beautified. Then, as he returned from battle between the Normans and the Bavarians, he gave the relics of St.

Dionysius the Areopagite to this cloister in his old age, together with a beautiful book of Gospels written in letters of gold; and finally he was buried there. This city is glorified by the esteemed martyr St. Emmeran, the bishop, and with St. Wolfgang, the eleventh bishop of the city, who worked wonders there and built St. So also Albertus Magnus, a man highly informed in learning and all the arts, officiated here as bishop.

Regensburg, or Ratisbona, a very ancient city in that part of Bavaria, formerly called Rhaetia secunda, is a city and Episcopal see of Germany, and the capital of the government district of the Upper Palatinate. It is situated on the right bank of the Danube, opposite the influx of the Regen, 86 miles northeast of Munich, and 60 miles southeast of Nuremberg. The pre-Roman settlement of Radespona was chosen by the Romans, who named it Castra Regina, as the center of their power on the upper Danube. It was made an Episcopal see in the eighth century by Boniface, and from the eleventh to the fourteenth century it was one of the most flourishing and populous cities of Germany.

It became the seat of the dukes of Bavaria and was the focus from which Christianity spread over southern Germany. Emmeran founded an abbey here in the seventh century. Regensburg acquired the freedom of the empire in the thirteenth century. It became the chief seat of the trade with India and the Levant, and the boatmen of Regensburg are frequently heard of expediting the journeys of the Crusaders.

Numerous imperial diets were held here in the Middle Ages, and from to it was the permanent seat of the Imperial Diet. The Reformation found only temporary acceptance at Regensburg, and was met by a counterreformation inspired by the Jesuits. Before this time the city had almost wholly lost its commercial importance owing to changes in the great highways of trade.

Regensburg is said to have suffered in all no fewer than 17 sieges. By the peace of Luneville it was adjudged to the primate Dalberg, and in the town and bishopric were ceded to Bavaria, after the disastrous defeat of the Austrians beneath its walls the preceding year, when part of the town had been reduced to ashes. Its foundations were laid in , but the building was not completed until The two towers, each feet high, according to the woodcut, were in course of construction when the Chronicle was issued and were not completed until The structural arrangement of the interior resembles that of the Strasbourg Minster.

The sumptuous high altar is entirely covered with silver. In the cloisters, adorned with ornate windows, are the tombs of cannons and wealthy citizens. The oldest Christian structures date back to the Carolingian period, and for the student of the art history of the early Middle Ages Regensburg is almost as important as Nuremberg is for the subsequent centuries.

Some of the numerous ancient owners, and the mansions of the old patrician families, with their towers of defense, dating from the 13th century, are a reminiscence of early German civic. The Dominican Church, begun in and completed in , is a well-proportioned early Gothic edifice; while the former old Benedictine Abbey of St.

Emmeran is one of the oldest in Germany. Built in the 13th century, and remarkable as one of the few German churches with a detached belfry, the beautiful cloisters of the ancient abbey, one of the oldest in Germany, are still in fair preservation. In its conventual buildings were converted into a palace for the prince of Thurn and Taxis, hereditary postmaster-general of the Holy Roman Empire. Next to it is the Church of St. Emmeran, with the tombs of the martyr St.

Emmeran c. In place of the seven-line poem that concludes the description of Regensburg in the Latin text of the Chronicle, the German edition offers the following sentences in prose : "As the holy relics of four saints—St. Dionysius, St. Emmeran, St. Wolfgang and St. Erhard, are here treasured up. Thus this city may indeed be deservedly happy in its possession of these holy patrons and fathers before the Almighty God.

A large two-page woodcut. In the foreground is the Danube, on which the city is located at the influx of the Regen. It is a well-fortified place. Shipping is indicated by a number of flat-bottom boats loaded with merchandise in barrels. Two bridges mentioned in the text. To defend the Danube the Romans extened a line of fortifications—the limes , as they were called, which began at Regensburg, and keeping well to the north of the river, were carried to the neighborhood of Stuttgart.

A circular stonewall on this side of the river contains a drawbridge which leads to a gate, above which are the armorial bearings of the city—keys crossed in a field of red. The unfinished church of St. Peter appears in the center of the city. From one point of the wall chains extend to a peculiar side-wheeler, apparently used for stretching these chains across the river for defense. Vienna of Pannonia is a widely celebrated city in Austria, and is situated on the river Danube. This same river divides Bavaria, Austria and Hungary. Among these cities none are as wealthy, well populated or ancient as Vienna, the principal city and capital of the country.

The city was formerly as one discovers in the ancient ducal privileges called Flavianum, after Flavius, the prefect who governed this region and began the city; or, after Flavius, the emperor, who proceeded to the Danube to establish the boundaries of the Roman Empire; and, in part the city is said to have received its name from him. Now when the Germans speak of Flavianum, they use the abbreviated form, Flavienn. And so, not without reason, the first syllable Fla as otherwise often written , was discarded, and so Vienn Wienn remained.

For that reason this city was accordingly called Vienna. But some are of the opinion that the city was named after the little river Vienna which flows between it and the suburbs. This great and mighty city, according to the circuit of its walls, has a circumference of two thousand paces, and has large and spacious suburbs, protected by moat and mound.

The city has tall stout battlements and is provided with many towers and defenses against war. Here are also large and beautiful residences of its citizens, secure, strong and tall; but many of the houses are roofed with unsightly shingles, and but few with tiles. The other buildings are of stone masonry. Some are painted, so that they shine inside and out. Every house as you enter it gives the impression of a princely residence. The houses of the nobles and the church officials are public. Here also are to be seen large and illustrious buildings of stone erected to the honor of the Almighty God and the saints; and wonderful consecrated church edifices containing statuary.

Many costly relics are covered with gold, silver and precious stones; and there are highly ornate churches. The city is located in the bishopric of Pataviensis;[The German edition of the says Passau. Here also are the four orders of the Mendicants; also the Scottish brothers and St. Also the Cloister of the Virgin, and that of St. Jerome, in which are received common sinful women who have been converted, and who day and night sing the praises of God in the German tongue.

Those who relapse into sin. But here they lead a virtuous and holy life, so that evil report or slander is seldom heard against them. In this city there is also a university of the liberal arts; and for the study of the Holy Scriptures and the canon law, newly established by Pope Urban VI. Here assemble a remarkable number of students from Hungary and Upper Germany. It is estimated that about fifty thousand attend Holy Communion. Eighteen men are elected to the Council; also a judge to preside over court matters and legal transactions, and a mayor who assumes civic responsibility.

There are no other officials, except those who collect the tax on wine. They are consulted in all matters, and their tenure is from year to year. An incredible variety of things necessary to human sustenance are brought to this city daily. Many wagons and carts arrive with eggs and crabs; baked bread, meats, fish and fowl, without number, are brought there; but by vespers the supply is exhausted.

The grape harvest extends over a period of forty days. Two or three times daily at least three hundred wagons loaded with grapes are on their way, and about twelve hundred horses are employed in the grape harvest daily. An incredible amount of wine is brought to this city daily, and either consumed or shipped with great care and labor up the Danube, against the current of the river.

The wine cellars are so large and deep that it is believed the buildings at Vienna are more underground than above it. The streets and avenues are paved with hard stones, and the pavement is not easily injured by the wheels of the heavily loaded wagons. In the homes clean household utensils are found in great number. Here also are large stables for horses and all kinds of animals; arcades and vaultings everywhere, and large quarters and rooms where one may be secure against the inclemency of winter; everywhere there are transparent windows.

The doors are generally of iron. The songs of many birds are heard. Old families are seldom found among the Viennese; for most of them immigrated here, or are foreigners. But after King Matthias died, the emperor Frederick, now well along in years, recovered Vienna through his son, King Maximilian. Vienna was originally the ancient town of Vindobona, or Vendobona, located on the Danube in Upper Pannonia. Although originally a Celtic place, it afterward became a Roman municipum , as we learn from inscriptions.

According to Ptolemy, for some time the town bore the name of Juliobona. It was situated at the foot of Mount Cetius, on the road running along the right bank of the river, and in the course of time became one of the most important military stations on the Danube; for after the decay of Carnuntum it was not only the station of the principal part of the Danubian fleet, but also of the Legio X Gemina the twin legion, was one of the four legions used by Julius Caesar in 58 BCE, for his invasion of Gaul in the 2nd century CE.

During the period of the Great Migrations and the succeeding centuries the traces of Vienna are lost; but tradition ascribes the foundation of St. Rupprecht being older still. After the establishment of the Ostmark Austria it revived. In "Wienne" is mentioned as a "small civitas. Stephen Stephansdom was founded, and a commercial town grew up about it. Later, under the Babenberger, Vienna became an important trading center, as well as the center of a brilliant court life and an important school of lyric poetry.

The great epics of the Niebelungen and Gudrun were composed near its walls. Many monastic orders were established and many churches built. Albert, the first Habsburg to enter Vienna, came into immediate conflict with the city, which he invested and forced to capitulate, annulling many of its privileges. The era of the earlier Habsburgs was generally unfortunate; the plague, the visitations of robbers and mercenary soldiers, the financial crisis and monetary depreciation, and the ceaseless internecine wars of the Habsburgs, hit the city very hard; yet it remained a wealthy and important center, and some of the Habsburgs were its generous patrons, notably Rudolph IV who founded the university in , and did much toward the reconstruction of the cathedral of St.

Under Frederick IV Vienna at first preserved neutrality; but it was the center of the movement against Frederick led by Eiczing, and after Archduke Albrecht had twice stormed the city in , a radical opposition was formed, and Frederick was besieged in the Hofburg Matthias Corvinus of Hungary, after taking Vienna, made it his residence. In Vienna had to stand a siege from the Turkish troops. The suburbs were deserted, and more and more of the inhabitants crowded into the old town.

The second siege of Vienna by the Turks, in , was the indirect cause of the appearance of the characteristic Viennese coffee houses or cafes, almost simultaneously with another less characteristically Viennese product of the Orient — the lilac, planted in Vienna, to spread from there over western Europe. The disappearance of the Turkish danger ushered in a time of rapid expansion.

The Hofburg was rebuilt, its library and stables constructed, together with a number of buildings in sumptuous baroque style. The architecture of the later 18th century is by comparison sober and practical. The reign of Francis I created the typical Viennese of tradition: frivolous, non-political, discontented, easy-going "Alt-Wien" with its waltzes. Then came the Revolution of Again Vienna suffered a siege; this time from the troops of its own emperor, by whom it was quickly reduced.

The modern period under Franz Joseph saw another transformation. The old ramparts were leveled, the great Ringstrasse built in their place. A great number of new buildings were erected. In the latter half of the 19th century the population increased rapidly. The municipality again became a powerful political and cultural force. In the foreground is the Danube, not depicted as a great river, but as a sluggish little creek, in which two geese are disporting themselves.

The water cannot be very deep, for their entire bodies appear above the surface of the water. They look stolid enough to be wooden decoys. Beyond a wild scrubby shore is the city wall, rather shy of turrets and towers. The houses are closely set together, and beyond it appears the open country, hilly and rocky. A tall church steeple appears at the right, surmounted by a sketchy figure resembling an eagle with outspread wings. To the right is a church, whose steeple is surmounted with a nondescript figure. Except for the churches, the architecture is decidedly monotonous.

Of the vineyards, concerning which the text has so much to say, there is not a sign, and there is no commerce on the meager river. The vegetation along the river is sparse and blasted, and most of the trees about the landscape resemble puffballs. We have before us one of the most important woodcuts in the entire Chronicle. It covers two full pages, verso and recto. And here, of course, we have a right to expect the designer to be perfectly at ease in his own hometown. As we proceed to the left we meet a pedestrian, staff in hand, and burdened with a large basket that is strapped to his back, such as was used in those days and for centuries later in the delivery of wares or merchandise.

He is approaching three wayside crosses—the central one representing the cross upon which Jesus was crucified, as is indicated by the symbolical spear and sponge. The circle in the center of the cross no doubt represents the crown of thorns, and above it is the board upon which the inscription was placed. Beyond this is a wayside shrine—a stone monument inscribed with a suggestion of the crucifixion. Further on we meet a man in armor whose steed prances along in the direction of the city gate, probably bound for the Castle. As we anticipate his course, we come upon a bent old lady, hobbling along by the aid of a walking stick, under her heavily loaded basket.

As we approach the city gate, we note the coat of arms of the city of Nuremberg above it. This portal is reached by means of the rather flimsy wooden bridge over the moat that surrounds the walled city. Looking closely, we note that there are two walls, both bristling with towers, bastions and other defenses. We may not be able to count towers with which the Chronicle credits the city, but the woodcutter has given us the idea that there must have been a great number of these, many square, some round.

To the right the river Pegnitz enters through another gate, which is protected by a portcullis. As we gaze upon the city we see that it is built upon a slope, in fact a series of slopes, in the midst of a sandy plain, which is some feet above the sea. The moat that we must cross was originally feet wide and 50 feet deep.

As we pass through the gate we come upon numerous steeply gabled buildings, most of which are covered with red tile. We enter a labyrinth of crooked narrow streets, and feel an ambition to climb the hill that culminates in a varied group of buildings on the Castle rock. But we are certain of the old Castle on the summit of the hill, with its formidable outbuildings and towers. To the left, silhouetted against the horizon, are the twin spires of the churches of St. Lorenz and St. Sebald, of which something is said in the succeeding text and the accompanying notes.

At the inception of their career as city builders the Germans settled about isolated strongholds, or fastnesses. Until the Carolingian period agriculture and the chase sustained them and sat in office isfied their needs. They had little or no trade, nor were they much interested in commerce. Even much later than the Roman incursions they were rather averse to living in walled-up towns.

Although they had before them the Roman colonies and their foundations, such as Cologne Colonia , Mainz Maguncia , Metz Metis , Augsburg Augusta , and Regensburg Ratisbona , only few of the inhabitants in earlier times decided to stay or live there. The year period from the 10th to the 14th century was one of great civic activity for German-speaking lands. No less than cities sprang up within that time. Many castles had been built by the nobility, and in the wake of Christianity came bishoprics, monasteries, churches and shrines, all of which attracted multitudes and stimulated the creation and growth of communities about them.

The development of the medieval city was not according to any fixed plan.