They diverted the flight to Algiers where they held the Israeli hostages for several days while they negotiated the release of Arab prisoners in exchange for the hostages. Once the terms were agreed the hostages were released with no fatalities. The success of this early hijacking made it an increasingly popular weapon of the Palestinian Liberation Organisation PLO. In Zehdi Terzi, the first PLO representative to the United Nations, stated that the "first several hijackings aroused the consciousness of the world and awakened the media and world opinion much more--and more effectively--than 20 years of pleading at the United Nations.
By default the following two charts show how terrorist incidents have evolved in Afghanistan and Iraq following the War on Terror. It is possible to change the countries displayed in the visualisation below. While terrorism in the Middle East has spiked in recent years, there have been successes in combating terrorism elsewhere. One notable example is the ETA, the Basque separatist movement in Spain, which put down arms in Despite the intense media focus on terrorist activity around the world, the numbers of people actually killed by terrorist attacks has remained low.
Terrorism only killed 13, in , a relatively low number when compared with other types of violent death, namely armed conflict and interpersonal violence. Martha Crenshaw, professor of Political Science at Stanford, argues that terrorist groups make calculated decisions to engage in terrorism, and moreover, that terrorism is a "political behavior resulting from the deliberate choice of a basically rational actor. One major consequence of the rise of international terrorism, particularly Islamic extremist groups, has been the global War on Terror. The War on Terror, which began in , has so far seen the full-scale invasion of Iraq and Afghanistan, as well as other operations in Yemen, Pakistan and Syria.
An important question is whether the global campaign against terrorism, known as the War on Terror, has made us any safer. Many commentators argue that the War on Terror has had the perverse effect of making us less safe, with some going as far as claiming the War on Terror is the leading cause of terrorism.
Richard Clarke, a counter-terrorism expert that worked in the US National Security Council between —, was highly critical of the Bush administration's counter-terrorism strategy and the decision to invade Iraq. The internet has become a central tool for terrorists, largely replacing print and other physical media. It has allowed terrorist organisations to costlessly communicate their message and aims to the world, allowing them to recruit new members, coordinate global attacks and better evade surveillance.
Their well-organised online propaganda campaign has seen them recruit thousands of foreign fighters. The increasing use of the internet was noted by Bruce Hoffman in Inside terrorism as early as The consequences of these developments [are] far-reaching as they are still poorly understood, having already transformed the ability of terrorists to communicate without censorship or other hindrance and thereby attract new sources of recruits, funding, and support that governments have found difficult, if not impossible, to counter.
Measuring the effectiveness of terrorism requires us to have both a well defined set of objectives for a given terrorist organisation as well as a definite way to determine success and failure. Yet if goal was to intimidate America and publicise the cause, it may be considered a success. With respect to the question of effectiveness, there are two opposing views in the literature.
The first posits that terrorists are able to influence policy and public opinion and that terrorism is increasing worldwide simply because it is effective. The second view argues that terrorists hardly ever achieve their main objectives and that terrorist groups tend to be unstable and disintegrate over time. Robert Pape, professor of Political Science at the University of Chicago, is a major proponent of the view that terrorism can be effective and his research focusses on suicide terrorism.
The term terrorism has generally been used to describe violence by non-state actors rather than government violence since the 19th-century Anarchist Movement. In December , Edmund Burke used the word "Terrorists" in a description of the new French government called 'Directory' : . At length, after a terrible struggle, the [Directory] Troops prevailed over the Citizens … To secure them further, they have a strong corps of irregulars , ready armed.
Thousands of those Hell-hounds called Terrorists , whom they had shut up in Prison on their last Revolution, as the Satellites of Tyranny, are let loose on the people. The terms "terrorism" and "terrorist" gained renewed currency in the s as a result of the Israeli—Palestinian conflict ,  the Northern Ireland conflict ,  the Basque conflict ,  and the operations of groups such as the Red Army Faction.
There are over different definitions of terrorism.
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It is not only individual agencies within the same governmental apparatus that cannot agree on a single definition of terrorism. Experts and other long-established scholars in the field are equally incapable of reaching a consensus. Coady has written that the question of how to define terrorism is "irresolvable" because "its natural home is in polemical, ideological and propagandist contexts". Revolutionary terror is not terrorism. To make a moral equivalence between the Revolution's year II and September is historical and philosophical nonsense The violence exercised on 11 September aimed neither at equality nor liberty.
Nor did the preventive war announced by the president of the United States. Experts disagree about "whether terrorism is wrong by definition or just wrong as a matter of fact; they disagree about whether terrorism should be defined in terms of its aims, or its methods, or both, or neither; they disagree about whether or not states can perpetrate terrorism; they even disagree about the importance or otherwise of terror for a definition of terrorism. Alternatively, responding to developments in modern warfare, Paul James and Jonathan Friedman distinguish between state terrorism against non-combatants and state terrorism against combatants , including ' Shock and Awe ' tactics:.
Shock and Awe" as a subcategory of "rapid dominance" is the name given to massive intervention designed to strike terror into the minds of the enemy. It is a form of state-terrorism. The concept was however developed long before the Second Gulf War by Harlan Ullman as chair of a forum of retired military personnel. In November , a Secretary-General of the United Nations report described terrorism as any act "intended to cause death or serious bodily harm to civilians or non-combatants with the purpose of intimidating a population or compelling a government or an international organization to do or abstain from doing any act".
These difficulties arise from the fact that the term "terrorism" is politically and emotionally charged. The international community has never succeeded in developing an accepted comprehensive definition of terrorism. During the s and s, the United Nations attempts to define the term floundered mainly due to differences of opinion between various members about the use of violence in the context of conflicts over national liberation and self-determination.
These divergences have made it impossible for the United Nations to conclude a Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism that incorporates a single, all-encompassing, legally binding, criminal law definition of terrorism. Since , the United Nations General Assembly has repeatedly condemned terrorist acts using the following political description of terrorism:.
Criminal acts intended or calculated to provoke a state of terror in the public, a group of persons or particular persons for political purposes are in any circumstance unjustifiable, whatever the considerations of a political, philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious or any other nature that may be invoked to justify them. Various legal systems and government agencies use different definitions of terrorism in their national legislation.
Code Title 22 Chapter 38, Section f d defines terrorism as: "Premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience". Involve violent acts or acts dangerous to human life that violate federal or state law; Appear to be intended i to intimidate or coerce a civilian population; ii to influence the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion; or iii to affect the conduct of a government by mass destruction, assassination, or kidnapping; and occur primarily outside the territorial jurisdiction of the U.
A definition proposed by Carsten Bockstette at the George C.
Marshall European Center for Security Studies , underlines the psychological and tactical aspects of terrorism:. Terrorism is defined as political violence in an asymmetrical conflict that is designed to induce terror and psychic fear sometimes indiscriminate through the violent victimization and destruction of noncombatant targets sometimes iconic symbols. Such acts are meant to send a message from an illicit clandestine organization. Terrorists attack national symbols, which may negatively affect a government, while increasing the prestige of the given terrorist group or its ideology.
Terrorist acts frequently have a political purpose. For example, carrying out a strategic bombing on an enemy city, which is designed to affect civilian support for a cause, would not be considered terrorism if it were authorized by a government. This criterion is inherently problematic and is not universally accepted, [ attribution needed ] because: it denies the existence of state terrorism. According to Ali Khan, the distinction lies ultimately in a political judgment. Having the moral charge in our vocabulary of 'something morally wrong', the term 'terrorism' is often used to abuse or denounce opposite parties, either governments or non-state-groups.
Those labeled "terrorists" by their opponents rarely identify themselves as such, and typically use other terms or terms specific to their situation, such as separatist , freedom fighter , liberator, revolutionary , vigilante , militant , paramilitary, guerrilla , rebel , patriot, or any similar-meaning word in other languages and cultures.
Jihadi , mujaheddin , and fedayeen are similar Arabic words that have entered the English lexicon. It is common for both parties in a conflict to describe each other as terrorists. On whether particular terrorist acts, such as killing non-combatants, can be justified as the lesser evil in a particular circumstance, philosophers have expressed different views: while, according to David Rodin, utilitarian philosophers can in theory conceive of cases in which the evil of terrorism is outweighed by the good that could not be achieved in a less morally costly way, in practice the "harmful effects of undermining the convention of non-combatant immunity is thought to outweigh the goods that may be achieved by particular acts of terrorism".
In his book Inside Terrorism Bruce Hoffman offered an explanation of why the term terrorism becomes distorted:. On one point, at least, everyone agrees: terrorism is a pejorative term. It is a word with intrinsically negative connotations that is generally applied to one's enemies and opponents, or to those with whom one disagrees and would otherwise prefer to ignore. Use of the term implies a moral judgment; and if one party can successfully attach the label terrorist to its opponent, then it has indirectly persuaded others to adopt its moral viewpoint.
If one identifies with the victim of the violence, for example, then the act is terrorism. If, however, one identifies with the perpetrator, the violent act is regarded in a more sympathetic, if not positive or, at the worst, an ambivalent light; and it is not terrorism. The pejorative connotations of the word can be summed up in the aphorism , "One man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter". There is the famous statement: 'One man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter. It assesses the validity of the cause when terrorism is an act.
One can have a perfectly beautiful cause and yet if one commits terrorist acts, it is terrorism regardless.
Some groups, when involved in a "liberation" struggle, have been called "terrorists" by the Western governments or media. Later, these same persons, as leaders of the liberated nations, are called "statesmen" by similar organizations. Sometimes, states that are close allies, for reasons of history, culture and politics, can disagree over whether or not members of a certain organization are terrorists. This was highlighted by the Quinn v. Robinson case. Media outlets who wish to convey impartiality may limit their usage of "terrorist" and "terrorism" because they are loosely defined, potentially controversial in nature, and subjective terms.
Depending on how broadly the term is defined, the roots and practice of terrorism can be traced at least to the 1st-century AD. According to the contemporary Jewish-Roman historian Josephus , after the Zealotry rebellion against Roman rule in Judea, when some prominent Jewish collaborators with Roman rule were killed,   Judas of Galilee formed a small and more extreme offshoot of the Zealots, the Sicarii , in 6 AD. The term "terrorism" itself was originally used to describe the actions of the Jacobin Club during the " Reign of Terror " in the French Revolution.
In , Edmund Burke denounced the Jacobins for letting "thousands of those hell-hounds called Terrorists Arguably the first organization to utilize modern terrorist techniques was the Irish Republican Brotherhood ,  founded in as a revolutionary Irish nationalist group  that carried out attacks in England. Another early terrorist group was Narodnaya Volya , founded in Russia in as a revolutionary anarchist group inspired by Sergei Nechayev and " propaganda by the deed " theorist Carlo Pisacane.
Scholars of terrorism refer to four major waves of global terrorism: "the Anarchist, the Anti-Colonial, the New Left, and the Religious. The first three have been completed and lasted around 40 years; the fourth is now in its third decade. Terrorist incidents, — A total of , incidents are plotted. Orange : —, Red : — Depending on the country, the political system, and the time in history, the types of terrorism are varying.
One of the five volumes that the committee wrote was titled Disorders and Terrorism , produced by the Task Force on Disorders and Terrorism under the direction of H. Cooper, Director of the Task Force staff. The Task Force defines terrorism as "a tactic or technique by means of which a violent act or the threat thereof is used for the prime purpose of creating overwhelming fear for coercive purposes".
It classified disorders and terrorism into six categories: . Other sources have defined the typology of terrorism in different ways, for example, broadly classifying it into domestic terrorism and international terrorism , or using categories such as vigilante terrorism or insurgent terrorism. As well as there being no one agreed definition of terrorism, there is a similar lack of consensus regarding the causes — or motivations behind — terrorism.
Numerous studies have identified certain behavioural and situational characteristics that are common, and perhaps causal, to the consequence of terrorism, specific analysis of case studies have led to suggested motivations to individual historical acts. A report conducted by Paul Gill, John Horgan and Paige Deckert on behalf of The Department of security of UK highlights the vast discrepancies between individual cases of terrorism recorded.
To begin with, 43 percent of lone wolf terrorism is motivated by religious beliefs. The same report indicates that just less than a third 32 percent have pre-existing mental health disorders, while many more are found to have these problems upon arrest.
Attacks on 'collaborators' are used to intimidate people from cooperating with the state in order to undermine state control. This strategy was used in Ireland, in Kenya , in Algeria and in Cyprus during their independence struggles. These attacks are used to draw international attention to struggles that are otherwise unreported, such as the Palestinian airplane hijackings in and the Dutch train hostage crisis. Abrahm suggests that terrorist organizations do not select terrorism for its political effectiveness.
Additionally, Michael Mousseau shows possible relationships between the type of economy within a country and ideology associated with terrorism. Some terrorists like Timothy McVeigh were motivated by revenge against a state for its actions against its citizens. The same report indicates that just less than a third 32 percent have pre-existing mental health disorders, while many are found to have these problems upon arrest.
Many were chronically unemployed and consistently struggled to hold any form of employment for a significant amount of time. In comparison to economic theories of criminal behaviour, Scott Atran found that suicide terrorists exhibit none of the socially dysfunctional attributes — such as fatherless, friendless, jobless situations — or suicidal symptoms. By which he means, they do not kill themselves simply out of hopelessness or a sense of 'having nothing to lose'. Although a common factor in terrorism is a strong religious belief there are other factors such as cultural, social and political that wholly preclude religion.
For example, the drive behind these Chechen terrorists are quite distinct and unique from others. Many of the Chechens considered themselves secular freedom fighters, nationalist insurgents seeking to establish an independent secular state of Chechnya. Although a distinction should be made between national Chechen terrorists and non-Chechen fighters who have adopted the idea from abroad.
Few Chechen fighters fought for the jihads whereas most of the non-Chechen fighters did Janeczko, Another factor are perceived assurances of financial stability for the actor's families, that they are given when they join a terrorist organization or complete an attempt of terror.
Where do terrorist organizations get their money?
An extra grant is provided for the families of suicide bombers. Terrorism is most common in nations with intermediate political freedom, and it is least common in the most democratic nations. While a democratic nation espousing civil liberties may claim a sense of higher moral ground than other regimes, an act of terrorism within such a state may cause a dilemma: whether to maintain its civil liberties and thus risk being perceived as ineffective in dealing with the problem; or alternatively to restrict its civil liberties and thus risk delegitimizing its claim of supporting civil liberties.
Terrorist acts throughout history have been performed on religious grounds with the goal to either spread or enforce a system of belief, viewpoint or opinion. According to the Global Terrorism Index by the University of Maryland, College Park , religious extremism has overtaken national separatism and become the main driver of terrorist attacks around the world. The majority of incidents over the past several years can be tied to groups with a religious agenda.
Before , it was nationalist separatist terrorist organizations such as the IRA and Chechen rebels who were behind the most attacks. The number of incidents from nationalist separatist groups has remained relatively stable in the years since while religious extremism has grown. The prevalence of Islamist groups in Iraq , Afghanistan , Pakistan , Nigeria and Syria is the main driver behind these trends. Terrorism in Pakistan has become a great problem. From the summer of until late , more than 1, people were killed in suicide and other attacks on civilians  for reasons attributed to a number of causes — sectarian violence between Sunni and Shia Muslims ; easy availability of guns and explosives; the existence of a " Kalashnikov culture"; an influx of ideologically driven Muslims based in or near Pakistan , who originated from various nations around the world and the subsequent war against the pro-Soviet Afghans in the s which blew back into Pakistan; the presence of Islamist insurgent groups and forces such as the Taliban and Lashkar-e-Taiba.
On July 2, in Lahore , 50 Muslim scholars of the Sunni Ittehad Council SIC issued a collective fatwa against suicide bombings, the killing of innocent people, bomb attacks, and targeted killings declaring them as Haraam or forbidden. The report titled The Age of the Wolf found that during that period, "more people have been killed in America by non-Islamic domestic terrorists than jihadists. Its influence ranges from the Ku Klux Klan and neo-Nazi groups to the anti-government militia and sovereign citizen movements. By the s, the movement had been infected with anti-Semitism , and eventually Christian Identity theology diverged from traditional Anglo-Israelism, and developed what is known as the "two seed" theory.
They hold themselves to "God's laws", not to "man's laws", and they do not feel bound to a government that they consider run by Jews and the New World Order. Israel has had problems with Jewish religious terrorism. For Amir, killing Rabin was an exemplary act that symbolized the fight against an illegitimate government that was prepared to cede Jewish Holy Land to the Palestinians.
The perpetrators of acts of terrorism can be individuals, groups, or states. According to some definitions, clandestine or semi-clandestine state actors may carry out terrorist acts outside the framework of a state of war. These groups benefited from the free flow of information and efficient telecommunications to succeed where others had failed. Over the years, much research has been conducted to distill a terrorist profile to explain these individuals' actions through their psychology and socio-economic circumstances.
Some security organizations designate these groups as violent non-state actors. Krueger found that terrorists were less likely to come from an impoverished background 28 percent vs. Another analysis found only 16 percent of terrorists came from impoverished families, vs. A study into the poverty-stricken conditions and whether or not,terrorists are more likely to come from here,show that people who grew up in these situations tend to show aggression and frustration towards others. This theory is largely debated for the simple fact that just because one is frustrated,does not make them a potential terrorist.
To avoid detection, a terrorist will look, dress, and behave normally until executing the assigned mission. Some claim that attempts to profile terrorists based on personality, physical, or sociological traits are not useful. Groups not part of the state apparatus of in opposition to the state are most commonly referred to as a "terrorist" in the media. A state can sponsor terrorism by funding or harboring a terrorist group. Opinions as to which acts of violence by states consist of state-sponsored terrorism vary widely. When states provide funding for groups considered by some to be terrorist, they rarely acknowledge them as such.
Civilization is based on a clearly defined and widely accepted yet often unarticulated hierarchy. Violence done by those higher on the hierarchy to those lower is nearly always invisible, that is, unnoticed. When it is noticed, it is fully rationalized. Violence done by those lower on the hierarchy to those higher is unthinkable, and when it does occur it is regarded with shock, horror, and the fetishization of the victims.
As with "terrorism" the concept of "state terrorism" is controversial. If States abused their power, they should be judged against international conventions dealing with war crimes , international human rights law , and international humanitarian law. The use of force by states is already thoroughly regulated under international law". State terrorism has been used to refer to terrorist acts committed by governmental agents or forces. This involves the use of state resources employed by a state's foreign policies, such as using its military to directly perform acts of terrorism.
He argues that "the use of terror tactics is common in international relations and the state has been and remains a more likely employer of terrorism within the international system than insurgents. In this analysis, state terrorism exhibited as a form of foreign policy was shaped by the presence and use of weapons of mass destruction , and the legitimizing of such violent behavior led to an increasingly accepted form of this behavior by the state.
For example, taking and executing civilian hostages or extrajudicial elimination campaigns are commonly considered "terror" or terrorism, for example during the Red Terror or the Great Terror. The connection between terrorism and tourism has been widely studied since the Luxor massacre in Egypt. The attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, , were the symbolic epicenter, which marked a new epoch in the use of civil transport against the main power of the planet. State sponsors have constituted a major form of funding; for example, Palestine Liberation Organization , Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine and other groups considered to be terrorist organizations, were funded by the Soviet Union.
Other major sources of funding include kidnapping for ransoms, smuggling including wildlife smuggling ,  fraud, and robbery. The Financial Action Task Force is an inter-governmental body whose mandate, since October , has included combating terrorist financing. Terrorist attacks are often targeted to maximize fear and publicity, usually using explosives or poison. Communications occur through modern telecommunications , or through old-fashioned methods such as couriers.
There is concern about terrorist attacks employing weapons of mass destruction. Terrorism is a form of asymmetric warfare , and is more common when direct conventional warfare will not be effective because opposing forces vary greatly in power. The context in which terrorist tactics are used is often a large-scale, unresolved political conflict. The type of conflict varies widely; historical examples include:. Responses to terrorism are broad in scope.
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They can include re-alignments of the political spectrum and reassessments of fundamental values. The term " counter-terrorism " has a narrower connotation, implying that it is directed at terrorist actors. According to a report by Dana Priest and William M. Arkin in The Washington Post , "Some 1, government organizations and 1, private companies work on programs related to counterterrorism, homeland security and intelligence in about 10, locations across the United States.
America's thinking on how to defeat radical Islamists is split along two very different schools of thought. Republicans, typically follow what is known as the Bush Doctrine, advocate the military model of taking the fight to the enemy and seeking to democratize the Middle East. Democrats, by contrast, generally propose the law enforcement model of better cooperation with nations and more security at home.
Sometimes, the more force is used, the less effective it is The more successful the counterinsurgency is, the less force can be used and the more risk must be accepted Sometimes, doing nothing is the best reaction. However, it does not address the fact that terrorists are mostly homegrown. Terrorism research, called terrorism and counter-terrorism research, is an interdisciplinary academic field which seeks to understand the causes of terrorism, how to prevent it as well as its impact in the broadest sense.
Information on more than 180,000 Terrorist Attacks
There are several academic journals devoted to the field. One of the agreements that promote the international legal anti-terror framework is the Code of Conduct Towards Achieving a World Free of Terrorism that was adopted at the 73rd session of the United Nations General Assembly in Its main goal is to implement a wide range of international commitments to counter terrorism and establish a broad global coalition towards achieving a world free of terrorism by The Code was signed by more than 70 countries.
Mass media exposure may be a primary goal of those carrying out terrorism, to expose issues that would otherwise be ignored by the media. Some consider this to be manipulation and exploitation of the media. The fact such movements espouse approaches to law, economic, and social custom that would make it impossible for Muslim states to survive and compete in a modern world needs to be openly and constantly addressed.
Every life matters, and the primary focus on the U. At the same time, Figure 14 to Figure 27 show that the very real threat that terrorism poses to the West is very limited in scope and then varies sharply by country to the point where no one approach to counterterrorism can be correct. Figure Terrorism in Key Insurgencies and Civil Wars: , and Figure Worldwide Trend in Terrorism — Deaths , provide a rough indication of the impact of what happens when a violent terrorist or Islamist extremist movement makes the transition to insurgency.
The data are often uncertain, for all the reasons stated earlier, but clearly show the impact of the initial transition. At the same time, they also reveal two key problems in the data. The number of incidents and deaths drops sharply after because the level of conflict in several key states reaches the point of a major counterinsurgency war.
This may be an accurate way of distinguishing between terrorism and war, but this is far from clear, and it does not illustrate the real world trends in the level of violence. The trends are also heavily driven by the fact that Turkey's fight against its Kurds are treated as counterterrorism, while the civil war in Syria is largely ignored because the actions of the Assad regime are sharply undercounted because they are treated as normal warfare rather than state terrorism.
It has been fighting a third group — the Taliban — for some seventeen years, although it has historically been more of an insurgent group than a terrorist one. It is still far from clear that the U. What is already clear, however, is how limited the role of that ISIL and Al Qaida play in terrorism is compared to the global and regional patterns in terrorism, and that even the total defeat of both would leave most current terrorism intact and do little or nothing to affect the causes of terrorism that can generate new movements.
None of this makes containing and weakening movements less important. The data on the impact of terrorism war in Iraq and Syria provide some insights to the progress in the fighting in what is effectively one war against ISIS, but also illustrate the major problems in tying terrorism data to the data or lack of it on the counterinsurgency campaign, and the problems in assessing Syria — where much of the fighting is dominated by the equivalent of state terrorism.
These figures warn just how far the current conflicts have gone beyond given terrorist movements, and just how deeply they have divided and crippled civil society. In the case of Syria, Assad, state terrorism, Hezbollah, Iran, and Russia seem to be winning but will preside over a crippled state filled with people that have every reason to fear and hate the regime.
These Figures warn that Afghanistan remains locked into a war of attrition where there is no clear end in sight. They show that Pakistan is not only a state sponsor of terrorism, but still faces serious internal terrorist threats. World Bank data, and reports by the Special Inspector General for Afghan Reconstruction show that the Taliban continues to expand its influence, and that Afghanistan remains crippled by corruption and poor governance, deep political divisions, and a narco-economy where the rate of poverty has increased steadily since The final set of Figures in this analysis summarizes estimates of the trends in other major "wars" and again how different their scale.
The one thing these wars do all have in common is the lack of clear efforts to address the causes of violence at the civil level. Once again, the key question is why do these wars end? Anthony H. Cordesman holds the Arleigh A. He has served as a consultant on Afghanistan to the U.
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