Cavaliere ; Cancionero de Uppsala ed. Benitez Claros ; El cancionero de Palacio ed. Vendrell de Millas ; Cancionero musical de Palacio ed. Angles ; Cancionero musical de la casa de Medinaceli ed. Querol Gavalda ; Cancionero de Pedro del Pozo ed. Rodriguez Moiiino ; Cancionero d'Herberay des Essarts ed. Lastly, the significance of an edition was also judged almost exclusively by the quantity of previously unpublished works it contained, and these gradually diminished in number.
These editions played a crucial role, and they continue to provide the basis of our own knowledge. In addition to making the texts available, they shed considerable light upon authors and often correctly evaluated the represen- tative nature of the cancionero and its date. Nonetheless, Spanish philology made the mistake of limiting itself almost exclusively to this kind of research. In the first place, it underestimated the value of critical editions of individual poets, which conditioned both the perspective and methods of analysis, which were more general than particular.
Consequently, there was little literary study of individual cancionero authors. It is true that editions of particular poets did have a rich tradition from the start of this century. Rodriguez Monino ; Cancionero dejuan Femdndez de hear ed. Azaceta ; "El 'Pequeno cancionero" ' ed. Azaceta ; Cancionero de Luz6n ed. Rodriguez Monino a ; Cancionero de Gallardo ed. Azaceta ; Cancioneiro de Carte e de Magnates ed. Askins ; Cancionero musical de la Colombina Querol Gavalda Although it is much more recent, a project is now well under way to catalogue all the Golden Age cancioneros.
Directed by J. Labrador Herraiz, this project will undoubtedly bring to light new data for the Renaissance reception of fifteenth-century lyrics. From a basically biographical perspective, there are various works by AvaUe-Arce , , , a-c. For a use- fiil bibliography of studies on Jewish and conuerso poets and themes, see Rodriguez Puertolas's essay in the present collection. This was followed by the cancioneros of Pedro Manuel Ximenez de Urrea ed.
Villar y Garcia ; see also Asensio ; Gomez Manrique ed. Paz y Melia ; facsmile reprint ; Juan Rodriguez del Padron ed. Rennert ; Anton de Montoro ed. Cotarelo y Mori ; Macias ed. Rennert ; partial ed.
Paz y Melia ; Juan Alvarez Gato ed. Artiles Rodriguez ; Pere Torroellas ed. Bach y Rita See also editions of such major works as Manrique's Coplas Foulche-Delbosc , revised ; , , and Mena's Laberinto Foulche-Delbosc a, though it lacks critical apparatus. Nor has there been a lack of literary studies, and alongside the edition of cancioneros there has been a continuous flow of information, extracts, and analysis of each of them. Brian Dutton's Catdlogo- indice and his Cancionero del sigh XF — 91 crowned an extraordi- nary bibliographical and documentary project.
Perhaps the least active front in recent decades has been facsimile editions. But these are not the only ones; the panorama also includes editions of satirical works, such as those by Ciceri , and the edition of Montoro Ciceri and Rodriguez Puertolas For another example of the Italian school, see Caravaggi et al.
For obvious reasons, one would have to include in this tradition Perinan's edition of Suero de Ribera Henceforth, I shaU use Dutton's siglae originally set forth in his Catdlogo-indice to identify the cancioneros. The history of this bibliographical project may be traced in the works of Mussafia ; Aubrun ; Simon Diaz ; Varvaro ; Norton ; Gonzalez Cuenca ; Steunou and Knapp ; Faulhaber et al. Alongside these bibhographies, one has to mention lists of sources included in studies on specific manuscripts, such as those found in Azaceta's editions of the cancioneros of Juan Fernandez de Ixar , Gallardo , and Baena In addition to Simon Diaz's ongoing bibliography, there are of course the essential catalogues and bibliographical studies by Rodriguez Monino b, , , , which remain our most valuable source for the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, a period when cancioneros continue to anthologize fifteenth-century verse.
Another related area that cannot be ignored is that of the frequently bilingual Catalan cancioneros, although Castilian bibhographies often include only the sections devoted to Castilian. While we await a complete bibUography, which I am currently preparing in collaboration with Gemma Avenoza, we have to fall back on the one by Masso Torrens , which includes an index of catuioneros, whose siglae I shall adopt where necessary, and a systematic analysis of the poets. Even more useftil in this respect is the doctoral thesis by Ganges Garriga defended , currently in press.
Catedra and Coca Senande I fail to understand why no one has yet published a facsimile of the magnificent Cancionero de Estufiiga. Even so, recent research still bears the marks of a poor and occasionally ill-conceived tradition. So long as we lack careful editions of the majority of authors, or at least the most significant ones, with corresponding hterary study and appropriate analysis of transmission, it will be difficult to make headway towards a rigorous and thorough under- standing of this poetic school.
The weakest area in our knowledge continues to be the compilation of the cancioneros, the relationship between them, and their modes of circulation. In this context, I believe it useful to focus my study on their genetic typology: the provenance of the materials they gathered, their organizational techniques, and the light they shed upon the diflfusion of poetry in the fifteenth century. In his prelimary study, Aubrun remarked upon the existence of four sections of anonymous poems.
These he attributed to the compiler himself, whom he identified as the Navarrese nobleman Hugo de Urries be- cause of a reference to him in poem no. The first group of anonymous poems begins with no. But the limits of the present study prevent me from doing this. For a review of the very positive developments in recent years, see the Bole- tin Bibliogrdfico de la AsociaciSn Hispdnica de Literatura Medieval. The published proceedings of this association are the most important forum for recent trends in fifteenth-century studies in general and the lyric in particular.
Most of these studies and publications continue to focus on the same authors who attracted scholariy attention a hundred years ago: apart from the inevitable Manriques, SantiUana, and Mena, we again encounter Anton de Montoro, Juan Rodriguez del Padron, or Fernando de la Torre, while authors as innovative or culturally representative as Cartagena still he dormant in the cancioneros.
Other lyric poets have attracted some attention because they cultivated other literary genres: Diego de San Pedro and Juan del Encina are typical. Suffice it to say that Dutton attributes this composition to the author of nos. Nonetheless, it would be dangerous to attribute the first long series of anonymous poems in LB2 up to and including no. As I have said, the editor based his identification on the self-reference in no. This evidence leads us to doubt that we are faced with a compact group of poems attributable to a single poet.
Nor do I believe it possible to attribute to the compiler the second group of compositions. Anonymous and unique. The author refers to himself in the text of the poem. Henceforth, I shall take into account the cancioneros in which each composition appears, since this can help us trace their origin.
But how could he have forgotten that he had already copied out one of his own poems? Moreover, if compiler and author were one and the same, he probably resorted to this very same cancionero to gather his own compositions, which would have made repetition impossible. The third group is very problematic. On the other hand, the coincidence between this section and the cancionero of the Biblioteca Estense de Modena MEl suggests that both go back to a common source.
In any case, 69 Anonymous. MP4a poem 24 70—75 Anonymous and unique.
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MP4a poem Throughout this section, MHl differs from all other surviving witnesses. In this cancionero it appears in the midst of a group of canciones that are documented only here, attributed to various authors. As for the fourth group identified by Aubrun, it simply does not exist. In other words, it faithfiiUy continues the previous part of the candonero, a diverse group of works that do not con- stitute a cohesive whole.
Their dual status as anonymous and unique poems within the corpus invites this hypothesis, alongside the fact that, as Aubrun says, "les poetes qui rompent a la fin ou au milieu I'anonymat de ces series, appartiennent Whether these poems are by Hugo de Urries or not, everything indicates that the Candonero de Herberay was the most elaborate representative of a characteristic type: anthologies that combine well- known works with others that survive in single copies. I believe we are deal- ing with compositions from the compiler's own literary circle, probably by dif- ferent authors, whose identities are not made explicit precisely because they would have been obvious.
In this regard, the relation between LB2 and other candoneros becomes especially significant, in particular the connection with MEl. Between no. Blank folio. Final folio recto and verso with the opening stanzas of the Trescientas. Aubrun offers a convincing explanation for this: in , the marques de Monferrato married Maria de Navarra, the same woman eulogized by Juan de Valladolid in the cancionero's final section no.
Firstly, if this were the case, we would not be able to explain the eulogy of the infanta Maria; secondly, poem , by Macias, is acephalous in LB2 but complete in MEl. It would make no sense for the works of Torrellas and Juan de Mena which MEl places in this sequence at the head of the collection to appear in LB2 at the very end and in no special order. The main body of the cancionero ends on folio 21 Iv, a large part of which is blank. Also left blank is folio r— v, but on the next and last leaf a later hand, which is much neater and with marked humanistic features, copied the start of Mena's Trescientas.
The only surprising thing is that the eulogies of Princess Maria, who caused the relationship between the two MSS, do not appear in MEl. Their conclusions coincide with my own survey of the extant verse of SantUlana. The common errors in both witnesses and Perez Priego's critical apparatus for the "Querella de amor" reveal that whereas MEl reads "crueldad e gran tormento" in 1. Therefore, one can reject the dependence of LB2 on MEl.
In the text of the "Infiemo de los enamorados," the same situation frequendy occurs Stanzas from the Vita Christi also appear in the final folios of BC3 97vv , and in those of LB2 the dedicatory stanzas of the Laberinto de Fortuna were copied out in a different hand. This is to say, we cannot exclude the hypothesis that various individuals or even literary courts gradually left their mark in various parts of the cancionero. Consider how some of the material that makes up the second group of anonymous poems is common to the oldest section of the Cancionero musical de Palacio and that the third part influenced the Cancionero de la Biblioteca Estense de Modena and to a lesser extent SA7 see the description of each of these sections in the relevant note.
The material being circulated, as this example demonstrates, were groups of poems and not a large cancionero nor individual compositions. The compiler first gathered the poetic production of the Navarrese court, inspired probably by the desire to preserve the panegyrics of the princess Leonor. That was the source of the texts that Aubrun classified as the two groups of anonymous poems. In this phase, he must have already drawn on a booklet produced elsewhere and from which he took poems 49 to He must have had at his disposal contributions of the highest quality, because in this section he also included a group of poems unknown to other textual witnesses, among which were preserved, for exam- ple, single copies of poems by Juan de Mena.
Later, he would have laid his hands on a cancionero that provided at least some of the poems up to no. It was probably an excellent cancionero, though not very long, linked to the Aragonese family, which gave him the necessary material to convert that em- bryonic collection into something grander, something capable of combining the initial nucleus with a significant sampUng of fifteenth-century verse. Maria de Foix's connections with the House of Monferrato made it possible for this cancionero to reach northern Italy as well. Even later, a few compositions were added at the end; also unique, they are eulogies of this same princess from the court of Navarre.
Finally, after a blank leaf, which was probably left free for further additions, a scribe copied the opening of the Laberinto de Fortuna. Moreover, this copy is of high quality and copied uniformly, which indicates that it was not the work of an amateur, but a more cultured product, attribut- able to the court of Navarre itself. In this type of cancionero, the compilers superimposed strata from different origins. On the one hand, there were poems that reached them through the usual channels of cancionero lyric which are admittedly still to be studied in detail : generally classics Mena, Santillana, Gomez Manrique, the Vita Christi, Fernan Perez de Guzman, Torrellas, and sometimes Villasandino or Macias or booklets produced in the prestigious creative centers of the Castilian and Aragonese courts.
On the other hand, they took advantage of works composed in their own circle, gathered by the author himself or his protege. On the whole, poems that survive in single copies are common only in certain major can- cioneros, which frequently share a high number of works that, judging by their sequence and readings, go back to a common source as in the cases of PN8 and PN Nevertheless, cancioneros are often structured around an initial core made up of texts preserved by a single or almost single witness and strongly influenced by the collector's taste and interests.
In the first fols. In the second fols. Aubrun uses it to justify his attribution of the anonymous poems to Hugo de Urries, but it has been applied in other contexts. Whinnom , for example, believed that the brief sentimental romance that he published under the tide La coronaciSn de la senora Gracisla could be ascribed to the primitive compiler of Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid, MS.
On 25 February 25 the treaty of Vilafranca forced Juan II to recognize all his rights, in addition to conceding a large part of his claim to rule in Cataluna, and on 23 September of that year the prince died Vicens Vives , It is, in short, a substantial cancionero: doctrinal verse predominates, but it also includes the central texts of the fifteenth-century poetic school, with no attempt at sys- tematic arrangement but with two general common traits: the connection of works and authors to the poUtical and literary circle of the Aragonese party, and its didactic character discussed below , except for the final section de- voted to Anton de Montoro.
Although beginning a cancionero with a group of unique poems was not the most common procedure, it was the most personal one. On other occasions, the initial inspiration was a preexisting poetic anthology. The perfect example of this is the Pequeno cancionero del Marques de la Romana MN15 , which opens with a selection firom the Cancionero de Baena. Another typical example of this model — though an extraordinarily ambitious one — can be seen in COl, the bulk of which is made up of a generous selec- tion of poets from the first half of the fifteenth century: Santillana, Mena, Lope de Stuiiiga, etc.
Although the current state of research does not always allow us to reconstruct the immediate model the Pequeno cancionero is an exception , there is no doubt that this is the most frequent mode of compilation we encounter. Other cancioneros follow a simpler scheme. Many are the manuscripts that contain exclusively one or two long poems and they are usually the same ones , such as Las siete edades del mundo, whose textual history has been traced by Sconza In short, cancioneros structured around a single poetic unit are remarkably numerous. A later hand copied out a poem by Boscan.
For its relations with the Cancionero de Baena, see Alberto Blecua In the same way, Santillana's Bias contra Fortuna is associated with another common basic text, Fernan Perez de Guzman's Vicios y virtudes, to begin MNIO, and other poems by this author were later added to make up an anthology of quite healthy proportions. ML2 leads off with Mena's Coronacion, continues with a miscellaneous prose section, and closes with the Trescientas. A copy of the Vita Christi laid the basis for an extensive anthology of pious verse occupying up to one hundred and forty-three folios MLl ; to the Fundacion de Espaha was added a selection of Mena's verse, including the Laberinto and sections devoted to Gomez Manrique, Fernan Perez de Guzman, and other odd poems MMl ; a manuscript as open-ended and as complex as the Cancionero de Gallardo MN17; Azaceta starts with a copy of one of those poems that often circulated individually: the Coplas de la Panadera, whose transmission has been studied by Elia In all these instances, cancioneros of quite distinct conception and scope seem to have been fabricated around an initial nucleus formed by a long work that circulated independently.
The collected works of individual poets could also provide the core of a new cancionero. It is true that the works of Santillana or Gomez Manrique did not give rise to larger collections, perhaps because in the period collective cancioneros are scarce. This system is also the norm in the anthologies of the Provencal troubadours and even the French trouveres see Crespo I am not concerned here only with those cancioneros that bear the stamp of a particular identity.
Others are elaborated on the basis of a longer work that is used as a foun- dation. These, in conclusion, are the most common procedures for starting to compile a new cancionero. Their subsequent growth could follow various paths. Finally, I should like to emphasize that what nowadays seems to be the initial nucleus of a cancionero can in fact be the product of later textual, or even codicological, additions.
Merce Lopez Casas is about to present a doctoral thesis on Perez de Guzman that will shed further light on this kind of problem. Although the manuscript appears to be fairly uniform, and possibly the work of a single copyist, a more detailed study reveals certain changes, sometimes quite distinct ones, both in the tone of the ink and in the style of the hand, which might be explained as the result of sporadic work over a long period by the same person or possibly even be due to the intervention of two copyists.
What is important to stress here is that the first folio is written in the same style of hand as folios vr and rr, while foUos 2r-3r, written out in a much neater and more humanistic hand, seem somewhat out of place. Since there are no flyleaves, I suspect that folio 1 was originally left blank and that it was later used to copy a poem concerning events relating to Carlos de Viana that linked the contents of the following two folios.
At the firont of this, were added two booklets foliated A-L and M-T. The first begins with a privilege of Fernando I de Aragon awarding forty florins to the Consistorio de la Gaya Ciencia; after two blank folios, there is a group of three works on the imprisonment of Carlos de Viana. The second booklet contains the manuscript's table of contents and a new composition.
The cancionero properly speaking begins with the following booklet, which is foliated in continuous roman numerals throughout the whole collection. In each of these cases, the addition of a booklet to be used either partially or in whole as a table of contents left room for the insertion of all kinds of texts.
A type of sword, which I have not been able to identify, is found in folio S of the second quire and in quires 6, 8, 10, as well as other odd folios. The measurements, how- ever, are identical. The MS, therefore, is constructed as a single unit, and the only reason for having left this section blank was simply to allow space for the index.
There are manuscripts that indicate that they grew by simple means: by the addition of preexisting collections without any apparent selection of material in the strict sense. The compiler possibly tried to revise the material in such a way as to avoid duplicating texts, but as often happens, he inadvertently repeated some poems in the two sections. Both units are so long and complex that we can scarcely imagine the compiler setting himself any other task than to suppress repeated poems, even though he was unable to carry this out. The joining together of the two parts is perfectly visible both in the codicological structure and in the type of paper.
PN6, for instance, after a section devoted to Fernan Perez de Guzman, incorporates an anthology that combines works of this author with those of Mena and Santillana but continues with a strange hodgepotch in which Santillana rubs shoulders with Villasandino, the marquis of Astorga, and Juan Alvarez Gato. PN5 also starts off with the work of Fernan Perez de Guzman but then combines verse by Gomez Manri- que, Juan de Mena, and other poets from the Aragonese court, some of which goes back to the archetype of the Italian family Varvaro , The second section of BMl is made up of a selection of verse by Mena, Gomez Manrique, and Juan Rodriguez del Padron, which also as far as the current state of textual criticism allows us to deduce can be linked to this same family of cancioneros.
A strikingly different case is LB3, which was extended by adding works that seem to have quite varied origins and textual traditions; next to these are works surviving in single copies. Then follows another section of religious verse, all in single surviving anonymous copies fols. The remainder is an anthology of didactic verse which con- cludes with some poems by Montoro fols.
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The combination of unique texts, in prose and verse, and well-known and widely disseminated works recalls the Cancionero de Herberay. The first is an anthology of the Ara- gonese family fols. The second part contains a bundle of poems that were not widely circu- lated and are attributed to Roman, Juan Alvarez Gato, Fadrique Manrique, and Guevara.
See the editions and notes of Ciceri and Rodriguez Puertolas , no. With respect to Guevara, unfortunately we still lack a detailed study, in spite of his undoubted interest for the development of late fifteenth-century verse. The rubric of one of his poems seems to be datable to the end of , when Prince Alfonso traveled from Arevalo to Ocaria Suarez Fernandez , : "Otras suyas a vna partida que el rey don Alfonso hizo de Areualo" Foulche-Delbosc , no.
This trip took place around the middle of December, since at that time King Enrique was in Madrid, according to Galindez de Carvajal ed. Torres Fontes , , and the latter is documented as being in that town from between 15 December and 17 May Torres Fontes , The tide of King given to Alfonso excludes the possibihty that the rubric refers to another stay in Arevalo the previous year Torres Fontes , Guevara had probably been in the service of Enrique IV even earher, if the poem "O desastrada ventura" refers to the meeting held in Guadalupe in between Enrique, Princess Isabel, and Alfonso V of Portugal.
It is also probable that his Sepultura de amor was even earlier than this Rennert , no. Apart from knowing that in the Castihan civil wars this family always fought on the side of the Infantes de Aragon, we know that Pedro Manrique, the eldest son of the count of Paredes and Fadrique's elder brother, took part in the negotiations that led to the pardon of Juan de Cardona's rebellion by Juan II of Aragon, in Valencia, Salazar y Castro , X, ch. Ill; and Zurita , hb. XVIII, ch. In principle, I accept this attribution although not everyone does; see Aubrun , Ixvii- Ixxii.
We need to respect archival documents, which are the only nonliterary evidence we possess. Cancioneros also grow through the addition of material that, as in the cases of LB2 and LB3, could be unique, sometimes anonymous, texts that were probably the products of the compiler's own circle. The Pequeno cancionero of the Marques de la Romana selects verse from the Cancionero de Baena and then includes six poems by Beltran de la Cueva; this is his only known work, leav- ing aside the single inuencion found in LBl no. The Cancionero del marques de Barberd follows an anthology of Mena's verse and the Siete gozos de amor by Juan Rodriguez de Padron with three anonymous and unique poems on folio 22r— V, which are then followed by more of Mena's verse and one composition by Gomez Manrique.
PMl, after extracting poems from the Aragonese archetype usually known as the Italian family , continues with three anonymous unique poems fols. After the Coplas de la Panadera and Petrarch's Triunfos translated by Alvar Gomez de Guadalajara, there is a group of anonymous poems that could be attributed to this same writer; then, folios 26r— 29r contain three works attributed to the bachiller De la Torre and a friend of his, followed by some stanzas by Sem Tob, one poem attributed to Soria though not the one who figures in the Cancio- nero general , and a few more that might also be by him, among which may be found an anonymous poem under the rubric "Qelos de una dama a un cavalle- ro" no.
In aU these cases, the amplification of the cancionero entails the inclusion of unique, often anonymous, poems among texts that were widely disseminated. The compiler would gradually have strung together the pliegos folios as they came into his possession. Sometimes, they contained well-known works, cho- sen firom a large anthology, or even whole sections of one; at other times, we are probably dealing with booklets that derived firom the authors themselves or their dedicatees; in certain cases the compiler would have included works whose author is not specified, although he perhaps knew him.
When we are dealing with texts that did not circulate widely, as in the case of the Cancionero paid from the customs; this was the case of even such a high-ranking figure in the service of Alfonso el Magnanimo as Antonio Beccadelli el Panormita, who ako started out with a position in customs Ruiz y Calonja , —42, especially In fact, the only obstacle in the way of this attribution is the chronology: to is a considerable period but not inconceivable for a man who earned a living fi'om letters.
At the moment, I am not especially interested in whether or not the interpolations were made at the same time as the manuscript was copied, or if they were later additions on blank leaves, since in the final analysis both procedures enrich the collection with the owner's original contributions. This modus operandi can be reconstructed in the successive development of the anthologies printed in Zaragoza by Paulo Hums and Hans Planck, who started off from an edition of the Vita Christi by Fray Ifiigo de Mendoza.
Perez Gomez Perez Gomez showed that it was an exact copy of Centenera's first edition 82IM but with errors, the most serious of which was the loss of one page. Perhaps the Zaragoza printers had also seen the pliego of the Regimiento de principes, which they decided to add to that simple selection of Mendoza's work. When the copy was already at press, and at the moment of binding it, they altered the order of the booklets and inter- posed a terrible edition of Manrique's Coplas between the SermSn trobado and the Regimiento de principes. The gradual expansion of the anthology is the only argument adduced by Perez Gomez and subsequendy Whinnom to identify the printers of the edition as Paulo Hurus and Hans Planck, Zaragoza, c.
For example, it was reprinted with many errors, perhaps by Friedrich Biel, Burgos, c.
I have studied its text of Manrique's Coplas and its relation to earlier editions Beltran , So as to underscore its strikingly original character, he suppressed the Vita Christi, even though he preserved various compositions collected by Centenera: the Dechado and the Coplas a las mujeres by Fray liiigo, Mena's Coplas contra los pecados mortales with Gomez Manrique's continuation, Jorge Manrique's Que cosa es amor and his Coplas although this time his text does not come from Centenera, who had published an excellent edition, but firom the same archetype of the earlier edition published by Paulo Hums and Hans Planck.
This wide selection of pious and doctrinal verse concludes with a unique poem ascribed to Fray Gauberte, who can be identified as the Aragonese chronicler Fray Gauberte Fabricio de Vagad, the future collaborator of these editors Romero Tobar Paulo Hurus published a new poetic anthology that drew on the editorial experience of earlier ones but which was enriched by numerous fine woodcuts and whose text was far more carefully produced, to judge by the attention given to Manrique's Coplas, of which he knew two editions, 92VC and 95 VC.
From the earlier Cancionero de Llavia he took over Manrique's Coplas, in a new edition revised on the basis of the same Zaragoza archetype as the preceding ones, and the poem by Ervias, and he completed the volume with San Pedro's Pasion trouada and Siete angustias de Nuestra Senora and one new poem by Fray Juan de Ciudad Rodrigo, which would be frequently republished in the years to fol- low ID Although the volume concluded with another popular work by Fernan Perez de Guzman ID , he inserted four poems that were probably unique: the Resurreccidn de Nuestro Salvador by Pedro Jimenez fols.
Pedro Vindel and is all but unknown to scholars of this period. Book is bilingual in Italian and English. Video tape is closed captioned in English. This is the February, edition. Includes a VHS tape and book covering the sights and sounds of Italy. A colorful way to learn common Italian greetings Better than a flashcard, perfect for your Italian language books or travel guides. These colorful bookmarks with Italian words and images of Italian ci Some languages, e. A partitive article is used and in French, required whenever a bare noun refers to specific but unspecified or unknown quantity of the noun, but not when a bare noun refers to a class in general.
For example, the partitive would be used in both of the following sentences:. The sentence "Men arrived today", however, presumably means "some specific men arrived today" rather than "men, as a general class, arrived today" which would mean that there were no men before today. On the other hand, "I hate men" does mean "I hate men, as a general class" rather than "I hate some specific men".
As in many other cases, French has developed the farthest from Latin in its use of articles. In French, nearly all nouns, singular and plural, must be accompanied by an article either indefinite, definite, or partitive or demonstrative pronoun. In more conservative Romance languages, neither articles nor subject pronouns are necessary, since all of the above words are pronounced differently. Such forms were often created even when not strictly needed to distinguish otherwise ambiguous forms.
Subsequent changes often reduced the number of demonstrative distinctions. Standard Italian, for example, has only a two-way distinction "this" vs. The passive voice, which was mostly synthetic in classical Latin, has been completely replaced with compound forms. Romance languages have borrowed heavily, though mostly from other Romance languages. However, some, such as Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian, and French, have borrowed heavily from other language groups.
Many Greek loans also entered the lexicon, e. Many basic nouns and verbs, especially those that were short or had irregular morphology, were replaced by longer derived forms with regular morphology. Many prepositions were used as verbal particles to make new roots and verb stems, e. Many prepositions and commonly became compounded, e. Some words derived from phrases, e. A number of common Latin words that have disappeared in many or most Romance languages have survived either in the periphery or in remote corners especially Sardinia and Romania , or as secondary terms, sometimes differing in meaning.
In some cases, one language happens to preserve a word displaced elsewhere, e. Sardinian even preserves some words that were already archaic in Classical Latin, e. In many cases, the learned word simply displaced the original popular word: e. In French, however, the stress of the learned loan may be on the "wrong" syllable, whereas the stress of the inherited word always corresponds to the Latin stress: e. Borrowing from Classical Latin has produced a large number of suffix doublets. Similar examples can be found in all the other Romance languages.
There was a tendency to eliminate final consonants in Vulgar Latin, either by dropping them apocope or adding a vowel after them epenthesis. Many final consonants were rare, occurring only in certain prepositions e. Many of these prepositions and conjunctions were replaced by others, while the nouns were regularized into forms based on their oblique stems that avoided the final consonants e.
As a result, only the following final consonants occurred in Vulgar Latin:. Note how the environments become progressively less "palatal", and the languages affected become progressively fewer. The outcomes of palatalization depended on the historical stage, the consonants involved, and the languages involved. This has the effect of keeping the modern spelling similar to the original Latin spelling, but complicates the relationship between sound and letter. Several other consonants were "softened" in intervocalic position in Western Romance Spanish, Portuguese, French, Northern Italian , but normally not phonemically in the rest of Italy except some cases of "elegant" or Ecclesiastical words , nor apparently at all in Romanian.
The changes instances of diachronic lenition are as follows:. A few languages have regained secondary geminate consonants. During the Proto-Romance period, phonemic length distinctions were lost. Soon, however, many of these vowels coalesced:. Some northern Italian languages e. Friulan still maintain this secondary phonemic length, but most languages dropped it by either diphthongizing or shortening the new long vowels. This vowel length was eventually lost by around AD , but the former long vowels are still marked with a circumflex. This system in turn has been phonemicized in some non-standard dialects e.
A number of authors remarked on this explicitly, e. Metaphony is most extensive in the Italo-Romance languages, and applies to nearly all languages in Italy; however, it is absent from Tuscan, and hence from standard Italian. These diphthongizations had the effect of reducing or eliminating the distinctions between open-mid and close-mid vowels in many languages. In Spanish and Romanian, all open-mid vowels were diphthongized, and the distinction disappeared entirely. Portuguese is the most conservative in this respect, keeping the seven-vowel system more or less unchanged but with changes in particular circumstances, e.
In French and Italian, the distinction between open-mid and close-mid vowels occurred only in closed syllables. Standard Italian more or less maintains this. This is still the situation in modern Spanish, for example. Originally, all vowels in both languages were nasalized before any nasal consonants, and nasal consonants not immediately followed by a vowel were eventually dropped.
In French, nasal vowels before remaining nasal consonants were subsequently denasalized, but not before causing the vowels to lower somewhat, e. In Portugal, vowels before a nasal consonant have become denasalized, but in Brazil they remain heavily nasalized. There was more variability in the result of the unstressed vowels. Originally in Proto-Romance, the same nine vowels developed in unstressed as stressed syllables, and in Sardinian, they coalesced into the same five vowels in the same way.
In Italo-Western Romance, however, vowels in unstressed syllables were significantly different from stressed vowels, with yet a third outcome for final unstressed syllables. This system is still preserved, largely or completely, in all of the conservative Romance languages e. Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan. In final unstressed syllables, results were somewhat complex.
The original five-vowel system in final unstressed syllables was preserved as-is in some of the more conservative central Italian languages, but in most languages there was further coalescence:. Intertonic vowels were the most subject to loss or modification. But many languages ultimately dropped almost all intertonic vowels. The Romance languages for the most part have kept the writing system of Latin, adapting it to their evolution. Catalan eschews importation of "foreign" letters more than most languages. While most of the 23 basic Latin letters have maintained their phonetic value, for some of them it has diverged considerably; and the new letters added since the Middle Ages have been put to different uses in different scripts.
Most languages added auxiliary marks diacritics to some letters, for these and other purposes. The spelling rules of most Romance languages are fairly simple, and consistent within any language. Since the spelling systems are based on phonemic structures rather than phonetics, however, the actual pronunciation of what is represented in standard orthography can be subject to considerable regional variation, as well as to allophonic differentiation by position in the word or utterance.
Among the letters representing the most conspicuous phonological variations, between Romance languages or with respect to Latin, are the following:. Some of the digraphs used in modern scripts are:. Gemination, in the languages where it occurs, is usually indicated by doubling the consonant, except when it does not contrast phonemically with the corresponding short consonant, in which case gemination is not indicated.
Phonemic contrast of geminates vs. The double consonants in French orthography, however, are merely etymological. Romance languages also introduced various marks diacritics that may be attached to some letters, for various purposes. In some cases, diacritics are used as an alternative to digraphs and trigraphs; namely to represent a larger number of sounds than would be possible with the basic alphabet, or to distinguish between sounds that were previously written the same.
Diacritics are also used to mark word stress, to indicate exceptional pronunciation of letters in certain words, and to distinguish words with same pronunciation homophones. Depending on the language, some letter-diacritic combinations may be considered distinct letters, e. The Romance languages do not follow the German practice of capitalizing all nouns including common ones.
However, each language has some exceptions to this general rule. The tables below provide a vocabulary comparison that illustrates a number of examples of sound shifts that have occurred between Latin and Romance languages, along with a selection of minority languages. Words are given in their conventional spellings. In addition, for French the actual pronunciation is given, due to the dramatic differences between spelling and pronunciation. English has developed over the course of more than 1, years. There are more people who have learned it as a second language than there are native speakers.
Although the high degree of influence from these languages on the vocabulary and grammar of Modern English is widely acknowledged, most specialists in language contact do not consider English to be a true mixed language. Old English is very different from Modern English and difficult for 21st-century English speakers to understand. John of Trevisa, ca. By the 12th century Middle English was fully developed, integrating both Norse and Norman features; it continued to be spoken until the transition to early Modern English around In the Middle English period, the use of regional dialects in writing proliferated, and dialect traits were even used for effect by authors such as Chaucer.
The next period in the history of English was Early Modern English — The Great Vowel Shift explains many irregularities in spelling since English retains many spellings from Middle English, and it also explains why English vowel letters have very different pronunciations from the same letters in other languages. Many of the grammatical features that a modern reader of Shakespeare might find quaint or archaic represent the distinct characteristics of Early Modern English.
Commerce, science and technology, diplomacy, art, and formal education all contributed to English becoming the first truly global language. English also facilitated worldwide international communication. A major feature in the early development of Modern English was the codification of explicit norms for standard usage, and their dissemination through official media such as public education and state-sponsored publications.
Within Britain, non-standard or lower class dialect features were increasingly stigmatised, leading to the quick spread of the prestige varieties among the middle classes. Earlier English did not use the word "do" as a general auxiliary as Modern English does; at first it was only used in question constructions where it was not obligatory. Regularisation of irregular forms also slowly continues e. British English is also undergoing change under the influence of American English, fuelled by the strong presence of American English in the media and the prestige associated with the US as a world power.
The countries in which English is spoken can be grouped into different categories by how English is used in each country. English does not belong to just one country, and it does not belong solely to descendants of English settlers. English is an official language of countries populated by few descendants of native speakers of English. Kachru bases his model on the history of how English spread in different countries, how users acquire English, and the range of uses English has in each country.
The three circles change membership over time. Countries with large communities of native speakers of English the inner circle include Britain, the United States, Australia, Canada, Ireland, and New Zealand, where the majority speaks English, and South Africa, where a significant minority speaks English. They have many more speakers of English who acquire English in the process of growing up through day by day use and listening to broadcasting, especially if they attend schools where English is the medium of instruction.
Varieties of English learned by speakers who are not native speakers born to English-speaking parents may be influenced, especially in their grammar, by the other languages spoken by those learners. The standard English of the inner-circle countries is often taken as a norm for use of English in the outer-circle countries. In the three-circles model, countries such as Poland, China, Brazil, Germany, Japan, Indonesia, Egypt, and other countries where English is taught as a foreign language make up the "expanding circle". In these countries, although English is not used for government business, its widespread use puts them at the boundary between the "outer circle" and "expanding circle".
English is unusual among world languages in how many of its users are not native speakers but speakers of English as a second or foreign language. Many users of English in the expanding circle use it to communicate with other people from the expanding circle, so that interaction with native speakers of English plays no part in their decision to use English. Pie chart showing the percentage of native English speakers living in "inner circle" English-speaking countries.
Native speakers are now substantially outnumbered worldwide by second-language speakers of English not counted in this chart. The norms of standard written English are maintained purely by the consensus of educated English-speakers around the world, without any oversight by any government or international organisation.
American listeners generally readily understand most British broadcasting, and British listeners readily understand most American broadcasting. Most English speakers around the world can understand radio programmes, television programmes, and films from many parts of the English-speaking world. Most people learn English for practical rather than ideological reasons.
As decolonisation proceeded throughout the British Empire in the s and s, former colonies often did not reject English but rather continued to use it as independent countries setting their own language policies. While the European Union EU allows member states to designate any of the national languages as an official language of the Union, in practice English is the main working language of EU organisations. In a official Eurobarometer poll, 38 percent of the EU respondents outside the countries where English is an official language said they could speak English well enough to have a conversation in that language.
The next most commonly mentioned foreign language, French which is the most widely known foreign language in the UK and Ireland , could be used in conversation by 12 percent of respondents. This has led some scholars to develop the study of English as an auxiliary language. The increased use of the English language globally has had an effect on other languages, leading to some English words being assimilated into the vocabularies of other languages. The pronunciation of vowels varies a great deal between dialects and is one of the most detectable aspects of a speaker's accent.
The vowels are represented with symbols from the International Phonetic Alphabet; those given for RP are standard in British dictionaries and other publications.
NEO-ROMANTIC POETRY I. Italian - English/ Inglese - Italiano.
In GA, vowel length is non-distinctive. Because lenis consonants are frequently voiceless at the end of a syllable, vowel length is an important cue as to whether the following consonant is lenis or fortis. An English syllable includes a syllable nucleus consisting of a vowel sound. Syllable onset and coda start and end are optional. The consonants that may appear together in onsets or codas are restricted, as is the order in which they may appear. Clusters of obstruents always agree invoicing, and clusters of sibilants and of plosives with the same point of articulation are prohibited.
Stress is a combination of duration, intensity, vowel quality, and sometimes changes in pitch. Stress is also used to distinguish between words and phrases, so that a compound word receives a single stress unit, but the corresponding phrase has two: e. Stressed syllables are pronounced longer, but unstressed syllables syllables between stresses are shortened. Varieties of English vary the most in pronunciation of vowels.
Some differences between the various dialects are shown in the table "Varieties of Standard English and their features". English distinguishes at least seven major word classes: verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs, determiners including articles , prepositions, and conjunctions. Some analyses add pronouns as a class separate from nouns, and subdivide conjunctions into subordinators and coordinators, and add the class of interjections.
The seven word classes are exemplified in this sample sentence: . English nouns are only inflected for number and possession. New nouns can be formed through derivation or compounding. Mass nouns can only be pluralised through the use of a count noun classifier, e. Orthographically the possessive -s is separated from the noun root with an apostrophe. They can also include modifiers such as adjectives e. Regardless of length, an NP functions as a syntactic unit. A definite noun is assumed by the speaker to be already known by the interlocutor, whereas an indefinite noun is not specified as being previously known.
The noun must agree with the number of the determiner, e. Determiners are the first constituents in a noun phrase. Adjectives modify a noun by providing additional information about their referents. In English, adjectives come before the nouns they modify and after determiners. English pronouns conserve many traits of case and gender inflection. The reflexive pronouns are used when the oblique argument is identical to the subject of a phrase e. Prepositional phrases PP are phrases composed of a preposition and one or more nouns, e.
Prepositions have a wide range of uses in English. They are used to describe movement, place, and other relations between different entities, but they also have many syntactic uses such as introducing complement clauses and oblique arguments of verbs. Traditionally words were only considered prepositions if they governed the case of the noun they preceded, for example causing the pronouns to use the objective rather than subjective form, "with her", "to me", "for us".
English verbs are inflected for tense and aspect and marked for agreement with third person singular subject. Auxiliary verbs differ from other verbs in that they can be followed by the negation, and in that they can occur as the first constituent in a question sentence. Most verbs have six inflectional forms. The primary forms are a plain present, a third person singular present, and a preterite past form.
The secondary forms are a plain form used for the infinitive, a gerund-participle and a past participle. English has two primary tenses, past preterit and non-past. English does not have a morphologised future tense. I was running , and compound tenses such as preterite perfect I had been running and present perfect I have been running. There is also a subjunctive and an imperative mood, both based on the plain form of the verb i. Finite verbal clauses are those that are formed around a verb in the present or preterit form.
In clauses with auxiliary verbs, they are the finite verbs and the main verb is treated as a subordinate clause. The phrase then functions as a single predicate.
In terms of intonation the preposition is fused to the verb, but in writing it is written as a separate word. Instead, they consider the construction simply to be a verb with a prepositional phrase as its syntactic complement, i. The function of adverbs is to modify the action or event described by the verb by providing additional information about the manner in which it occurs.
In most sentences, English only marks grammatical relations through word order. The example below demonstrates how the grammatical roles of each constituent is marked only by the position relative to the verb:. An exception is found in sentences where one of the constituents is a pronoun, in which case it is doubly marked, both by word order and by case inflection, where the subject pronoun precedes the verb and takes the subjective case form, and the object pronoun follows the verb and takes the objective case form.
The example below demonstrates this double marking in a sentence where both object and subject is represented with a third person singular masculine pronoun:. In English a sentence may be composed of one or more clauses, that may, in turn, be composed of one or more phrases e. A clause is built around a verb and includes its constituents, such as any NPs and PPs.
Within a sentence, one clause is always the main clause or matrix clause whereas other clauses are subordinate to it. Subordinate clauses may function as arguments of the verb in the main clause. English syntax relies on auxiliary verbs for many functions including the expression of tense, aspect, and mood. Auxiliary verbs form main clauses, and the main verbs function as heads of a subordinate clause of the auxiliary verb. Passive constructions also use auxiliary verbs.
A passive construction rephrases an active construction in such a way that the object of the active phrase becomes the subject of the passive phrase, and the subject of the active phrase is either omitted or demoted to a role as an oblique argument introduced in a prepositional phrase.
To whose house did you go last night? Because of the strict SVO syntax, the topic of a sentence generally has to be the grammatical subject of the sentence. In cases where the topic is not the grammatical subject of the sentence, frequently the topic is promoted to subject position through syntactic means.
Through the use of these complex sentence constructions with informationally vacuous subjects, English is able to maintain both a topic-comment sentence structure and a SVO syntax. Discourse markers are often the first constituents in sentences.
While discourse markers are particularly characteristic of informal and spoken registers of English, they are also used in written and formal registers. Due to its status as an international language, English adopts foreign words quickly, and borrows vocabulary from many other sources. Many statements published before the end of the 20th century about the growth of English vocabulary over time, the dates of first use of various words in English, and the sources of English vocabulary will have to be corrected as new computerised analysis of linguistic corpus data becomes available. English forms new words from existing words or roots in its vocabulary through a variety of processes.
English, besides forming new words from existing words and their roots, also borrows words from other languages. This adoption of words from other languages is commonplace in many world languages, but English has been especially open to borrowing of foreign words throughout the last 1, years. But one of the consequences of long language contact between French and English in all stages of their development is that the vocabulary of English has a very high percentage of "Latinate" words derived from French, especially, and also from Latin and other Romance languages.
French words from various periods of the development of French now make up one-third of the vocabulary of English. English has also borrowed many words directly from Latin, the ancestor of the Romance languages, during all stages of its development. Latin or Greek are still highly productive sources of stems used to form vocabulary of subjects learned in higher education such as the sciences, philosophy, and mathematics. English has a strong influence on the vocabulary of other languages.
Among varieties of English, it is especially American English that influences other languages. The great majority of literary works in Old English that survive to today are written in the Roman alphabet. These situations have prompted proposals for spelling reform in English.
Although letters and speech sounds do not have a one-to-one correspondence in standard English spelling, spelling rules that take into account syllable structure, phonetic changes in derived words, and word accent are reliable for most English words. For the vowel sounds of the English language, however, correspondences between spelling and pronunciation are more irregular.
The consequence of this complex orthographic history is that learning to read can be challenging in English. It can take longer for school pupils to become independently fluent readers of English than of many other languages, including Italian, Spanish, and German. The purpose of punctuation is to mark meaningful grammatical relationships in sentences to aid readers in understanding a text and to indicate features important for reading a text aloud.
As the place where English first evolved, the British Isles, and particularly England, are home to the most diverse dialects. The spread of RP also known as BBC English through the media has caused many traditional dialects of rural England to recede, as youths adopt the traits of the prestige variety instead of traits from local dialects. Nonetheless this attrition has mostly affected dialectal variation in grammar and vocabulary, and in fact, only 3 percent of the English population actually speak RP, the remainder speaking regional accents and dialects with varying degrees of RP influence.
Having been the centre of Danish occupation during the Viking Invasions, Northern English dialects, particularly the Yorkshire dialect, retain Norse features not found in other English varieties. Since the 15th century, southeastern England varieties centred around London, which has been the centre from which dialectal innovations have spread to other dialects. The spread of Cockney features across the south-east led the media to talk of Estuary English as a new dialect, but the notion was criticised by many linguists on the grounds that London had influencing neighbouring regions throughout history.
Scots itself has a number of regional dialects. North American English is fairly homogeneous compared to British English. AAVE is commonly stigmatised in North America as a form of "broken" or "uneducated" English, as are white Southern accents, but linguists today recognise both as fully developed varieties of English with their own norms shared by a large speech community. Additionally, some new words and collocations have emerged from the language, which come from the need to express concepts specific to the culture of the nation e.
Over million population of Nigerians speak English. Each of these areas are home both to a local variety of English and a local English based creole, combining English and African languages. Most Caribbean varieties are based on British English and consequently, most are non-rhotic, except for formal styles of Jamaican English which are often rhotic.