On la monte sans permis. Toutes les bougies s'y adaptent. Elle se graisse automatiquement quand le gicleur est a fond. Elle se vidange tous les mois. A l'etat normal, elle fait du Bien reglee, elle fait du En cas d'incendie, elle fait le pompier. On peut la monter par devant et par derriere. Bien gonflee, elle tient neuf mois Elle est antipollution, elle avale la fumee.
Bien chauffee, bien rodee, elle tire convenablement. Elle n'use pas les routes mais les roulettes. Dans tous les pays, elle jouit d'une flatteuse reputation. Sa tenue est correcte sur autoroute, irreprochable sur biroute. Pour la garder en etat, un seul conseil : lavez. C'est un type qui marche dans la rue et qui croise un de ses copains.
Mais qu'est ce que tu transportes dans ces 2 grosses valises? Le copain d'un air las Ouvre, tu verras. Qu'est-ce que c'est que cette bestiole!!! Tu vois bien, c'est une grosse mite. Et qu'est-ce que tu as dans l'autre valise? Le type ne fait ni une ni deux, il demande : - Je voudrais un milliard!
Que vous soyez fier comme un coq, fort comme un b? Vous restez muet comme une carpe. Vous avez le bourdon, envie de verser des larmes de crocodile. Sans mot dire.. Il faut que tu viennes me pousser! De nouveau dans sa chambre, il se remet au lit. Son mari, pris de remords, se rhabille et descend. Il ouvre la porte et dit : -Eh mec! This year, he'll make more than twice as much as all U.
Amazing isn't it? Devant moi, j'ai une station de travail Un pour la changer et 5 autres six mois plus tard pour comprendre comment il a fait. Mais l'ampoule ne fonctionnera que pendant un mois. Voyage en train Un Belge monte dans un train. Nicolas, Baba est mort.
Une fois le repas fini, il prend l'os, reliquat du repas, et appelle son chien :? J'avais cru que tu avais dit papa.. Six ans : Salut, il y a du courrier? Six semaines : Qu'est-ce que tu as envie de voir? Six ans : Ce que tu es maladroite! Six semaines : Qu'est-ce que tu veux boire? Six ans : Combien la robe?
Six ans : Eh, Bordel de merde S'apercevoir que le vieux jerrican pour l'huile de vidange est plein. Mettre la voiture sur chandelles. Placer une vieille casserole sous le moteur. Abandonner les recherches. Laisser tomber le bouchon de vidange dans la casserole pleine d'huile chaude. Ranger le bordel. Un pote se pointe. Le lendemain retirer la casserole pleine d'huile de sous la voiture. Ha non merde on a tout bu hier. Aller chez Leclerc avec la voiture de Madame. Vider le premier litre d'huile neuve dans le moteur.
Se nouer un chiffon sale autour des doigts. Verser les 4 litres d'huile neuve restants dans le moteur. Redescendre la voiture des chandelles. Ecraser accidentellement une des chandelles. Petit tour pour essayer la voiture. Tu n'aurais pas une combine? Tu vas simplement entrer dans le restaurant et t'avancer vers elle. Elle est superbe! Il n'en revient pas tellement elle est belle. Le scoop du jour. Suisse A partir du C'est un "couple" en train de.. Une Portugaise arrive au poste de police : - Bonchour, je fiens me plaindre que che meu chuis fait fioler dans le buche Le policier : - Comment?
Il se frotte les yeux et recommande un whisky. A peine l'a-t-il bu qu'il voit un, deux, cinq, dix puis onze nains en maillot rouge descendre a leur tour l'escalier, passer devant lui, et sortir dans la rue. Pour les chasseurs, quelle est la ressemblance entre un chien et un renard? Y'a plus de papier de toilette ici! Comment prendre sa douche comme une femme? Regardez-vous dans la glace, et sortez votre ventre pour que vous puissiez vous plaindre et pleurnicher parce que vous prenez du ventre.
Allez sous la douche. Frottez-vous le visage avec un masque fait d'? Rasez-vous les aisselles et les jambes. Coupez l'eau de la douche Passez un coup de spray anti-moisissures sur les joints du bac de douche Sortez de la douche. Microsoft ne peut apparemment pas expliquer ceci! Chacun parle de sa femme.. Je pense que ma femme me trompe avec un plombier.. Je pense que ma femme me trompe avec un cheval!!!
Pouffiasse grognasse blondasse : l'origine des mots en asse? Mais on ne le dira pas parce que ce ne serait gentil pour personne. Grognasse Du verbe "grogner". Blondasse L'argot est injuste. En effet on ne dit jamais "brunasse". Ainsi on imagine assez mal ce mot dans la bouche de mettons au hasard Claudia Schiffer. Ah l'exquise chose. Et le chauffeur s'ennuie beaucoup. Famille de malades! Tu m'ouvre? Puis il repart. Notre histoire se passe lors d'un cours.. Vous devez vite vous cacher dans un sac, et si jamais un milicien inspecte rapidement votre sac, vous faire passer pour autre chose.
La le professeur mime le milicien, et met un petit coup de pied dans le sac. A ce moment on entend un miaulement strident! A toi le nain. Cette fois le sac s'agite, et on entend plein de couinements! Des rats!!.. Bon, a toi l'orc. Le professeur s'approche, et donne son shoot. Et la, on entend une toute petite voix qui sort du sac.. Le jeune roi Arthur fut fait prisonnier par le monarque d'un royaume voisin. Et ce fut le cas. Quand il entra dans la chambre quelle surprise! Quelle forme voulait-il qu'elle prenne? Pour le jour et pour la nuit? Quelle question cruelle! Que feriez-vous? Partez pas en disant "c'est nul"!
Y'a une morale! Impressionnant, non? Vous saurez!! Je n'aurais pas de soucis. Alors elle la remonte et tout, cette fois ci en utilisant le manuel Et rebelote! A peine a t'elle fini qu'un bus passe et renverse l'armoire! Le mari n'en croit pas ses yeux, embrasse sa femme et ouvre l'armoire tout grande. Vous me croyez si je vous dis que j'attends le bus?
C'est un mec qui est sur le Titanic, durant le naufrage. A cause de ce handicap, les hommes avaient peur d'elle. Que pouvait-il faire pour l'aider? Il consulta alors ses scientifiques et ses magiciens. Chaque homme doit apporter un objet qui ne fondra pas entre les doigts de la princesse? Elle le prit dans sa main. Et rien ne fondit! Jolie Histoire non? Et vous ne vous posez pas la question, quelle question?
Il y avait un? Il fond dans la bouche, pas dans la main. Tu sais, l'avocat. C'est une bonne raison pour venir travailler.
Encourage les cagnotes et la participation. Augmente les chances de voir ton patron nu. Ils installent leur tente et se couchent. Astrologiquement, cela me dit que Saturne est en Verseau. Pour l'heure, je dirais qu'il est 4 heures du matin. Il reprend : - Quoi, qu'est-ce que j'ai dit de mal? Il est faux de penser que les femmes ne savent pas garder un secret. Un peu d'anglais pour le plaisir! To: IT Dept. Hi Guys, I came in today Monday to finish up a project I was working on before our big meeting with a potential client tomorrow, and I noticed that there were three or four large air conditioners running the entire time I was here.
With all the power that all those big computers in that room use, I doubt it is really eco-friendly to run those big units at the same time. I'm sure you guys can deal with it being warm for an hour or two when you come in tomorrow morning. In the future, let's try to be a little more conscientious of our energy usage.
Status of Employee who sent the above e-mail: Terminated. On ne dira pas : T'as un p'tit zizi Mais : Et c'est quoi ton truc pour faire rire les filles? On ne dira pas : T'as de plus en plus de rides.. Ce qui ne fait pas les affaires de notre gars. Un beau jour, alors qu'il scrutait l'horizon machinalement, il voit quelque chose flotter. Je vous dois tout. Dites-moi ce que je peux faire pour vous? Le matin le bourreau vint les chercher dans leur cellule et les amena dans la cour. Que faire? Dans 1 min 13s il va nous rattraper Elle et toutes les autres s?
Et alors? Oh, ma s? Quelle horreur Une soeur avec la jupe en haut court plus vite qu'un gars avec les pantalons aux chevilles! Je vais donc vous laisser une chance. Le surlendemain ils retournent devant le juge qui leur demande : - Alors, combien de jeunes avez-vous convaincus? Tu n'iras pas en prison! Comment as-tu fait? Trois hommes rentrent dans l'appartement, puis quatre personnes en sortent. Au bout de 24 heures, on va voir ce qu'il sont devenus. Admettons que Ils voient un mouton noir sur le bord de la route. On dit qu'ils ont le pied marin.
En bref, rien n'indique a priori qu'il soit un terroriste potentiel. Saviez-vous qu'en - le 1er Mai est un samedi.. Qui se fiche de savoir pourquoi? La fin en soi de traverser la route justifie tout motif quel qu'il soit. BILL GATES : Nous venons justement de mettre au point le nouveau "Poulet Office ", qui ne se contentera pas seulement de traverser les routes, mais couvera aussi des oeufs, classera vos dossiers importants, etc. Les routes, quand il veut il les traverse. Moi et ma femme Bernadette Chirac n'avons pu traverser cette route ce qui est fort probable que ce poulet soit plus intelligent que moi.
Extraits de rapports authentiques On rigole, mais on ne se moque pas. Une femme est seule dans un compartiment lorsqu'un monsieur vient s'asseoir en face d'elle. Alors la dame: - Tiens, c'est marrant, vous n'avez pas du tout le type. Il n'a qu'une oreille. Merde alors.. Il en sait rien du tout si ce suspect porte ou non des lentilles de contact..
Je n'en reviens pas. C'est VRAI!! Il porte bien des lentilles de contact!! Comment as-tu fait?????? Ils ont un enfant. Chez E. Motifs : 1. Il suggera de retourner le message.. Elle : vas-y sauvagement! Lui : Oui, Oui, Elle : Continue! Lui : Oui, Oui! Elle : Ne sois pas timide Lui : Oui! Elle : Montre que tu es un homme! Lui : Oui! Elle : Dis-moi des choses sales! Lui : la cuisine, la salle de bain, le salon, la bagnole La vie informatique Les abeilles les fleurs les choux la p'tite graine.. Nous sommes alors partis prendre un verre et manger ensemble. Il engage une lutte violente avec le crocodile.
Vous voulez ma Rolex alors? Une blonde et une brune marchent dans la rue. Voyant l'air abasourdi du promeneur, il demande : " Vous n'auriez pas du papier toilette, je n'ai plus de poussins"!!! De temps en temps il entendait cette petite voix au fond de lui qui essayait de le rassurer : - Ne t'en fais pas BEN, tu n'es pas le premier toubib qui couche avec un de ses patients et tu ne seras pas le dernier!
Il y a une autre blague de ce genre.. C'est un nain il a huit enfants Ben elle est courte mais elle est bonne!!! Extrait de clients a la con. Client : Ah C'est vraiment cher! Un vendeur se trouve avec un papy : Client : Bonjour, monsieur, je voudrais Client cherchant ses mots : Je voudrais Client l'air perdu : Eh bien, qu'est ce que vous avez? Vendeur : Tout type de machine, des ordinateurs, des scanners, des imprimantes Client : C'est quoi, un scanner?
Le vendeur explique Client : Euh, non, pas encore Vendeur : Alors il faut d'abord en acheter un! Client : Ah bon, bon Ils se dirigent vers les rayons. Le vendeur explique et termine : Vendeur Client : Ah d'accord C'est pour faire deux ou trois truc, comme les autres Un vendeur se trouve avec un coouple de petits vieux : Client : Est-ce que auriez des disquettes?
Vendeur : Des disquettes vierges? Oui, par ici Client : Non, on cherches des disquettes remplies Vendeur : Quel est ce message d'erreur? Client : "This program has been successfully installed". Chez le client : Client : Vous auriez pu voir que le lecteur de disquette ne fonctionne pas, j'ai plus confiance en cet ordinateur, changez le moi.
Technicien : Quel est le message d'erreur? Client : Non, vous auriez pu le dire avant! Technicien Vendeur :!!!??? Cliente : [ Technicien : Ah! Cliente : Non, j'ai juste Word !! Technicien : Ah mais madame, vous avez forcement windows! Technicien : Oui madame, bon, le Ctrl Alt Suppr ne marche donc pas! Vous allez appuyer sur le bouton Reset madame.
Cliente : Mais j'ai pas Reset non plus, je n'ai plus rien du tout je vous dis! Technicien : Mais madame Soupir Technicien : Madame! Le bouton Reset se trouve sur votre tour! Cliente : Ah! Technicien : Mais non madame!! Vous appuyez sur le bouton Reset!! Cliente : Mais je ne le trouve pas.
Cliente Client : Mon modem ne fonctionne pas. Technicien : :????????? Client : En effet, mais il n'y a aucun driver pour l'OS X Client : Alors, vous constatez comme moi qu'il n'y en a que pour l'OS X lettre de l'alphabet.
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Client : Ah! Par terre. Il s'endort en se disant que sa femme n'a rien entendu. Le flic lui dit: - T'as une amende, mais je te donne une chance. Qu'est ce qui a un volant et quatre roues? Qu'est ce qui a un guidon et deux roues? Bon, t'as 50 euros d'amende. Le gamin dit au flic: - Et moi, je peux te poser une devinette? Dix quoi? Il lui tend les bras et il dit: - Je suis vraiment content de te voir Theresa. Copyright Carambar : Pourquoi un Suisse Allemand ne fait jamais la vaiselle??? Reponse : Parce qu'il essuie salement..
L'Italien : Tue l'amant tue sa femme prend sa Ferrari rouge et va manger une pizza. Le Chinois : Accepte la situation.
Le Suisse : Il pardonne sa femme Une blonde est en vacances en Louisiane. Et elle quitte le magasin. Seulement au Canada Que les gens commandent un double cheeseburger, des gros frites et un Coke Diet. Que les banques laissent les portes ouvertes et enchainent le stylo au comptoir. Que nous utilisons des afficheurs pour filtrer les appels et utilisons l'appel en attente pour ne pas rater l'appel que nous ne voulions pas avoir.
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Nous avons des distributeurs automatiques "service au volant" avec des inscriptions en Braille. Le mariage, c'est le triomphe de l'imagination sur l'intelligence. Commander une pizza en : Standardiste : Speed-Pizza, bonjour. Client : Bonjour, je souhaite passer une commande. Standardiste : Puis-je avoir votre NIN, monsieur?? Jacques Lavoie. Client timidement : oui?!!
Client soupir : Ah bon?! Qu'est-ce que vous me proposez alors?? Client : Qu'est-ce qui vous fait croire que je vais aimer cette pizza? Recettes gourmandes au soja? Mlle Denoix a fait, avant hier, une recherche sur le Net, en utilisant le moteur www. Client : Bon d'accord. Donnez-m'en deux, format familial. C'est ce qu'indique le credicard-satellis-tracer Client : J'irai chercher du liquide au distributeur avant que le livreur n'arrive. Client : Ce n'est pas vos oignons. Contentez-vous de m'envoyer les pizzas. J'aurai le liquide.
Client : Comment diable pouvez-vous savoir que j'ai un scooter?? Standardiste : Je vous conseille de rester poli Monsieur. Client : Sans voix Standardiste : Autre chose Monsieur?? Client : Non, rien. Un soir une maman qui a beaucoup de travail pour laver la vaisselle repasser les chemises Qu'est-ce qu'une luciole qui a pris du viagra? Un tripotanus. Mon mari vient d'entrer dans le restaurant La course commence C'est pas bon de se perdre en montagne Mais voila dans un coin elle trouve un joli petit perroquet, avec une petite pancarte "frs" alors elle va voir le responsable lui demande pourquoi ce perroquet est si peu cher par apport aux autres Au fait t'aimes bien la bonne bouffe?
Ah oui don la lune! L'anglais ne le croyait pas il demanda une preuve. Monsieur et Madame Mauresmo ont un fils, comment s'appelle-t-il? Comment s'appelle le chien de Bono le chanteur des U2? Un gars est assis au bar et noie sa peine dans la boisson. Le gars se tourne vers elle et lui demande: - Qu'est-ce qui ne va pas? C'est aussi ce que m'a dit me femme. Ils reboivent encore, et le gars demande: - Et qu'est-ce que votre mari ne supportait plus chez vous?
Et lui n'aime pas du tout, alors il est parti! J'en ai pour cinq minutes. J'ai fini. Ils sont en bas et tiennent une grande couverture blanche, bien tendue et crient: - Sautez!
- AMOUR. PARLLÈLEMENT. BONHEUR.
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Sautez sur la couverture! Les jeunes se remettent en position et crient encore : - Sautez! Nous allons vous attraper! La rousse crie: "Pas question! Vous allez enlever la couverture et je vais me casser la figure sur le sol. Ne t'en fais pas. On les aime bien. Les jeunes rigolent et se replacent en position, la couverture bien tendue et crient?
Saute sur la couverture! J'ai vu ce que vous avez fait pour la rousse et la brune. Si vous voulez que je saute, placez la couverture par terre et reculez-vous d'une dizaine de pieds pour que je sois bien certaine que personne n'y touche. Tu peux me passer maman? I get my most wanted eBook. My friends are so mad that they do not know how I have all the high quality ebook which they do not!
Just select your click then download button, and complete an offer to start downloading the ebook. If there is a survey it only takes 5 minutes, try any survey which works for you. Secrets Erotiques. Book Descriptions: Secrets Erotiques is nice books to read or download to add to your book collection How it works: 1. Register for FREE 1st month. In successive disguises as a soldier and a singing teacher, the count attempts to hoodwink the jealous and perceptive Bartholo, but in the end it is the straightforward theft of a key and deceit of a notary that enables the young couple to marry.
Stage name of Michel Boyron — , actor. Although he retired in , he returned to act alongside Adrienne Lecouvreur from until his death. Artistic term of uncertain origin applied to European art and architecture of the early 17th century and to music of the mid- to late 17th century.
By analogy it came to be used for literature, both poetry and drama, that shared with baroque art its elaborate complexity, dramatic effectiveness and taste for the fantastic. In most artistic spheres it was defined retrospectively by contrast with a tendency toward greater classical regularity and harmony, which followed it. The dramatist most frequently referred to as baroque is the Englishman Ben Jonson — ; in French drama the term is applied to Pierre Corneille and to the elaborate machine plays that were popular through the middle of the 17th century.
Baroque dramas are complex in structure, grandiose in style and often explore themes of illusion and deceit. Actor and stage director. He did more than any other individual to break down barriers of convention and vested interest in postwar theater. As stage director, particularly in association with his wife Madeleine Renaud, Barrault took modern French drama to an international audience. In all aspects of his eclectic repertoire he stressed the physicality of performance and the power of multimedia spectacle. Crimea-born theater director.
He also became a specialist in productions of the Russian repertoire. Stage name of Jeanne-Julia Regnault — , actress. She enjoyed a versatile career in both comedy and tragedy, in plays from both the classical and the contemporary repertoire, including the first performances of new plays by Alexandre Dumas fils, Paul Hervieu and Henry Bernstein, until her retirement in Its members performed entertaining dramas on the occasion of their annual festival and then on public holidays.
They introduced morality plays and farces into the repertoire, performed either in public places or in the hall of the Palais de Justice in Paris. Stage director who, in conflict with Jacques Copeau and Louis Jouvet and under the influence of German Expressionism, subordinated the text to innovative forms of movement and lighting, in quest of atmospheric productions.
A style of architecture and art based on functionality that arose in Germany after Her work, often brutal in its physicality, conveyed a cynical view of human relationships and frequently used collage effects combining fragments of text, music and dance. Having trained and performed in Essen, Germany, and New York, she won the European Theater Prize in and was a commander in the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres, among other international awards. Her creative energy remained constant until her sudden death. Comic dramatist. Political satire forms an important element in his output.
The Revolution itself involved Beaumarchais in financial loss and a period of exile, but he returned to Paris, deaf and broken in health, in His two successful comedies are still frequently performed in France, although internationally each is better known in operatic adaptations, both remarkably faithful to the original drama: Le Nozze di Figaro by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart — and Il Barbiere di Siviglia by Gioacchino Rossini. Author, highly influential feminist and lifelong companion of Jean-Paul Sartre. Born in Dublin, and influenced by James Joyce as well as by French Surrealist poets, he settled in France in and wrote in French from , although he translated several of his texts into English.
With En Attendant Godot Waiting for Godot, , published in and directed by Roger Blin in , he established the voice of the marginalized—clowns, tramps and other downtrodden individuals—as central to the exposition of a philosophy of emptiness. Although his plays contain much wit and verbal dexterity, they lack the virtuosity of Ionesco and are characterized by minimalist techniques and bitter irony in which huge energy is misdirected at pathetic or trivial aims. Beckett was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in Dramatist who struggled against conservative commercial forces in the Parisian theater of the s to establish Realism as a serious and viable approach to drama.
Although Becque wrote five further plays, the rest of his career was largely dominated by journalism and criticism. He used his income from these to further what he considered a more serious literary career as novelist and librettist. He overcame a stutter to succeed in young male leads. She had also been successful in tragedy. Stage name of Pierre Le Messier — , actor and theater manager.
He continued in that position until , when he is thought to have sold his interest in the company for an unprecedented sum to his brother-in-law Floridor. Stage name of Nicole Gassot — , wife of Bellerose, sister of Du Croisy, and the most distinguished actress in Paris between and Moroccan novelist, poet and journalist, encouraged by Jean Genet and others to explore links between psychiatry and literature. He emigrated to France in Court poet and dramatist, best remembered for ballet scenarios and for epigrammatic poetry. A noble, destined for an ecclesiastical career, he appears to have been distracted into theatrical activity by his affection for Mlle Bellerose, for whom he composed a version of the Cleopatra story in His particular talent was the composition of short poems for ballet libretti, in which he described a character in terms that made witty allusion to the private life of the dancer.
Considered to be the purest example of classical tragic form, the play takes to an extreme its adherence to the unities and its reduction of all action to the barest minimum. That moment described by Titus in II, 2 is presented as critical for his perception of himself and his role: he is suddenly conscious that, as emperor, he can no longer dream of marriage, or even a long-term relationship, with someone who is of foreign extraction and who is of regal status—both of these factors would under Roman constitutional law be unacceptable in the consort of the emperor.
He was married from to to the Irish Shakespearean actress Harriet Smithson — , who performed in Paris in His works combine wit, often expressed in memorable aphorisms, with satire and gentle fantasy. Stage name of Henriette Rosine Bernard — , actress. She continued to act even after her right leg had to be amputated in Boulevard dramatist who specialized in psychological studies exposing the secret workings of closed social circles. In 17th-century France this concept of verisimilitude was linked to a broader sense that dramatic representation should not offend against good taste.
The two interpretations of decorum could come into conflict, as Jean Racine found when Pyrrhus, in his Andromaque , was criticized for not being as cruel as he was in the established source documents, and also for being too cruel for his behavior to be acceptable. Dramatist, radio dramatist, novelist, actor and critic, disciple of Charles Dullin. How Goes It with the World, Sir?
Round and Round, Sir, Round and Round! He cultivated a physical theater written in a poetic style and at his best achieved the fusion of the grotesque and the tragic that characterizes Absurd Theater. Composer of operas and other stage music. His music is characterized by its tunefulness, and his operas by their dramatic intensity.
As director he was particularly sympathetic to actors, giving them freedom to follow their own instincts in gesture, diction and humor. Stage name of Pierre Tousez — , actor. Never offer anything unbelievable to the audience: what is true is not necessarily credible. A wonder has no appeal to me if it is absurd: the mind is not touched by what it cannot believe in. Let nature therefore be your guide in all things, if you seek to be honored as a dramatic author. Comedy is no friend of sighing and weeping, so bans from its verses all tragic pain—nevertheless it has no business to descend to the market and seduce the common people with low and vulgar language.
Paris theater, built as a drama school in and taken over in by Jacques Offenbach for productions of his own operettas. Under the direction of Jean-Claude Brialy since , the company has remained loyal to its essentially light staple repertoire. French word derived from Italian buffone for a clown, generally applied with pejorative connotations to comic acting that depends on vulgar or crudely physical effects.
Victor Hugo and Romantic dramatists sought deliberately to integrate the grotesquely comic alongside sublime or tragic elements in their works, because this provided a truer reflection of the complexities and ambiguities of existence. On the other hand, avant-garde and literary drama is more likely to depend on patronage or subsidy, and there will always be a place in the world of theater for plays that draw audiences at commercial rates. Stage name of the actor Jules-Victor-Alexandre Dumont — , who starred at the Palais-Royal in Paris from to , becoming its director.
Stage and theater director. He is also a distinguished operatic director. German playwright and stage director full name Eugen Berthold Friedrich Brecht whose ideas had considerable influence in postwar France. He directed the Berliner Ensemble, which visited Paris in and A communist, he lived in exile in the Nazi period, returning to East Germany in His father, Pierre Marcoureau? He is remembered for having made fashionable a hairstyle, short at the front and long at the back, mentioned in the novels of Marcel Proust — Actor, stage director, film director, journalist and radio presenter.
Stage name of Jean-Baptiste Britard — , actor. Responsible in the s and s for introducing the contemporary French repertoire notably Jean Cocteau and Jean Anouilh to the London stage, he has subsequently directed performances in English of William Shakespeare at the Bouffes du Nord. Stage name of Jean Gracieux? Scottish humanist scholar and teacher whose Latin plays were influential in the development of early classical French tragedy.
A form of comic writing, not exclusively dramatic, that features exaggerated stylistic effects often applied inappropriately to trivial or low subjects for the sake of satire to mock pompous attitudes or behaviors or parody to mock overblown literary styles or genres. Nineteenth-century burlesque formed part of the popular pantomime or vaudeville traditions in which innuendo and titillation undermined pretentious attitudes toward art and prudish attitudes toward sexual activity.
French term feminine cabotine, the masculine form sometimes abbreviated to cabot used to refer to a mediocre or ham actor. The tradition is kept alive at Le Lucernaire and also by the tendency of major theater houses to operate a second auditorium in the style of a studio theater. Exponent of the philosophy of the Absurd, and influential journalist and novelist. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in Nicolas Bataille continued to hold the role of M.
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Martin on an occasional basis until his death, alongside two other members of the original cast, Simone Mozet — as Mme Martin and Odette Barrois — as the maid. The play was originally based on an English-language textbook that Ionesco was using, and the inconsequentiality and repetitiveness of the dialogue reflected that source to powerful comic effect: in extended sequences of total nonsense, communication is presented as banal, and logic and identity as unreliable. Stereotypes of English middle-class couples, their maid and an officer of the fire brigade make self-evident statements and then by word associations twist them into meaninglessness.
This represents as much a parody of the expectations of conventional theater audiences as a serious satire on real attitudes or behavior. The play builds up to an explosive climax of linguistic virtuosity leading to a sudden silence after which the play appears to begin again. Thus the standard features of conventional drama—formal cohesion, dialogue, plot and characterization—are all systematically undermined. A comic effect, not exclusively dramatic but primarily visual, in which an individual person or character-type is mocked by the grotesque exaggeration of one aspect of his or her physical appearance or of one characteristic or attitude.
Writer and actor who has made a specialty of adapting narrative texts for stage or screen. Strengthened by this cooperation, experimental and artistic theater was better able to withstand commercial pressures. The metaphor by which Aristotle in his Poetics sought to define the experience of the tragic. In its literal meaning, purification or purgation, it refers to either religious or medical practice: drama is akin to a ritual by which a social group can come to terms with disruptive elements, or to a medical intervention by which harmony and balance are restored to an organism.
Art, and tragic drama in particular, by effecting the catharsis of emotions such as pity and fear, ensured that they were proportionate and appropriate. This theory of the tragic has been debated in almost all periods of literary history. It underpinned the French classical conception of tragedy, even though both Pierre Corneille and Jean Racine interpreted it in rather idiosyncratic ways.
Religious and civic authorities have often believed or imagined that theatrical activity can be subversive or threatening. Comedy, like other forms of caricature, portrays authority figures as ridiculous, while serious drama or tragedy might call into question the nature of justice. Accordingly, there has frequently been tension between theater companies, dramatic authors and government officials whose role was to protect public morality and control all forms of entertainment.
However, these plays did explicitly criticize both the hypocrisy and the gullibility of contemporary religious observances, and many plays were in practice tolerated despite their implicit challenges to religious and social orthodoxy. As the French Revolution approached, it was political rather than religious authority that became defensive in the face of challenges from the theater. After the Revolution, the declaration of the rights of man included a basic right to freedom of speech and opinion, but some control over public performance was retained on the grounds that uninhibited challenges to established authority or to accepted taste could jeopardize public order.
Central censorship of theatrical repertoire was reestablished in , when the Ministry of the Interior would supply via the prefects a list of condemned plays to each performing company, and although censorship of publication was lifted in , that of theater performance remained in place until After , responsibility for approving or banning specific plays was devolved to local municipal authorities. This could have the effect that local pressure groups had a disproportionate impact: traders, for example, did not dare to attend plays of which their more influential customers might disapprove.
This example of auto-censorship was criticized both by theater colleagues and by political authorities and probably contributed to the failure of Bozonnet to obtain reappointment. Most significant Francophone author of the postcolonial period, although more associated with political journalism and poetry than with theater. He was born in Martinique. Stage name of Charles Chevillet — , actor and dramatist. Stage name of Marie Desmares — , actress.
Posterity has shared this opinion. Stage director, actor and film director. His productions have often been based on a radical redefinition of the nature of heroism, involving a negative reevaluation of classical heroes such as Hamlet or Peer Gynt. Originally a group of actors in ancient Greek drama who represented a particular element of society citizens, slaves, women and whose reactions, presented in song, dance and gesture, steered the audience toward a moral interpretation of the events of the play. The constant presence of the chorus throughout a performance was partly responsible for the unities of time and place.
This established also the convention of double enunciation: the chorus expresses its own emotional reaction while conveying crucial information to the audience. Thereafter, although choruses remained an integral part of opera, they were seldom if ever used in French plays until the 20th century, when their use both as narrator and as defamiliarizing device was again appreciated, particularly by Jean Cocteau and Jean Anouilh. Set designer and machinist. LE CID. Five-act verse play by Pierre Corneille, first performed as a tragicomedy at the Marais theater in Paris in January ; slightly revised and republished as a tragedy in ; further revised for republication in One of the most successful plays of the 17th century, it prompted the company to begin the practice of allowing wealthy patrons to sit on the stage during the performances.
This ending is susceptible to various interpretations. This ambiguity although modern opinion might consider it a strength was one of several criticisms leveled against the play in the querelle du Cid, which dominated literary discussion and divided informed opinion for the following year.
With its use of a multiple set and problematic relationship with the unities of both time and action, the play retains several features of baroque drama, although its coherence, its concentration on internal conflict rather than external danger, and its poetic qualities point toward the approaching classical period. Feminist writer and intellectual who sees theater as a useful tool in the feminist campaign. Born in Algeria, she moved to France in and published a series of important theoretical essays.
Influenced by Jacques Derrida — , she combines serious philosophical and political thought with a playful style and with inventive development of literary forms. Her more recent works for the theater have become increasingly concerned with ethical and political questions in contemporary history, especially the effects of colonialism, corruption and social injustice. Supported by Voltaire, she spent some time at his home in Ferney recuperating from illness in and retired from public performance shortly afterward, although she remained active in campaigns to ameliorate the social reputation of her profession and to resist opposition to it from ecclesiastical authorities.
Literary term applied generally to forms of art in which regularity and harmony are valued above rich or varied creativity. In theater history, the term is associated particularly with drama that adheres to the three unities. Dominant French dramatist of the first half of the 20th century. A career diplomat, Claudel traveled to China in , to Brazil in with the composer Darius Milhaud as his secretary and to America in Partage de midi Break of Noon, draws on autobiographical elements, investigating both the guilt of adulterous love and the conflict between a religious vocation and sexual passion.
He was awarded the Prix Ludmilla Tcherina in in recognition of his lifetime contribution to theater. Although often impossible to classify, his works show affinities with both Surrealism and Expressionism: in the latter category, his emotional monologue La Voix humaine The Human Voice achieved success onstage , in a film version by Roberto Rossellini — , and when set as an opera by Francis Poulenc Theorists of drama, especially those working within the classical tradition, have expressed disquiet at the use of coincidence on the grounds that it defies verisimilitude, but dramatists have always known that theater audiences are seldom in practice troubled by such rational preoccupations.
The French national theater company and its home in Paris. Rachel led a renewed vogue for classical tragedy in the middle years of the century. Significant internal reconstruction of the building took place in — During the Franco-Prussian War and the siege of Paris — , the theater could not function normally, although fund-raising performances without costume were held, and the buildings were frequently commandeered for use as hospitals.
Perrin also introduced a system of season tickets. Les Beaux Jours Happy Days in The Salle Richelieu was extensively renovated in — and in Muriel Mayette — has held the post of administrative director since August French term meaning lachrymose or sentimental drama and referring to a genre popular in the 18th century. Succeeding companies at the same venue used the same name and became established as the most significant performers of drama in France.
After , under the leadership of Bellerose and with royal patronage, and particularly after their theater building was refurbished in , they reestablished themselves as the leading Paris company and for the first time put on rival productions of plays previously performed at the Marais; when Floridor joined them from that company, Pierre Corneille also gave them the first performances of his new plays.
This definition encompasses a very wide range of tones, from hilarious and grotesque clowning to sophisticated wit. In both the 19th and 20th centuries, the clear distinction between the tragic and the comic was broken down: Victor Hugo insisted that his drame fused together the sublime and the grotesque, and Absurd Theater similarly drew on extremes of hilarity and comic inventiveness to explore fundamentally serious themes.
An Italian theatrical tradition dependent on stock characters, schematized gestures, use of masks or visors and improvisation. Their performances, although based on a strong central story line Italian canovaccio, French canevas , consisted of separate comic routines for which the Italian word lazzi is also used in French , enabling the actors to incorporate local and contemporaneous references and to respond dynamically to each audience.
Movement promulgating the political engagement of theatrical activity, particularly associated with the period after World War II. A company of actors established in Paris in to perform mystery plays and given official status by Charles VI in Major French stage director of the interwar years. He was also involved in antisemitic politics at the time of the Dreyfus affair — If that play, which seems Shakespearean in its systematic defiance of all the aspects of unity, harmony and concision that were to characterize French classicism, had achieved greater success, the path of 17th-century French drama might have been very different.
Horace and Cinna are Roman tragedies exploring the relationship between politics and personal emotion, while Polyeucte is a martyr play. Following the failure of Pertharite in , he abandoned the theater for almost a decade, devoting himself to religious verse writing, but during that period he revised many of his earlier plays and published them, together with critical and theoretical texts, in a collected edition in Brother of Pierre Corneille and himself a top-ranking dramatist and opera librettist, although posterity has accorded him considerably less status than Pierre.
Like the latter, he produced successful works in many genres, and his tragedy Timocrate , performed at the Marais theater in the presence of the king, was the single most successful play in 17thcentury France. The complexity of his plots, often based on mistaken identity or other misunderstandings, and the sentimentality of his characterization and poetic language, appealed to his contemporaries, who were less concerned than posterity about his lack of originality and the artificiality of many of his situations.
The clothes worn by actors form an integral part of the message received by the spectators. The director and designer have discretion to impose a balance between realism and convention: costumes may reflect the period in which the action of the play is set, the period in which it was first performed or a different period to which the action has been transferred, or they may be purely symbolic.
Seventeenth-century French actors owned their costumes and tended to use them indiscriminately, with at most some symbolic additions—ribbons or patches of ermine—to suggest a specific status or location. Evocation of the ancient world was achieved by the use of togas for male characters. Costume provided an essential ingredient in the Realist and Naturalist theater of the 19th century, dominated by the quest for accuracy and authenticity.
Modern theater generally stresses the symbolism of costume rather than the depiction of any precise period. Pseudonym of Georges Victor Marcel Moinaux — , comic dramatist in the boulevard farce and vaudeville tradition, which he carried into the early 20th century. She gained some notoriety through a particularly gruesome and spectacular suicide scene in Le Sphinx by Octave Feuillet — She retired in to live in the country with the banker Jacques Stern, whom she married in Her brother-in-law, the prolific portrait painter Carolus Duran — , left an impressive painting of her on horseback.
Belgian actor, journalist and dramatist who divided his life between Brussels and Paris. Le Cocu magnifique obtained an international reputation, being directed all over Europe and by Vsevolod Meyerhold — in the Soviet Union. Artistic movement that flourished between and , associated particularly with Pablo Picasso — and Georges Braque — These plays are characterized by the exploration of a somewhat morbid psychology.
His thesis plays, exploring philosophical ideas and moral dilemmas in a Naturalist style, also included La Nouvelle Idole The New Idol, , which tackles the moral implications of scientific progress, and Terre inhumaine Inhuman Land, A nihilistic version of Surrealism, associated particularly with Tristan Tzara.
Noted developer of early photography, also distinguished in his day as a scenic artist and stage lighting specialist. They combine witty dialogue with a realistic depiction of the society of the time, poking fun at snobbery and pretentiousness and portraying with cynicism all levels of society, including the peasantry. He also wrote court entertainments and operatic parodies. Prolific popular novelist best known for racy police thrillers published under the pseudonym San Antonio.
Jekyll and Mr. Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson — Stage name of Joseph Jean-Baptiste Albouy — , actor. Stage name of Catherine Le Clerc du Rozet — , actress. Born Catherine Leclerc, she was both the daughter and the wife of actors: her father Claude Leclerc? Term used to describe the result of any technique, acting style or production device that has the effect of reminding the spectators that what they are witnessing is a performance rather than reality. Defamiliarization has its roots in Russian Formalist criticism of the early 20th century, when it was perceived as a function of all art to cast new light on the everyday; in drama it is often seen as having a double function, making the spectators reassess both their conventional lives and the role of theater in society.
She performed at the Gymnase and with Scribe and the actor-director Charles-Gaspard Delestre-Poirson — made it the most successful rival to the royal theater companies at that time. Late in her career she became a supporter of Victorien Sardou, and bought a theater which still bears her name in order to promote his plays.
Dramatist, novelist and academic. Dramatist and poet whose lyrics were widely set to music. Prolific author of sentimental novels and melodramas, including Les Deux Orphelines The Two Orphan Girls, , and a dramatization of the popular novel Le Tour du monde en quatre-vingts jours Around the World in Eighty Days, published , stage adaptation performed by Jules Verne — He has also appeared in more than 50 films and television dramas. Actor, diplomat and dramatist whose works were successful in his lifetime but have been forgotten by posterity. Deutsch is also a prolific translator, particularly of English science fiction.
He was opposed to Wagnerism but put forward a new conception of total performance to which painters, musicians and scenario writers all contributed. Philosopher and author, a major figure in the Enlightenment and the most prominent of the French Encyclopedists.
Diderot wrote a further comedy, Estil bon? Is He Good? Is He Evil? Hardouin appears to be partly autobiographical. In the course of his exploits he finds the statue of a Commander whom he has earlier killed; he playfully invites the statue to dine with him, and the play ends spectacularly when the statue drags Dom Juan down to a flaming underworld. Former professor of dramaturgy at the Paris Conservatoire who succeeded Robert Abirached as French national director of theater and spectacle in Stage name of Marie Delaunay — , actress, the illegitimate daughter of members of a touring company.
All speech in drama effectively operates on two levels: the characters address each other, and their remarks are conveyed to or overheard by an audience. Such devices present problems to those theoretical schools of thought that insist on total verisimilitude. Double enunciation is the source of dramatic irony, since the full meaning of any remark is likely to be different in the minds of the onstage interlocutor and of the spectator.
In French as in many languages the basic word for theater, derived from the Greek word for action. The French word drame has a more technical sense, in both the 18th and 19th centuries, to refer to a theatrical genre supported both by Denis Diderot and by the Romantic dramatists Victor Hugo and Alfred de Musset, in which elements of tragedy and comedy are combined to produce a more authentic and realistic representation. Actor, dramatist and stage director. He built his reputation initially on witty improvisatory dialogues, performed on radio or stage and published under the title Diablogues Duchesnois was less physically attractive but won supporters for her voice and spontaneous delivery.
She retired in Dramatist who adapted the plays of William Shakespeare for performance in French. Because he was not versed in English, he based his version on earlier literary translations and like English dramatists of the 17th and 18th centuries produced plays that were more regular and classical than the originals. He insisted on the primacy of text over directorial gimmicks. Early Romantic author most remembered for his novels but also an important dramatist in the period when the influence of William Shakespeare was first being felt. She was a rival of Adrienne Lecouvreur and Mlle Clairon: her own reputation was based on the passionate intensity of her acting.
Professional name used by Dora Angela Duncan — , American dancer and choreographer. She worked in Paris from In he returned to journalism and became an influential critic, author and dramatist. Authorial pseudonym of Marguerite Donnadieu — , author and dramatist. From an Indochinese background, she came to Paris in and began her literary career as a novelist. Le Square , revised , based on her own novel of had more impact as a radio play than onstage. Publicly critical of Alexandre Hardy in , he belonged to the generation of dramatists who heralded the classical period by fostering the introduction of greater regularity.
Stage and professional name used by Alex Martin — , actor, stage director and theater administrator. Although tempted to leave, they feel obliged to remain on this spot, where they are to meet Godot. Their desultory, often meaningless and directionless conversation is interrupted by the arrival, not of Godot but of Pozzo, a theatrical sadist who leads his slave, Lucky, on a long lead. It is not so much a play about waiting, whatever Godot may be taken to represent, but a demonstration of the act of waiting; the characters have more in common with clowns than with representational types, the dialogue is more like the content of a nightmare than a rational discourse.
It is in these ways that En Attendant Godot, like much French drama of the midth century, challenges both the lifestyle of the theater-going classes and their expectations about theater itself. They were characterized by wearing the costume of traditional court jesters and by a light-hearted approach to material, which sometimes brought them into conflict with religious authorities.
Stage director. It has been plausibly argued that his influence, replacing to some extent that of Seneca, which had dominated previous French tragic drama, was more decisive than Jansenism in shaping the bleak tragic outlook of Jean Racine. In France, Vincent van Gogh — conveyed inner turmoil through the swirling brush strokes of such works as The Starry Night , while Henri Matisse — and the Fauvists scandalized the public by their unconventional use of color.
Later Expressionist painters, such as Emil Nolde — , Georges Rouault — and Paul Klee — , were increasingly disenchanted with bourgeois materialism, and it was this attitude that allied them with other art forms, including literature, drama and opera. Although Expressionism in literature is primarily associated with Germany, whereas the French reaction against Realism is found in Symbolism, the creation and production of French drama in the first three decades of the 20th century were significantly influenced by the fiction of Franz Kafka — , the operas of Alban Berg — and the dramas of August Strindberg — and Gerhart Hauptmann — , all of which depicted a world in which the human spirit had been distorted by industrialization, bureaucracy and mechanization.
Belgian dramatist and translator. A verse tale, generally earthy and satirical. This popular form balanced the longer and more grandiloquent epic poems that dominated medieval French literature. Naturalist dramatist. After unsuccessful careers as a soldier and as a provincial actor, he devoted himself to writing and won a prize at the Jeux Floraux de Toulouse. French name for one of the recurrent stock characters in comedy, a braggart soldier who is in reality an inept coward but who boasts of military and amorous exploits.
Comic drama usually characterized by suggestive crudity and whimsical wit. With its origins in the fabliau, it was established as a distinct dramatic genre in medieval times, associated with La Basoche and Les Enfants sans souci. The dialogue was characterized by eloquence and wit, and the play as a whole directed biting satire against current behavior and social or political authority.