Note: Some verbs have two Past Participles, one regular and one irregular. The regular form is used when the auxiliary verbs is ter or haver, and the irregular form when the auxiliary verb is ser or estar:. The direct object became the subject. The subject became the agent of the action introduced by the preposition por. The past participle agrees in gender and number with the subject.
In principle, all sentences in the Active Voice can be replaced by an equivalent with the verb in the Passive Voice. The preference is determined by matters of style and emphasis, just like in English. For that reason, some of the examples below may seem somewhat strange to a native speaker. They are provided here merely as an illustration.
Here are a few examples of Active Voice sentences followed by their Passive Voice equivalent: Present. Present Perfect. Past Perfect. Present Subjunctive. We shall go to Paris next summer. He was eaten by a shark. I was listening to music. O navio vai partir. The boat is going to leave. Viemos visitar-te. We came to see you. Impersonal verbs do not have a subject and are invariably used in the third person singular. They are usually related to nature:.
There are two groups of defective verbs. Estes peixes comem-se. Estes peixes comem-se uns aos outros. Ontem fui a Lisboa. I went to Lisbon yesterday. He is quite nice. Elas foram muito depressa. They went very quickly. Infelizmente choveu o dia todo. Unfortunately it rained all day long. Adverbs are invariable: that is, they do not vary according to the gender, number or person of the word they are modifying. Pouco se sabe deste compositor. Little is known of this composer. Adverbs may also consist of more than one word:. Eu vivo mais longe do que tu. I live further away than you.
She lives as far away as I do. You live closer than we do. Note: There are adverbs with special comparative forms:. The two elements of these clauses are independent of each other and could even be separated by punctuation:. He has neither money nor job. I did not call because I did not have the time.
As it was raining we stayed in. As much as you try, you will not convince me to go by plane. Unless it rains, we will have a picnic tomorrow. O rapaz caiu de tal maneira que teve que ser levado para o hospital. The boy fell in such a way that he had to be taken to hospital. Note: Subordinating conjunctions are placed at the beginning of the clause they introduce.
See 3. Help me wash the car. You forgot to turn off the light. I like learning Portuguese. I am asking you to pay attention. Preciso de ir ao supermercado. B I need to go to the supermarket. It takes a verb in the third person singular:. Aonde vai aquela gente toda?
Where are all those people going? The people of Oporto are very nice. It is followed by a verb in the third person singular:B. Where are you going? It can be used with isto, isso and aquilo but never with a noun:. This is for you. It is a machine to make bread. It is for you to eat fresh bread every day. Both a and para convey the idea of movement towards, but a implies a short stay whereas para implies a relatively long or permanent stay:B.
I am going to Brazil on business and I am coming back soon. Eu vou para o Brasil. I am going to Brazil one assumes that I do not know when I am coming back. Venho desde Leiria com os pneus em baixo. Since Leiria my tyres have been going down. De Maio em diante o tempo vai melhorar. From May onwards, the weather is going to improve. There are no classes next month. In July I said that there would be no classes the following month. Ela escreveu-me uma carta.
She wrote me a letter. Ela telefonou-me e escreveu-me uma carta. B She phoned me and wrote me a letter. She did not phone but wrote me a letter. Note: With compound tenses, pronouns are placed after the auxiliary verb:. Note: With the Future Indicative or the Conditional pronouns are placed between the stem and the ending:. She did not write me a letter. Someone wrote me a letter.
I do not mind going to Japan or China. My car is white. He was very rushed. She felt very bad. Ontem fui a um concerto. Yesterday I went to a concert. Fui a um concerto ontem. I went to a concert yesterday. O castelo de S. Note: Some adverbs placed before the verb can add emphasis:. He tries very hard to please everybody. Ela sempre inventa uma desculpa.
She always makes up an excuse. But the adverb sempre can be a sentence adverb if placed before the verb, thus modifying the whole sentence:. However, if the indirect object or the two objects are replaced by pronouns, their order is altered. In a main clause or a question not introduced by an interrogative, the pronoun is attracted to the verb and linked to it by a hyphen:.
In a subordinate or dependent clause, in a question introduced by an interrogative, or in the presence of a negative, the pronoun is still attracted to the verb, but precedes it:. Paula Rego is a Portuguese painter who is living in London. Judite was always very pretty, but she looks beautiful in her wedding photos. Summer in the Alentejo is usually hot but this year it is scorchingly hot.
In an effort to make this section as clear and succinct as possible, the basic expressions are given, followed by a brief explanation and examples often in the form of a short dialogue. As in the previous section, a translation is provided for all examples. Welcome to Viana do Castelo! Bem-vindo a nossa casa. Welcome to our house. The Committee wishes to welcome its new members. A general farewell formula, adeus can be used on its own or combined with other farewell formulas. On its own, it implies a longer parting until speakers meet again.
Have a good trip! See you later! B Bye! Before leaving, I want to say goodbye to all my friends. I want to say goodbye to your parents. We wish to bid farewell to the Reception Committee and thank them for a wonderful stay. Coimbra tem mais encanto na hora da despedida. Coimbra is more charming when you are about to leave. Good morning!
Bom dia! I prefer the other paper. Good evening. What time is it? It is 8. A cup of coffee and a glass of water. Pay very good attention do not ignore me, this, etc. Olha aqui! Look here! What does this mean? Olha bem aqui! What do you really want? They can be followed by instructions, which are given with a Subjunctive as they have the function of commands.
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Happy birthday! Women may kiss each other instead of shaking hands. Will you introduce me to your friends? I have the pleasure of introducing an old college friend. Pleased to meet you. The pleasure is all mine. Yesterday I was introduced to the Director. Where are you going tonight? We are going to the cinema. Do you want to come as well? If the subject needs to be stated, then use the name of the person being spoken to, as if it were a pronoun.
As a rule, women are never addressed by their surname. Pode dar-nos boleia para o cinema? It is very kind of you Silva to invite us. Can you give us a lift to the cinema? You boys and girls sit here whilst Miss Fernanda is buying the museum tickets. Do you ladies know at what time the visit ends? It is at the end on your right. In the antechamber you Reverend father must ask to be announced to His Eminence.
Note: The full title is used in formal occasions and in writing. In everyday communication the initial Sr. Other titles and formal forms of address:.
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Any titles and forms of address with Vossa change into Sua when used as third person see the dialogue in Has Dr Lemos already arrived? Not yet. He is not in either. He was called to a meeting with the Minister for Public Works. Have you got someone to take you home, grandma? Perhaps I could go with your uncle Armando and aunt Lita. Can you uncle and aunt take grandma home? All right. How are you? Well, thank you. Very well. Fairly well. Menos mal. B The expressions suggested above are used after an initial exchange of greet- 3 ings. This is a favourite topic for conversation in Portuguese.
Can I. Should I. Tenho que. Do I have to. Tenho que tomar.
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Must I take. Quantas vezes ao dia? How many times a day? Lisboa, o Algarve, a Madeira This is. Lisbon, the Algarve, Madeira. It is in Minho. Where is the castle situated? In the centre of town. What is the castle like? It is very old with thick stone walls. What are the streets like? Where are you from? And where is your colleague from? Is that where Port comes from?
It comes from the region around Viseu. Note: Viver is more general and can refer to the country, region, city or address where one lives. If in doubt, use viver as you have a greater chance of being correct. In Brazil, however, morar is more frequently used. Do you live in Lisbon? No, I live in Oporto. What is your address? And where do your parents live? They live in Marco de Canavezes. What is their address? Most statements about the weather are made with the verb estar because the weather is by its own nature changeable.
Often the continuous form estar a. B is used, as one describes the present weather conditions see With the idiom estar a fazerB it is possible to make a more dynamic description of the weather or even intensify the weather conditions:. The expressions ardente, de derreter, de rachar can further intensify the description of the weather conditions. In the latter cases the preposition de introduces a metaphor.
It was very cold last night. It still gets very cold at night. Yes, but for April they should already be getting warmer. Who is it? Who are the people who have just left? Which is their youngest daughter? The one in the red jacket. Which are the nicest? And what are the next-door neighbours like? Whose briefcase is this? It belongs to Ana Isabel. And what about the glasses? They are also hers. And the gloves, whose are they? Esqueceu-as aqui. He left them behind. But the red ones are mine. What is. B What does your cousin do?
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He is an accountant. And where does he work? He works in a hotel. And your brother? What is his rank? He is a lieutenant. Is your father also in the Navy? No, he is already retired. It is a tart. What is it made of? It is an almond tart. How does one make it? And what dessert is this? They are beaten egg whites boiled in milk, with an egg sauce. Pode-me dizerB. Could you tell me. Importa-se de me dizer. Would you mind telling me. Can you please tell me. Sabe dizer-meB. Note: These phrases usually introduce a question with an interrogative pronoun see section 5. Could you tell me which is the road to Espinho?
Can you please tell me whether there is a petrol station nearby? There is one as you leave town. And could you tell me if it is still open? It is open until 10 p. Would you mind telling me the time? It is 9. Have you got the time? Can you tell me the time? At what time. It is. I have a class at 2 p. The main requirement to perform these functions correctly is to have a good knowledge of verbs, their tenses and the meaning of each tense see Chapter 7. The Present 7. It describes an action that began in the past, has been developing until now and may even continue into the future 7.
The best advice is always to try and think in Portuguese, using as many set phrases, formulas and structures as you have learnt so far, and adapting them to the message you have to communicate. This is particularly important if you are a beginner. Avoid at all costs thinking in your mother tongue and then translating into Portuguese. If you compare the examples we give you in each section and the respective translation, you will notice that you are seldom presented with literal translations. That is because literal translations seldom work.
When I was young we always used to spend the Summer in Mira. We had a house there, near the beach, where there was a huge lagoon and the children could swim and play in safety. A huge wave swept levantou-se um grande over the beach and made the temporal. My younger gigantesca varreu a praia e brother nearly drowned. My chegou a fazer transbordar a 3 parents, who were worried, lagoa. A different sequence of adverbs of place and time, possessives and demonstratives is also required:.
The thief declared that he had not stolen the car. The thief, however, assured him that the jacket in question was not his, stated that it was all a plot to frame him and insisted that the day before he had been at work all the time. Always on the top right-hand side of the page. Write the place, the day in cardinal numbers, the month and the year.
Meu amor. Senhor, 3 Thank you for your letter of Agradecemos a V. We can inform you We would dia 23 do corrente. The weather is Adoro o Recife. See you soon. But we made it clear that all payments had to be made in the correct amount. O senhor falou foi com esta senhora ao lado. No, I was not told anything of the sort. The person you spoke to was this lady next to me. Excuse me, but the voucher is still within the expiry date. You are mistaken, that offer has ended. How is that possible, if the instructions say the opposite?
That is not quite so. The offer is only valid as long as stocks last. What if we had a picnic? Great idea! We could invite the English students. Of course, but we should also invite the other foreign students, as it is an excellent opportunity to socialize with everybody. Do you want me to. Would you like me to. Querem que traga uns pasteis de bacalhau? Can I help?
We can also give you a hand and bring a dessert. Most requests are made with the verb either in the Imperative or in the Present Subjunctive see sections 7. Ana, please bake an almond tart and bring paper napkins. All right, but I want you to tell me how many people you are inviting to the picnic. Do you mind phoning me tomorrow evening? I can tell you then. B David, do you want to come too? Of course I do. Then you are invited.
Can I also invite my sister? With pleasure. Then I accept on her behalf. Que achas que devo fazer? What do you think I should do? If I were you, I would 3 not miss the picnic. Watch out! Be careful because. Quiet words of warning can also be expressed by means of sentences with the verb in the Subjunctive. Such sentences are equivalent to indirect or polite commands or wishes see 7. Do you think so? I thought there was no danger here. Be careful, because the sea here is very strong and the current drags you away.
But I enjoy swimming so much. You have been told. Do not complain later. These instructions are given using sentences with the verb in the Present Subjunctive because these are, in effect, commands. This type of sentence is used in instructions on how to operate equipment, in cooking recipes, advertising, propaganda, etc. See Polvilhe com canela. Put a cupful of rice in a pan and cover it with water. Do not allow it to boil for more than ten minutes. Add lemon rind and salt and now allow to simmer for another 5 to 10 minutes, adding hot milk. When the rice is soft, add a little more sugar than the amount of rice used and allow to simmer a little longer.
Finally, add two dessertspoons of butter, stir until the butter melts, remove from the heat, and pour into a server or a bowl. Sprinkle with cinnamon. Once again, as most of these sentences are equivalent to commands or polite requests, they require the use of the Subjunctive:. Pode s dar uma ajuda? Can you help? Help me wash the car, please. All right, but afterwards you give me a hand in the garden too. Is it compulsory? Does one have to. Do we have to reply to the invitation?
Yes, up until the 15th of the month. Do we have to wear a tie? It is not compulsory, but it would be advisable. Do you need to. Do you need. Do you need any money? Not at the moment, but tomorrow I have to go to the bank because I need to pay my rent. Do you intend to. What do you intend to. Are you determined to. Do you wish to. Do you want to. I want to work in Angola. Are you quite determined to leave Portugal? Yes, I am. I only intend to return at the end of two years. Que achas? In the Summer we could go on a trip to the Amazon.
What do you think? I agree. It is a fantastic idea. Well, I disagree. Discordo plenamente. I thoroughly disagree. What have you got against it? Nem pensar! It is intolerable that tourists like us contribute towards further damaging the environment. Besides, our holidays would be spoilt, trotting about the jungle in unbearable heat. Heaven forbid! Do you know who Dr Sampaio is? Yes, I do. He is a GP in this surgery. Can you tell me whether he has already arrived? Dr Sampaio has been and has already left.
He only sees patients in the morning on Tuesdays. Do you know whether he left a message for me? He told me to come and discuss the result of my tests. Dr Sampaio is not in and he has left no 8 message. Esqueceu-se de. Yes, I remember. I remember. I do not remember. I do not remember at all. I have an idea. I have a vague idea. Do you remember me coming here yesterday to do some shopping? Yes, I remember it well. Do you remember? Eu vim com uma amiga directamente do trabalho. Try to remember. I came directly from work with a friend. We were both wearing our police uniform.
Yes, I seem to remember now. As this is the same as putting forward a hypothesis, a Subjunctive is required see 7. Tenho que estar em Londres na quinta-feira. See what you can do. I have to be in London by Thursday. I am sorry but it is not possible either. Only Thursday morning. I do not understand at all. I do not understand why. Can you repeat it? Can you repeat more slowly? Pode repetir, por favor? I am sorry but I do not understand what you are telling me. Can you repeat it, please? Pode explicar melhor? I still do not understand why the order cannot be delivered today.
Can you explain it better? I wonder whether Joana has already sent the parcel? I doubt it. She said she was not sure whether she would be able to send it the day before yesterday or next week. I am sure she is not going to wait until next week. She knows how urgent it is. Of that I am not so sure. You know how forgetful she is. Ela sempre me pareceu uma pessoa muito organizada. Are you sure? She has always struck me as a very organized person. Tenho tanto prazer em os conhecer. I am delighted you came. I am so pleased to meet you. We love to meet 8 other branches of the family. I do not like it.
I am not very fond of. I do not like it at all. I hate it! What horrid taste! How dreadful! What is it? It is the height of bad taste. It really is a dreadful hat. Where can one wear anything like that? Detesto aquela tia. I hate to be sent stupid and useless presents. I hate that aunt. I am not very fond of her either. What present will she have for me? They are in 5 very soft leather. E gosto deste estilo. Pode 8 mandar embrulhar.
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And I also like this style. You can have them wrapped for me. Do you like. Are you interested in. Would you like. It is interesting. Estou interessado num livro sobre o Brasil. Good morning. I am interested in a book on Brazil. Would you like this one? It is very interesting. It has a lot of information on the best hotels and restaurants. Tenho muita curiosidade pela antropologia do Brasil.
I am not interested in that type of book. I am very keen on Brazilian anthropology. It is a University of Rio publication. No, that one is of no interest at all. Quem diria que o havia de encontrar aqui em 7 Manchester. Who could tell that I would meet you here in Manchester. I hope so! B I do hope so! God willing. All being well. I am so scared of long journeys at night. Vai ver que vai tudo correr bem. Heaven forbid, mother. Everything will be all right, you will see. I am not happy at all with. Were you pleased with the hotel we booked for you, Sir?
Yes, I was reasonably pleased — the room was comfortable, with all the facilities, I appreciated its nearness to the underground, but I was not at all happy with the bill.
Note the use of the title both as form of address and subject. The title indicates that the person has an academic degree. I am very disappointed with the Ratz Hotel. It has a good reputation, but the service is poor and the daily rates are high. The last time I stayed there I was also disappointed with the restaurant. The service was slow and the food was cold. I am shaking with fear!
What happened? I went out to walk the dog and I heard footsteps behind me. Gosh, how frightening! I am dreadfully scared of going out at night all by myself. Usually I am not afraid when I go out with the dog, but this time I was frozen with fear because the footsteps were coming in this direction. Tem blusas de malha? Good afternoon. Have you got any knitted tops? Do you prefer wool or cotton? I like cotton best. Would you prefer short or long sleeves?
I prefer long sleeves. It was nothing. I am the one who is grateful for the company. Bem haja. God bless you. And you. Pedro II received 14 votes in Philadelphia for the presidential election, due to his popularity, at the time voters could vote for anyone in the elections. In a time no one thought of ecology or deforestation, Pedro II had the entire large coffee farm with Native Atlantic Forest. Right in front of these attacks, d Pedro ii stood against censorship. With The Republic the guard has again existed.
Pedro II would not admit to taking money from the government for such Almost daily cartoons in the newspapers, maintained total freedom of expression and no censorship. Pedro II walked the streets of Paris in his exile always with a velvet bag in his pocket with a little sand from Copacabana Beach.
He was buried with him. Sources: Cultural April. Princess Elizabeth. Collection great characters from our story. Bartender, Roderick. Cerqueira Bruno Da Silva Antunes of org , d. Elizabeth I the redeeming one Rio de Janeiro: Chalhoub, Sydney.
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Visions of freedom: a history of the last decades of slavery at court. Daibert Jr. Saint Paul; Ed Cultural April, may Filgueiras, Carlos A. Rio de Janeiro: Brazilian civilization, Axe Mary Helena. The plan and panic: social movements in the decade of abolition. Rio de Janeiro: Efrj Publisher, edusp, Mosque, Maria Luiza de carvalho - who is afraid of the third empire or why not Isabel? Neves, Margaret of souza A writing of time: Memory, order and progress in the chronicles cariocas, in Antonio Candido, Chronicle: the genre, its fixation and its transformations in Brazil, campinas, Ed.
Schwarcz, Lilia Moritz, Emperor's beards: D. Peter II, a monarch in the tropics. Rio de Janeiro: New Border, Silva, Edward The Camellias of leblon and the abolition of slavery: an investigation of cultural history. Princess Isabel in the abolitionist scenario of Brazil. Saint Paul: Viola Paul Roberto org. Bezerra de menezes - the abolitionist of the empire. This was the moment they met. It looks like you may be having problems playing this video.
If so, please try restarting your browser. Posted by Everaldo Capobianco. Quem sofre de rinite