To learn to do a good job and to develop a style of his own depends, especially, on the degree of rapprochement and affinity between master and apprentice. In his study of the pedagogy of two master craftswomen in pottery, Mattar shows that the educational processes related to pottery alternate between observing the master, doing together and doing it alone:. Before beginning to do actual work, the apprentice apprehends with the eyes the procedures to be carried out to accomplish a given technical procedure, that is, he learns by observing the masters. And in this case, not only does the apprentice observe the masters but they also observe him and make minor corrections to his pieces, if necessary.
After having had experiences of producing together with the masters and having observed them work, the apprentice is put in a situation in which he has to apply the knowledge he has acquired, doing one piece alone, when he tests his knowledge and acquires new ones. Another hallmark of the artisan pedagogy is repetitive action. Repetition is the driving force behind the teaching and learning of handicraft and, in this case, ceramics. To repeat infinite times the same gestures on clay does not entail, absolutely, mindless execution. On the contrary, relentless repetition provides a state of transcendence, a surrender of the body, which in its aesthetic pursuit thinks through form creation.
Through repetition and, consequently, the mastery of technique, the apprentice reaches maturity and consolidates a style of his own. In this journey, the role of the master is decisive. Artisans are the true teachers of a class education, and when they educate themselves in the practice of which they are part, they advance the culture and the awareness of which they are the guides. In the pedagogical processes of traditional popular communities, mastery does not require diplomas or certificates.
- The Inn At Lake Devine.
- Beautiful Noise.
- The Apprentice of Fyordorn.
The legitimization of the master occurs in the daily life, in the recognition of the quality of his work, in his experience, in his ethical conduct. The master is usually someone older, who has been practicing the craft for quite some time. Since his practice begins at a young age, at maturity he has amassed significant knowledge, becoming the keeper of ancestral practices. Another quality of the master is that he does his work with pleasure and care. A person can become a master without having desired or sought to be one.
The teacher teaches everyone the same thing; the master announces to each one a particular truth and, if he is worthy of his work, expects from each one a particular response, a singular response and an achievement. The highest function of mastery seems to be the announcement of a revelation that goes beyond the mere exposition of knowledge.
The work and teachings of the master craftsman merge; amalgamated, they mobilize values and materialize part of the intangible knowledge of his society. The master guards, recreates and spreads knowledge that crosses generations and gathers the identity marks of his people.
In addition, he is endowed with an excellent skill in his craft; he is disciplined and, above all, profoundly knowledgeable about his environment. In Quechua culture, the figure of the master is known as el amauta , a kind of philosopher-poet responsible for keeping history alive through an oral recollection of memories. The amauta himself is already the teaching, in the way he lives and in how he relates to the world and to the community.
In Maragogipinho, we find several craftsmen and craftswomen recognized and legitimized as masters by their peers. Caring, polite, they are people who emanate dignity and integrity. The curious thing is that all of these interviewees, without exception, revealed a special delicacy in personal interactions. The characteristic gentleness of the ceramist is well delineated by Bachelard when referring to the work with the clay:. Source: Photo by Dario Narbacci. Soft matter softens our anger. As fury has no object in the work of this splendid softness, the subject becomes a subject of softness.
The candor found in clay masters confirms the idea that they act as amautas in this community. Most of them express a constant concern for the continuity of the pottery craft, denoting their inexorable debt to tradition, a true legacy they share with their apprentices. During field research, we did not see children working in potteries. The few we saw were babies or small boys with their mothers who polished or painted the pieces. Nowadays, actions against child labor have been preventing the presence of children in workplaces.
This was not what happened in ancient times. Some artisans told us that as children they practically lived in the potteries, even though they were not allowed to touch the materials. They had to wait patiently for the right time for initiation. They felt so keen to learn that they often practiced in hiding when the adults walked away. Gusdorf confirms that the desiring structure supports the educational process. This is the case of the master Rosalina Motta, now 87 years old. Rosalina no longer paints because she became blind, but she is an important reference in the community.
Rosalina recalls that when she was a little girl, she was curious and nosy and had a great desire to learn to paint:. Another interviewee, Master Nelinho, also remembers that when he began making pottery at age ten, he enjoyed the moments when his father left the wheel. The master craftsman feeds in the disciple the curiosity and the capacity for observation:. My father never forced me to work. He just wanted me to be there, under his eyes. When the boy expressed a desire to become an apprentice, the master ordered a small wooden pottery wheel for him:. Then he had a smaller wheel made for me.
I was still a little boy; I had no idea what I wanted out of life. I was nine or ten years old. Then he began to teach me. I learned to center the clay, I started everything then. The loss of objects can happen at various points in the artisanal process: during modeling, drying or firing. The potter learns to live with a feeling of detachment towards his work. He begins to understand that the ceramic piece is not immortal, it is constantly exposed to the weather and the adversities of the production process.
Like in the medieval guilds, pottery disciples learn by imitating the master craftsman, whose focus is to teach them how to do a good job. The masters usually pride themselves on the quality that is apparent in their pieces. What was always important to him [the father] was qua-li-ty. Quality for him was seeing that the pieces were perfect, with a good finish. However, simple imitation does not generate lasting satisfaction in the disciple.
The investment in the maturing of skills is a slow process, and this unhurriedness of artisanal time is a source of satisfaction because it opens wide spaces for imagination and reflection. When learning the art of ceramics, the knowledge is apprehended without haste, perennially inhabiting the body of the apprentice. During the artisanal educational process, it is important to be a good apprentice to become a good master. Both [master and disciple] live, together, the same adventure.
The master once was, in fact, a disciple; and the disciple, if he is worthy of the master, will be a master in turn. The education of mankind, at its best, continues in each epoch according to the renewed demand of this culture of man for man, from teachers to disciples and from disciples to teachers. That is why, in spite of the opposition that technical specializations seem to make, every authentic master is a master of humanity.
Aside from learning all aspects of the craft, the apprentice of pottery develops resilience. To become rooted in his native land is an unavoidable aspect of his mission. This statement is exemplified by the history of Nelinho. Born in Maragogipinho, with four sisters, he is the only son in the family. He learned the art of the pottery wheel as a child from his father.
In his youth, he made an attempt to pursue a career in another profession, and moved to the capital, Salvador, to work in an accounting office:. I even liked it; I was about eighteen to nineteen years old. However, his father fell ill and Nelinho had to return to Maragogipinho to fulfill the professional commitments of the old master:.
repelente mosquitos - English translation – Linguee
He had a lot of orders to deliver here. Nelinho never went to work as an accountant again. Nelinho is a potter today. The word potter, in Maragogipinho, has a broad meaning, not confined to professional activity. Besides being a means of earning a living, being a potter in this community means occupying a position of reference, of social leadership. Nelinho became a potter, which may mean that he chose to be a potter. We can say that he fulfilled his destiny, in the sense of authentic historicity , according to Heidegger.
For the philosopher, destiny is the authentic decision of man to return to himself, to transmit his own self and to assume the inheritance of past possibilities. Nelinho was educated to choose to be himself. In Maragogipinho and other traditional communities, as the young leave, the elders remain rooted. They accept the inexorability of the dispersion of their original group, but they are fixed to the place of origin, carrying out the resistance of their culture.
Achieving a sense of rootedness is one of the most vital human needs:. To put down roots is perhaps the most important and the least known need of the human soul. It is one of the most difficult to define. The human being has roots because of his actual, active and natural participation in the existence of a collectivity that preserves certain treasures of the past and certain forebodings of the future. In this perspective, the artisan education is of inestimable value. The traditional master-craftsman lives, in our days, a territory of ambiguities.
He is aware of the historical and social value of his craft without, however, being able to ensure the continuity of the knowledge of which he is a keeper. In the face of the dispersal of the original community, the sharing and transmission of the ceramics craft consolidate an educational process aimed at both the constitution of the person and at a greater identity issue: the sense of belonging to a social body in the process of vanishing. This article presented reflections on the cultural heritage of handicraft ceramics, the pedagogy of master craftsmen and the teaching and learning processes of the pottery craft in Maragogipinho, Bahia, a traditional Brazilian popular community.
I have shown that the pedagogy of master craftsmen is based on ancestral knowledge, but it does not look only at the past and at its preservation, within a linear and univocal notion of time. In the universe of handicrafts, in their ways of teaching and learning, layers of memory accumulate from daily activities, past and present, while opening itself to glimpses of the future. In the XXI century, ceramics artisans inhabit an increasingly individualistic world, which has lost the sense of community BAUMAN, ; nevertheless, their existence is based on cooperation with its peers. The pedagogy of master craftsmen consolidates a process of ethical and aesthetic education, which promotes teaching and learning experiences based on ancestral knowledge, cooperation, brotherhood, and on values that emerge from the artistic praxis, from the constant action on matter, from the aesthetic encounter with the very creation and, consequently, with themselves.
Freire, Handicraft runs along with time, and does not want to beat it. It flows day by day, it flows with us, it wears itself little by little, it does not seek death or deny it: but accept it. Existing between the time without a time of the museum and the accelerated time of the technique, the handicraft is the palpitation of human time. It is a useful object, but it is also beautiful; an object that lasts but ends and is resigned to its own end; an object that is not unique, like the work of art, and that can be replaced by another object similar but not identical.
The handicraft teaches us to die and thus teaches us to live. PAZ, , p. The history of education says little about handicrafts and their formative importance. However, the pedagogy of the master craftsman is a mirror of traditional cultures. The artisan pedagogy reflects the metamorphoses of these communities in their quest to update themselves and sustain their permanence.
To recognize and revive the artisan pedagogy and its values of human formation, therefore, is to face up to the complexity of a historical situation that puts at risk the survival of societies, of cultures that refuse to die. Obras completas. A terra e os devaneios da vontade.
A terra e os devaneios do repouso. Retrato do artista quando coisa. Rio de Janeiro : Record , Rio de Janeiro : Jorge Zahar , Campinas : Mercado de Letras , Rio de Janeiro : Iphan; Cnfcp , Pedagogia do oprimido. Rio de Janeiro : Paz e Terra , Rio de Janeiro : LTC , Objetos : percursos e escritas culturais. Campinas : Papirus.
Ver e usar: arte e artesanato. Rio de Janeiro : Rocco , Salvador : Progresso , Acesso em: 18 jul. Campinas : Autores Associados , A caverna. The unknown craftsman : a Japanese insight into beauty. Tranlation by Bernard Leach. Tokyo : Kodansha International , XXVII to encompass intercultural relationships originating from ethnic or racial fusions, from syncretism of religious beliefs and also from other contemporary mixtures between the artisanal and the industrial, the erudite and the popular, the written and the visual in media messages.
Her line of research focuses on Art and Education in Popular Cultures. She is an artist, educator and researcher. English version by Ed Seda. Email: edseda uol. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract This article is the result of my researches on the cultural heritage of traditional ceramics and the artisan pedagogy. Introduction The artist that cuts the wood, hammers the metal, molds the clay, carves the stone block, he brings to us the past of man, an ancient man, without whom we would not be here. Henri Focillon. Knowledge with the strength of springs Old trees were almost all of them prepared for the exile of the cicadas.
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To elucidate the concept of wisdom of the body, we turn to a passage from the novel The Cave, in which Saramago reflects on the wealth of knowledge possessed by a potter, in this case, the character Cipriano Algor: [ To promote discussion in the UK. Accompanying Poster, Slide set, and 85 pages of supporting documentation. Available as free downloads from: The Wide Spectrum website. Publication sponsored by Novartis UK, Pharmaceuticals, medical educational grant.
Jones GMM Advances in understanding dementia, care-giving and support. Minerva Pubs. Vol 2 TAD newsletters in progress. Bill Drake shares his view [adapting and supporting activities]. Course materials:. Course Notes Book pages; wiro-bound, all pages photocopy-able for teaching purposes. Introductory DVD What course participants say about this course. Topic 1 Memory and attention: bookcase model of memory. Topic 2 The aging senses: Part A vision and hearing. Topic 3 The aging senses: Part B touch and pain, smell, taste, kinethesis. Topic 8 Language changes in dementia.
Topic 9 Visuoperceptual changes in dementia. Topic 10 Activities and pastimes. Topic 11 Questions and visiting strategies. Topic 12 What is known about family carers. Topic 13 Grieving and guilt.
Topic 14 Communication options. About The Wide Spectrum Mnemonic. What Does it stand for? Course notes book. SL5 7BH, pages. Care-giving in Dementia. Nursing and Residential Care ; Sept. J of Care Services Management. To promote discussion in the UK Accompanying Poster, Slide set, and 85 pages of supporting documentation. J of Dementia Care.
Clinical Reviews in Gerontology. Routledge, London. Pp Brunner-Routledge, Hove. Jones GMM The loss of meaningful attachments in dementia and behavioural stage-specific implications.