e-book Un poco de sexo inofensivo hasta húmedo (Historias y fantasías Erotica 2) (Spanish Edition)

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Sin embargo, donde estos casamientos pueden disolverse, nos casamos, luego nos enamoramos. Aun en los casos en que hombres y muje- res viven con varios esposos a la vez, hay una parcja a la que prefle- ren. En las comunidades de sexo libre hombres y mujeres tiendcn a formar pareja. EI mayor acepta su destino y un matrimonio convenido. La sirvienra de la fami- lia se arroja a las aguas de un lago y se ahoga; no pertenece a la clase social adecuada para casarse con e!

El chismorreo es insoportable. La vida de familia debe ser preservada. Todos italianos seducen a las mujeres extranjeras que han conocido en los ho- los que lo rodeaban se quedaron en absoluto silencio. Hasta los ninas peque-. En diversas socie- los ninas norteamericanos repiten el abecedario. Pera los norteamericanos res dei mundo entero. Durante eI primer dia de las en la casa de su marido. Y nadie considera estas relaciones extramaritales como adulterio.

Esta forma de adulterio gasmo con ella -pero sin llegar al coito-, no lo sono Las tradiciones surge de su concepto dei parentesco. Tanto sus antepasados como sus familiar. Era su rcsponsabilidad reproducirse y traspasar su linaje. En China los hija casadera de un par. En la India, si un hom- multa severa, o se lo podia castrar o ejecutar. El sexo eon ellas sencilla- tilidad y poder. Dado que la tarea de la mujer en la Esta iba a cambiar.

A quienes primero relacionaron el adulterio con el pecado en la histeria partir de ese momento, quedaba presa en la casa de su esposo para de Occidente. Los mosexuales con adolescentes.

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Los antiguos ro- mento redactado alrededor del ano de la era cristiana. Ya en el sigla V antes de Cristo, los juc- gos sexuales eran uno de los pasatiempos favoritos para los hombres. Esta veta grecorromana del ascetismo, combinada con el concepto Los varones griegos se consideraban superiores a las mujeres. Sus maridos las trata- cristianos.

A pesar de nuestra actitud de monio eran vistos como actos promiscuos. Pero si no pueden contenerse, deben casarse. Porque es mos. Pero a medida que pasaban las genera- cometido deslices. Pero su matrimonio ja- amantes. Sin embargo, dos nuevas tendencias aparecian: ambos sexos tenfan.


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De unas Una encuesta de Algu- casados. AIgunos eran ricos, otros eran temprano. Igual que eI flirteo estereotipado, la sonrisa, la fisiolo-. Considerando la magnitud de las penas es asom- diversos estudios de los afios sesenta y setenta sobre los homosexuales broso que los seres humanos osen tener relaciones extramaritales.

Una mujer no puede en- para los machos ancestrales la infidelidad era adaptativa. La trual. A diferencia deI hombre, la mujer no puede engendrar cada vez ban tiempo a la cosecha de vegetales y ai cuidado de los hijos. De que copula.

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De esposa sumisa, y los norteamericanos se apresuraron a creerlo. De modo que cuando. El hombre africanas para aplacar la potente libido femenina. Los escritores tal- debe recomenzar desde eI principio para lograr otro orgasmo. Los indios cayapa dei Ecuador occi- otra vez.

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Es una buena idea. Luego, cuando unos cuatro millones que las mujeres en la variedad sexual. La otra, las convertia en variedad sexual, los hombres o las mujeres? Los resultados fueron los esperables. Algu- hubiesen planteado a las mismas muchachas la siguiente pregunta? Unos pocos disfrutan de las relaciones trian- chos. Otros usan las aventuras para mejorar sus vinculas con- lenios de escaparse con un amante -y los beneficios proporcionados yugales, satisfaciendo ciertas necesidades fuera de casa. Unos pocos lo hacen versa.

Estas per- aI ser amado. Otros hombres o mujeres nuestra estrategia reproductora, la tendencia humana aI divorcio. En aquellos dias las mujeres eran honradas y respetadas. Las muchachas eran pupilas de la familia. Por lo tanto insistia en que sus seguidores se con displicencia. Nunca lo duermo, y estoy casado. La sociedad occidental, en cambio, es intereses familiares. Si bien unos cortos versos. A diferencia deI casamiento cristiano, nes. Las tada de divorcio sigue siendo Talaqus-Sunna, de acuerdo con los deliberaciones del divorcio sin duda continuaron con amargas palabras dictados del profeta.

Sea con furia o desapasionadamentc, con cabo de dos maneras ligeramente diferentes, ambas aceptadas. Algu- de abstinencia sexual. Pera hay algunas circunstancias comunes a todas las personas Lo dudo. En algunas sociedades existen tribuna- El adulterio manifiesto encabeza la lista. En un estudio sobre les o consejos especiales para negociar los divorcios. La esterilidad y la impoten- sados y sus familias.? Esto puedc ser tan sencillo como trasladar una cia le siguen. Pero cuando Ganga No me sorprende que el adulterio y la infertilidad sean considera-.

Es frecuente entre sobre todo para reproducirse. A pesar de que los! Pera aun cuando los! En los Estados Unidos e! En primer lugar, eI divorcio es frecuente en las sociedades donde Los hombres! Tiene una escasas pertenencias y se iba a otro campamento. Los vecinos termina- versar. De los matrimonios! Juntaba escrofula- como mujeres contrajeron nuevos enlaces. Luego, en la temporada de scqula, se forman grupos que acampan en torno a los pozos de agua permanente.

Pera los penden unos de otros para la subsistencia. Los acaudalados patricios se mostraron entonces menos mujer que viviera en una granja dependia de su marido para quitar las dispuestos a traspasar grandes dotes a manos de sus yernos. EI marido precisaba de ella para que, en el siglo I antes de Cristo, mediante una serie de nuevas regla- sembrar, quitar la maleza, cosechar, acondicionar y almacenar los vege- mentaciones deI matrirnonio, las mujeres de c1ase alta pasaron a con- tales.

Hombro a hombro trabajaban la tierra. En traian a casa si no dinero: patrimonio trasladable, divisible? Y la mujer que cobra un jas inestablcs. De dicha informa- vitales. La endogamia -el matrimonio dentro de la cuando se divorcio? La poliginia tiene un curioso efecro sobre el divorcio. Sin embargo, tales variaciones no eran sorprendentes. En estas cul- turas la familia deI navio tiene que devolver a la nuera a sus padres si.

En rcali- sionales que requieren pocas reparaciones financieras. Entre los cientes de millones de de parejas que viven juntas. Sin embargo, sus divorcios se arraciman siempre en cana ante el matrimonio en si mismo. Nosotros no solemos casarnos torno al pico de los cuatro afies. Nos casamos por misma sociedad, a pesar de la gran incidencia del divorcio.

Tal vez. EI porcentaje de. En las islas Truk de Micronesia, y entre varias pueblos dedicados a la horticultura y la caza Tal vez. Pera Shakespeare si. A fin de eI lazo de la pareja. Pero vale la pena echar una ximo de divorcio anterior ai primcr afio de matrimonio. Muchos se sepa- ran. Ninguno de ellos se asemejaba a los seres humanos. Y segura- esqueleto humano. Pero es poco probable que el sexo y torso. Si tomamos delicadamente a un gato por las patas delante- fuera cosa de todos los dias para estos arcaicos antepasados nuestros. Porque todas las hembras primates -excepto las mujeres- puede ver lo que hay entre sus patas.

Pero en la mitad de cada ciclo, que puede durar de veintiocho suspendidos. Nuestros antepasados ad- de fertilidad como si fuera una bandera. Sin embargo, cuando su. Las hembras normalmente no copulan celo. Algunas veces pueden haberse mastur- La vida sexual de varios simios lo confirma. Las hembras dei chim- bado, tal como hacen las gorilas. Pero el actualidad. Esta cal dera iba a desaparecer. A su alrededor el saparecer. Donde la que rumian que hoy pueblan la llanura de Serengeti. Las higucras, las acacias, los mangas y los pera- profundamente a los hominoideos.

Algunos derivados florccie- ron, luego se extinguicron, meros callejones sin salida. Lo que era peor, los volcanes empezaron a escupir rocas derretidas. El grueso esmalte de sus mola-. Hasta su asesinato en la selva en consideran que dichos a. Este menzarfa la marcha hacia la humanidad? No obstante, si su anos. Normalmente eI apareamiento es para toda la vida, juntos nera de las bestias salvajcs.

De modo que podemos deducir bastante acerca de rrumpe tales encuentros, Los gorilas son infieles y toleran el adulterio. Los llas, brotes nuevos, hojas, miei, lombrices y orugas, haciendo aguJeros hombres, en cambio, no. Las hernbras gorila y jeros. En otras dos ocasiones los viero. Las personas, en cambio, sueIen gueros de terrnitas para corncrse a las residentes. Algunos grupos so? Vivie- El sexo es casi un pasatiempo cotidiano. EI periodo mensual de. Algunas ve- luego se aleja con el pedazo de cana en la mano.

Y siern- las hembras provoquen a otras hembras. Para empe- se observan en la gente en mcdio de la calle, en los bares y restaurantes zar, los bonobos no establecen parejas a largo plazo como los humanos. Los machos se ocupan de los Hong Kong. Prefle- a los ojos. Darwin sospechaba que el beso era natural en las personas.

Las hembras adoles- margen oriental dei lago Tanganica. Dos ciertos aspirantes los rechazan de plano. Las duas van y vienen. A menudo se une a un grupo de ma- masturbaban de vez en cu ando y hacian amistad con ciertos y determi- chos y procede a seducirlos a todos, excepto a sus hijos y hermanos. Es probable. Algunas veces un macho llega a atacar a la hembra una hembra, Se queda cerca de ella y trata de evitar que los otros ma- hasta que ella lo acepta. AIgunas veces, incluso, los machos persiguen o O sea que estamos ante algunos signos de monogamia, con coito en atacan a los otros pretendientes.

Pera las confrontaciones de este tipo privado y todo. Poco feria. Uno de ellos es la guerra. Tres o chos. A veces pegan gritos, tal vez para cerdos salvajes. Algunas veces un macho atfapa a un mono despreve- amedrentar a los extrafios, pera en general patrullan en silencio. La caza siempre es silenciosa.

Cuando se encuentran con vecinos, orinan o presa cerca. Otros golpean el suelo. Cada cazador da alaridos y pujan rocas. Luego ambos grupos retroceden. A nimo, ubicado aI sur. Una hembra en ceIo siem pre recibe bocados extra. En Gombe, tro. Se dan la mano, se palmean en serial de solidaridad cazar, o a luchar unos con otros con garrotes y piedras. Aprietan los dientes y retraen los labios Igual que hace- la paz. Hacen pucheros, se ponen de mal humor y tienen caprichos. Algunos de nuestros antepa-. Seis rnilloncs de anos polvillo.

I a los bosques y praderas dei mundo antiguo. Salvo por lados. Y hombres y mujcres actuales. Robert Frost nes de afies. Junto a los lagos azul- el hambre y la rivalidad debieron de presionarlos. Pero a cierta distancia incursionaban en lo desconocido. H males muertos. Antiguas variedades de elefantes, avestruces, okapis, gacclas, ce- EI hombre comedor de carrofia. Sus enemi- precedieron la caza de piezas grandes, que nuestros antepasados llega- gos, leones ancestrales, leopardos y perros salvajes, iban tras ellos.

Tres o cuatro hembras pueden ecosistema de Serengeti. EI haber aparecido juntas eo el bosque buscando hormigueros de termitas. Estos vecinos. A campo abierto es imposible comer sin ser visto. Comer con punta un carrofiero humano y alguien que lo ayudara a descarnar lleva tiempo. Entonces, nocturn as de los leones y observan el vuelo de los buirres.

De modo que estos primeros vida sobre la Tierra. En cambio, la junta- atrapadas s10 dar cuenta de ellas. J9 Dedujo que nuestros antepasados se alzaron sobre los pies a fin mento, y les robaban pedacitos de Carne antes de darse a la fuga. En respuesta mientras ella se desplazaba sin entorpecimientos. Habia rincones seguros por todos lados. El caminar con carga pesada y ruidosa durante varias aiios? Lo hacen de diversas maneras. Si un macho puede defender su pa-. Los machos de impala, por ejemplo. En circunstancias normales el macho no puede apoderarse de mismo modo que hacen los leones.

La poliginia pocas veces es una alterna- algo como la ronda del lechero que recorre el bania casa por casa. Pera el macho puede desplazarse con una hembra y evitar que se Los orangutanes hacen precisamente esto. Las hembras de muchas especies prefieren vivir En febrero la zorra comienza su danza de apareamiento. Para presente en el caso de los zorros rojos y los pcrirroios orientales.

Pera puede defender un pe- comida en otro lado y regresan, la zorra produce una leche pobre en queno territorio y cuidar de una sola parc]a. Tal vez, igual que los zorras rojos y los petirrojos, nuestros padres se separan para unirse a una bandada. Entre los!

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En la cuna de la anos. U n continuo" y entre los gainj de Nueva Guinea. En circunstancias normales la poliginia no era posible. Tal como en las relaciones de pareja amistades les proporcionan el acceso a la manada. Pera poco a poco se fue haciendo amigo de Naomi, hasta que al Seguramente hubo variaciones sobre este tema. A das las noches. Algunas parejas probablemente per- Las amistades especiales tienen otros beneficios. Ias cuida, las mima y protege. Esto detiene el ataque de inmediato. Entre los babuinos, los ami- mos hacer suposiciones. Luego, gradualmente. En primer lugar, dichas superpusieran.

De esta manera una presa pasada por alto por un grupo. No cabe duda de que estas madres extra, presentes en gran cerca. Para poner a salvo su futuro una red de varias manadas conectadas sin resrricciones. Los hiios terminan confundidos, asustados y desplazados. La ron pautas para la tendencia humana actual. Aun entre los primares las redisrribuciones en el orden en dia en parejas incluidas en las muestras de las Naciones Unidas que social a menudo originan peleas feroces. En otras especies a esos hermanos mayores se los llama ayu- vcntajoso para ambos formar una pareja permanente.

Antes de que En primer lugar, la variedad. De ese Hoy en dia estas premisas se mantienen vigentes. Las parejas ADN para ocuparse del protoplasma ajeno. Luego se plejizado con la vida moderna. Y algunos machos y hembras come- tadoras, y quieren ir a la universidad. De modo que para un macho convertirse eo padrastro pasada la primera infancia deI. Algunos hom- humanos actuales. Pero los primeros marrimonios no suelen ser duraderos. La alianza entre los adultos fue cimentada. Los hijos han regresado sin sufrir danos. No nacieron nietos. Con cada nuevo apareamiento los lazos sociales se ampliaban a las bandas vccinas.

EROS pasados. Nunca estamos tan indefensos contra el dolor Existen realmente algunas pruebas de que el enamoramiento y el como cuando nos enamoramos. Las terminaciones nerviosas la tormenta arrasadora de! Liebowitz que o por la playa, nuestras almas se funden en una sola. Estas emociones deben de provenir de nuestros ante- cabo en sociedades, e! Los machos que hacian escapadas ocasionales con otras como cspecic.

Mal de amores. Los niveles de endorfina bajan. Tal algunos hombres y mujeres se muestren dispuestos a tolerar los maIos vez. Las Sospccho que tanto las hormonas como el medio ambiente rienen personas se ponen tristes durante el duelo por un ser querido. Algunos importantes efectos en las preferencias sexua1cs de la humanidad y de apenas pueden trabajar, comer o dormir. Tal como lo describe el psi- otros animales. Los celos pueden aparecer en cualquier momento de una re- dad, asf se trate de amor entre hombres o entre mujeres. Los hombres, en cambio, frente a los celos comienzan a esculpir los genitales masculinos y femeninos.

Hoy se abandonan a su pareja con mayor frecuencia. P Por otra parte, los celos no son monopo- homosexualidad, pero por ahora no existe consenso alguno. En mi opi- lia de los occidentales. Aun donde el adulterio es permitido, la gente sicntc celas naturaleza. Los yolngu somos un pueblo celoso y sicmpre lo hemos sido, desde la gorilas macho se juntan en bandas y tienen relaciones homosexuales.

Incluso los peces espinosos de vez en cuando se tercero. Que no le quepa duda, los celos son parte infidelidad de las mujeres y aI abandono por parte de los machos, po- de nuestra naturaleza. Pera machos y bra, contribuye a aumentar la intensidad dei ataqLle de celos. A pe- liza a la esposa de parte de un azulejo celoso? Gracias a lenios.

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Pero eon el tiernpo la realidad se ins- mamas celas. De igual manera, los celas de hombres y mujeres tala. Los hu. Pera el proceso es importante. Una vez definida, la historia puede ser diri- gida, trabajada y, con el riernpo. Cualquicr retro- ceso, como por ejemplo e! Con 10 friente a un nuevo pozo de angustia. Poco a poco el individuo abandonado adquiere una dad sexual. EI pasado comienza a aflojar su nudo corredizo.

Los datos demuestran que nuestras emociones ti e- Existen innumerables razones. Como re- bles aventuras. Zuckerman con- del cerebro. Los norte- Y si los animales aman, Lucy amaba. Sea cual sea la cuando, a comienzos de la sequia, se congregaban los diferentes gru- pos. Narices rojizas. Si una melena hacfa que un. Y los penes gruesos evolucionaron. Son aoimales que viveo coo ha- de los insectos hembra son muy promiscuos, copulan con diversos ma- renes estables. En muchas especies de insec- huevos. Como sintetiza H. Mencken: freeuencia y poca competencia por parte de los otros machos.

Selectividad femenina. Los machos simplemente donan su es- capacidad de las mujeres para reproducirse y alimentar a las crfas" -la perma. Se bambolean dolorosa- chos. Se inte. Y en el caso de muchas, acariciarlos estimula el deseo sexual. Y cabe pensar humana. En meninos desde hace siglas, por no decir milenios. El co- algo extremadamente estimulante. A causa de estos experiencia emocional tumultuosa.

EI orgasmo femenino alimenta el ego dcl macho. Las personas han inventado docenas de posiciones para hacer Y para la mujer el orgasmo es un viaje, un estado alterado de con- el amor. O sea que, igual que las hembras ancestrales con pechos No puedo estar de acuerdo con Symons. En los machos, el orgasmo es esencial para la mujer durante el orgasmo. Las mujeres alcanzan el or- de celo. La posibilidad mujeres desarrollaron inconscientemente a fin de reservarse para el de copular en cualquier momento permitia a las hembras mantener hombre adecuado, paciente y dedicado, y no entregarse a amantes im- permanentemente atentos a sus amigos especiales.

Es una idea intere- pacientes. Pero para tener aventuras hay que aprovechar el momento. Porque las hembras en edad de reprodudrse ceIo. No es verdad.

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Los amantes paralelos tam. Y como los primates macho que se aparean con una hem- rrumpida. Las mujeres tampoco se obsesionan con el sexo en mitad deI ciclo. Sin em- amor. EI credo sexista era una reaccion amarga tras la Primera Guerra Mundial. Afirmaba que el media ambiente moldeaba la personalidad. La mujer parece diferenciarse dei nas como la ropa, los modales o los tocados que una sociedad les im- hombre Como animal.

Por lo tanto, a causa de la rivalidad ancestral entre machos y esencialmente iguales. Disponemos de una cantidad de datos nuevos, y hoy muchos hombres. Tartamudean menos. La dis1cxia se ma- tas mujeres declinaba. Y muchisimas e. La prueba Los hombres, en promedio, destacan en los problemas de altas ma- de esta la encontramos en nuestra herencia cccidental. AI llegar los hombres. Luego, en la pubertad, los varones superan a ma educativo cultivan a medida que crecen.

Y ta-. AI contrario. Las mujeres ancestrales que recordaban. EI juego de la lucha violenta es casi exclusivamente una preocu- tasen las necesidades de sus hijos pequenos. Pero los datas disponibles indican que de dos especies diferentes. Pera, por regla general, los hombres y las mujeres parece0 es- que balbuceen ante un objeto cualquiera o ante una luz intermitente.

En eso Darwin estaba equivocado. Algu- adulto por su tono de voz. Otras pueden hacer girar los objetos mentalmente, arreglar En su libra de , In a Difjerent VOlce Con una voz diferente , el coche o escribir un poema. Tras cen ante las situaciones saci ales delicadas. Cicrtas personas recuerdan mejor todo pero tie- bilidades respecto a otras personas. Algunas mujeres son bri- en el arreglo personal que las ninas normales.

Pera existe una cantidad importante de datos que en nicies desprotegidas, estas funciones determinadas por el sexo deben de general sugieren que cada sexo funciona de acuerdo con una corriente haberse vuelto esenciales para la supcrvivcncia, dando origen a las ac- subyacente, con una especie de melodia, de tema. Sin embargo, unos A partir de , Mary y chan a sus presas, las pcrsigucn y matan.

Se dedicao a la fundo. Las hembras de aguas tranquilas. Estas actividades estimularon su habilidad ver- hoja perenne que avanzaban cuesta arriba por las laderas de las monta- bal. Entonces, construido. Algunas eran grandes trozos de lava, cuarzo u otros tipos cuando nucstros antepasados empezaron a procurarse presas pequenas. Otras eran pequenos desprendimientos resultantes. The l a t t e r repaid the compliment with an enthusiastic review of the book, published i n Opiniones Es en muchos de sus poesfas - por ejemplo en Caprichos, de t i t u l o goyesco - un verleniano de l a ma's legftima procedencia.

Con l o s elementos foneticos del c a s t e l l a n o ha llegado a hacer l o que en france's no han logrado muchos seguidores d e l prodigioso Fauno. I t i s s u f f i c i e n t to glance at the correspondence between Jime'nez and the Martfnez S i e r r a s to see how much a l l three of them admired V e r l a i n e.

They read h i s 2 poems aloud and presented copies of h i s books t o each other. Other plays of t h e i r s were e n t i t l e d Sueno de carnaval and Pantomima. In "Nuevos poetas de Espana", Obras I , p. Machado seems to owe nothing to h i s Spanish contemporaries i n t h i s respect. But i t was the prevalence of the themes and moods introduced from Prance by Darfo and Machado that must have provoked the f e r o c i t y of Andre's Gonzalez Blanco's review of Caprichos, and the p a t r o n i s i n g tone of Manuel A b r i l.

Both ca s t i g a t e the very aspect of the book that Darfo most admired, that i s , i t s Prenchness. In Los contempdraneos, p. See G u l l d n , Direcciones p. The very t i t l e Caprichos. The commonplace about the moon being P i e r r o t ' s l o v e r has a l r e a d y been discussed ch. Darfo's "Divagacidn" contains a stanza w i t h a mandoline and a F l o r e n t i n e page dressed i n red.

But both instrument and page are to be found i n the other a r t s o f the epoch too. As i n the previous poem, her re d mouth i s the only note o f c o l o u r. And again Samin's 'Heures d'ete'1 provide a p a r a l l e l. Les f l e u r s dorment dans l e velours.. A c l e a r e r antecedent f o r these i s to he found i n Verlaine's "Marco" p.

I t may derive from the French pantoum genre, which repeats l i n e s i n a r e g u l a r order, so that the second and fourth l i n e s of the f i r s t ; stanza become the f i r s t and t h i r d of the second stanza and so on. The next poem, " E l viento" p. Once again, as i n "Otono", the metre and the loose syntax derive from "Chanson d'automne" p. The s i m i l e of smoke d i s s o l v i n g i s frequently encountered i n Machado's poetry and may be reminiscent o f 'Ariettes oubliees' IX p.

I t describes the wind br i n g i n g breaths of perfume and sounds 9 i n much the same way. V a l e n t f has noted the frequency of wind images i n both Verlaine and Machado p;-. Despite the words "funambulesco" and "Carnaval", which were common currency , there is l i t t l e trace in i t of what G-onzaxez Blanco calls "banvillismo".

Banville's Mascarades are regular in metre and rhyme and cheerful in outlook. The "complot" may well have been suggested by Verlaine's "Fantoches" p. The masks and disguises were of course a carnival tradition: the sadness hidden by them had been most perfectly expressed by Verlaine in the famous first poem of Fetes galantes p. Banville uses i t too, but without the bitterness of the Machados.

The "serenata gemebunda" may derive from Verlaine's "Serenade" p. It describes a masked ball of These are rimes riches, clownish changes of mood verging on farce, and a tendency to parody and dehumanise the characters portrayed. De 1'orage? L'amour est un jeu morose: Tout est v i d e , tout est vain. I t i s also very s i m i l a r t o an image i n Verlaine's "Voix de l'Orgueuil" p. The a s s o c i a t i o n of the figures of pantomime with the c a r n i v a l i s of course t r a d i t i o n a l , f o r at Mardi Gras people wear fancy dress and are often disguised as pantomime characters.

Dario also describes a c a r n i v a l peopled with P i e r r o t s and Columbines i n "Cancidh de carnaval" p. So the f a l l i n g of the snow on 79 Machado's carnival is possibly also a symbol of Lenten gravity and of the reminder of mortality in the Ash Wednesday service. And snow is also appropriate to the season in which Lent falls. Machado's achievement in "Pantomima" is to have combined the topos of the melancholy revellers with the technique of the rime funambulesque in a poem of grotesque pathos which is very original.

The first, "La hija del ventero" p. It is a work of purely Spanish inspiration in theme, and a knowledge of the Qui. In this respect and in its remote and rather fey atmosphere the poem resembles number XI of 'Lucien Le'tinois' from Amour p. In Verlaine's poem i t is sunset and Cinderella is dozing, while other characters from fairy stories pursue their various activities. In the end everyone meets together in the welcoming inn.

This poem, like Machado's, relies on the connotations of names known from books, a common heritage, to work its magic. Parisian sentimentality put into verse and thereby refined. Mimi was of course the sanctified name for a l l grisettes, models and open-hearted girls of slender means ever since Murger's Scenes de la vie de BohJme and Puccini's opera. Carrillo's Parisian heroines tend to be fair-haired, under-nourished and to love artists. Le'andre 12 here has nothing to do with "Le'andre le sot", the stock character of the commedia, but is a romantic name for a lover, like the Leqndre in Samain's "Watteau", Le Chariot, p.

However, i t should be noted that there was a Montmartre painter of the turn of the century called Le'andre. Long flowing Verlaine, "Colombine", p. The rather t r i t e notion that her h a i r was the only gold she possessed may w e l l have been suggested by a l i n e i n Verlaine's "Grotesques" p. Brotherston has shown how "Rosa" p. We know that Machado read h i s copy of that c o l l e c t i o n with great c a r e , even marking i t , so that Rosa's "arte peregrina" could also have been suggested by Verlaine's d e s c r i p t i o n i n number I p.

The v u l g a r i t y of expressions l i k e " e l loco deseo" and "una hurf espanola" are the f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n s i n Machado's work o f the tendency to cheapen h i s Andalusian heritage which mars so much of h i s l a t e r p oetry. The l a s t poem under the heading 'Mujeres' i s "Ruth" p. I t i s a simple poem, rather Parnassian i n technique and of course i n i t s B i b l i c a l subject matter. Apart from the l a t t e r , i t seems to owe nothing to Hugo's "Booz endormi", A contemporary influence might be Rossetti's p a i n t i n g "Ruth and Booz", which depicts her much as Machado does, with her cloak f u l l of wheat and Booz bending s o l i c i t o u s l y over her.

The next s e c t i o n of the book, 'Cadencias de cadencias', contains s i x poems on Spanish subjects and one very French poem, "J a r d i n neo-clasico," 13, La bohemia espanola en P a r i s , p. See also ch, 2"', p. One of Levy-Dhurmer1 s best-known p a i n t i n g s , a l s o c a l l e d "Marguerite" represents a g i r l with a rather farouche look holding d a i s i e s. Another p i c t u r e that could have suggested t h i s poem i s Janmot's "Fleur des champs", which also shows a b e a u t i f u l , sad g i r l with d a i s i e s i n her lap and hands.

Baudelaire wrote about i t i n Le Salon de P a r i s , , p. The f i r s t poem, "Alvar-Fanez" p. I t i s true that i t i s rather too a r t i f i c i a l l y terse and pit h y i n expression, betraying once again the detached Parnassian a t t i t u d e of poems l i k e de L i s l e ' s "L'Accident de Don Inigo2 or He'redia's "Romancero". But I do not think that the same c r i t e r i a apply to "Glosa" p. There i s no French antecedent f o r the theme, as there are f o r poems on the C i d and h i s men. The poem shows a r e a l warmth of f e e l i n g f o r Berceo, who was one of the poets most beloved of Machado's generation.

This aspect of i t w i l l be discussed i n chapter 7. In Manuel's poem he sees pass " l a s horas y l a s horas", In prologue t o Alma. Museo, Los cantares, p. Cernuda, Estudios p. Both poems use puntos suspensivos to give slowness to t h e i r l i n e s. The vocabulary - p l a z a , p i e d r a , b i a n c o , v i e j o , h oras, santo, mendigo, pasar - i s the same, and b o t h poems are examples of the concern f e l t f o r Spain by the Machados' generation.

This sonnet may have been one of the poems which provoked Zayas's complaint t h a t Modernists were debunking Spanish h i s t o r y and the g l o r i e s of F l a n d e r s , P o r t u g a l and I t a l y pp. But although the form i s French, the content i s p u r e l y Spanish and shows once again a generation o f '98 preoccupation w i t h the causes o f Spain's decadence.

It takes its images mainly from "Nuit de Walpurgis classique" p. The Oupid bending his bow is from "L'Amour par terre" p. H9 while the description of the garden is nearly a l l from "Nuit de Walpurgis classique" - the rigid cypresses, the classical groups of statues, the fountain and the topiary work, everything clipped and trimmed and in its place.

Only the wandering white paths and the clumps of myrtle are not French and they are, as has been seen, constant images with Manuel. It is possible that the masked face and the statues were suggested by Darib's "Era un aire suave It has been suggested that the t i t l e is an ironic inversion of La Bonne Chanson or a variation on Les Fleurs du Mal. The seven poems under this title are sad, even morbid, and deal with the seamy side of l i f e. The f i r s t poem "Serenata" p.

But a l l that the two poems have in common is that the mistress is indifferent and that the lover spends sleepless nights thinking of her. The notion of lovers' souls approaching each other in dreams may come from Verlaine's "Colloque sentimentale" p. The vocabulary of "Serenata" is also Becquerian. In one of Antonio's poems, number XV of Soledades, a man in love walks the streets where his beloved lives, and his footsteps are the only sound in the street.

The "cantar con. E t c'est l'aube des v o l s , des amours et des crimes. Son c r i qui se lamente, et se prolonge, e t c r i e. C'est ecorche, c'est faux, c'est h o r r i b l e , c'est dur. The l a t t e r ' s "L'Aube a l'envers" p. See c h. See C a r t e r , The Idea o f Decadence, pp. Words l i k e "anemia", "perversos" and "malsano" emphasise the P a r i s i a n Decadent connotations. The technique i s l i k e that o f number I I I of 'Ariettes oublie'es' p. XLuxure" "Alcohol" ' Baume du mal amour. Paiblesse du puissant et puissance Palso f u e r t e.

Appetit du peche mortel. Mentira, qufmica, muerte. Ultime amour damnd qui se s u i c i d e. I t i s reminiscent of the fanner i n i t s dramatic tone, and of " L i r i o " i n i t s imagery of smoke evaporating. Poussieres de P a r i s , p. In Verlaine's poem Pierrot's white shirt is like a shroud blowing in a cold wind, and he is dying. In Machado's he is s t i f f with cold, and dies. The tit l e poem p. The use of the word alrno is a clear borrowing from Verlaine, who uses 22 the word, a neologism in French as in Spanish, three times in his poetry. But the atmosphere of "Vfsperas" is very clearly Verlainian, even See Valentf p.

Brotherston has shown i t s closeness to Samain's "La Peau de bete" p. I "L'humble antienne" no. IX " l e s ramures chanteuses" Mandoline" "une voix sous l a ramee" La Bonne Chanson V i "Abel" "La t r i s t e z a i n f i n i t a efluye de l a humilde hierba d e l su e l o.

The establishment of these p a r a l l e l s was f a c i l i t a t e d by use of the computer concordances. Alia", sobre l o s montes, quedan algunas brasas. The l a s t three poems i n Caprichos are very accomplished. Prologue, p.


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But i t i s also very close to Sages se I , l 6 , "Ecoutez l a chanson bien douce" p. Sagesse I , 16 "Se dice lentamente" "Ecoutez l a chanson bien douce "Yo no se ma's que una vagufsima oracidn; Qui ne pleure que pour vous p l a i r e. The li n e s "Bonnez-lui l'oraison. But despite i t s V e r lainian anteced-ents "Se dice lentamente" i s castizo both i n i t s emotion and i n i t s vocabulary, that simple generalised vocabulary which Verlaine bequeathed to a whole generation of poets from a l l nations. Baudelaire used i t f o r dialogues with himself, "pauvre ame s o l i t a i r e " , and Verlaine learned i t from him.

I t i s interesting that Antonio too used this concept of the p i l g r i m soul throughout h i s work. An example i s no. VIII of 'Del camino' , p. Viens, je suis l a Mort douce, et l'amante attendue, E t je te v e r s e r a i. Brotherston to have been taken from Dario's "Sor Maria" p. Both Gonzstlez Blanco 2 8 p. A thematic a n a l y s i s of Caprichos, then, has shown that the influence of Ve r l a i n e i s almost all-pervading and that the Parnassian element o f Alma has lessened.

There i s also more thematic influence apparent from Baudelaire 29 and Samain. Much o f Caprichos i s not subjective poetry, and i t betrays l e s s of Machado himself than any other o f h i s c o l l e c t i o n s except Apolo. But the best of the poems are among the best that Machado ever wrote, and i t i s i n these, " E l v i e n t o " , "Madrid v i e j o " , "Prosa", "Vfsperas", "Abel", "Se d i c e lentamente" and "Kyrie e l e i s o n " , that the voice o f Ve r l a i n e can be heard most c l e a r l y.

Themen, p. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that whereas Jimenez r e f e r s to Baudelaire as one of the most important influences on himself and the Machados i n La corriente p. The former includes eight poems i n the copla s t y l e , and takes i t s t i t l e from the si n g l e flamenco-inspired poem i n Alma, "Cantares". In his prologue Unamuno stresses the e s s e n t i a l Spanishness of Machado's i n s p i r a t i o n , although admitting "que algtfn impulso. This chapter, then, w i l l consider i n terms of theme and mood a l l the new poems i n Alma. The f r o n t i s p i e c e , by Juan G r i s who also designed Machado's bookplate with i t s melancholy P i e r r o t , c l e a r l y i ndicates 'Los cantares' as an important s e c t i o n of the new book.

I t shows a black-haired gypsy g i r l wearing a manton, and carnations i n her h a i r , standing under orange t r e e s. A copy i s appended p. I t i s an old-fashioned poem, Romantic i n tone, and does not merit d i s c u s s i o n. The question "iQue' me ha quedado? But the most unmistakably French note i n the poem i s the correspondance between sound and s m e l l , " e l aroma de su nombre". In Baudelaire's "Toute entiere" p. I t shows that the morning theme was used by Machado before the poems of 'La buena cancidn' , but an examination of the l a t t e r w i l l show how h i s knowledge o f V e r l a i n e changed h i s treatment o f 2 the theme.

I t i s reminiscent of nothing so much as V e r l a i n e ' s "Cauchemar" p. The r e v e r s a l of verb and subject i n the l a s t stanza and the exclamatory ending of "Cauchemar" are s i m i l a r i n " E l p r i n c i p e , " and both poems are melodramatic i n tone. I t i s an undistinguished poem, a mixture of r h e t o r i c a l s t y l e and Becquerian sentiments, and derives most obviously from the l a t t e r ' s number LIII of Rimas, "Volveran l a s oscuras golondrinas".

The sub-heading ' F i g u l i n a s ' contains a new poem. Brotherston remarks, a c a r i c a t u r e d view of the French eighteenth century p, But other poems by Verlaine a l s o contributed t o the genesis of " F i n de s i g l o ". Indeed, as L e p i o r z notes, the whole world of Fetes galantes r e l i v e s i n Machado. C l o r i s reappears i n "En bateau" p. The g u i l l o t i n e i s a neat and elegant way of being b r u t a l , and shows the same preoccupation with the mechanics of s t y l e as does the t u r n i n g of a compliment or the dancing of a minuet.

Grands seigneurs paillete's d ' e s p r i t. Marquis de sevres. Tout un monde galant, v i f , brave, exquis et fou. Included under the same heading are four poems which are not coplas nor s p e c i f i c a l l y on Andalusian themes. Three of them have the word madrigal i n t h e i r t i t l e s and may have formed part of the "plaquette" of f i f t e e n or twenty "madrigalitos s i n pensamiento n i profundidad" about which Machado wrote to Juan Ramon Jimenez i n The l i n k between morning dew and the g i f t of bouquets of flowers i s to be found i n "Green" p..

Aleluyas were the comic s t r i p s of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, broadsheets with a series of cartoons i l l u s t r a t i n g coplas printed beneath. The term consequently came to mean "doggerel", and t h i s series of rhyming couplets celebrating the charms of the f a i r L o l i l l a i s , as Machado said , inoffensive and nothing more.

These books influenced Machado alone of his generation and t h e i r effect can be seen i n much of his e r o t i c verse. The idea of young g i r l s capable of depravity appears early i n Verlaine's work, i n "Chanson des ingenues" p. Numbers V p. The other side of the c o i n , youth and innocence, i s described i n much the same terms as i s Mathilde i n numbers I I and I I I pp. She too i s unpredictable, "Ldgere et grave, ironique, a t t e n d r i e ".

The d u a l i t y of Verlaine's feelings towards women i s expressed i n "Serenade" p.. Baudelaire also uses the term madrigal to mean a complimentary poem to a woman, as i n "Madrigal t r i s t e " or the prose poem "L'horloge"; Verlaine only uses i t once. The next sub-heading, 'Hablado', i s i n t e r e s t i n g. The word seems to indi c a t e that the poetry should be spoken rather than sung, reminding one o f the medieval d i s t i n c t i o n between degires and canciones. J Tu boca es sd l o para besar'.

T a p i s s e r i e usde et suranne'e, Banale comme un decor d'opera, P a c t i c e , h e l a s l comme ma destinee? I am indebted f o r t h i s suggestion t o Dr. On Darfo and "admirable" see Pe'rez P e r r e r o , V i d a. The l i n e i s of course from Dante,, and i s also quoted by Antonio, i n l i n e s s i m i l a r to Manuel's and to D a r i o1s "Cancfon de otono en primavera" p. The word was, as we have s a i d , i n common use at the time. Exacerbated nerves and quivering s e n s i b i l i t i e s , the resu l t of Rimbaud's "long derangement de tous l e s sens", were considered a desirable state f o r an a r t i s t.

But i n "Ultima" he seems t o be using the word i r o n i c a l l y , as he does i n the poem "Neurastenia" from Caprichos. Brotherston In E l Pafs Madrid, A l i k e l y antecedent for Machado's lines on the poverty of great writers i s also to be found in D a r f o , i n number XI of Cantos p.

The barrel-organ, with i t s mournful music, is the symbol of the streets and cafe's of literary Bohemia, and of the romanticising of that l i f e. Machado was of course aware of the organ in "Nocturne Parisien" p. Verlaine's organ grinds out old, well-known songs which "font vibrer l'Sme aux proscrits, aux femmes, aux artistes. Quoted by D. Verlaine too comments wryly on the de s t i t u t e l i f e of the poet, i n "Caprice" p. Va, poete, l e seul des hommes v e r i t a b l e s , Meurs sauve', meurs de faim pourtant l e moins possible.

Baudelaire uses the same images to express man's capacity f o r e v i l i n "Au l e c t e u r " , p. The image of pure water found i n " P r i l r e du matin" p. L i n e s from the l a t t e r , "Ahl v i v r e i c i parmi 1'innocence des choses", and "0 songe d'une v i e heureuse et monotone! The f i r s t poem, "La buena cancidh" p.

The elements of morning, sun, sky and r i v e r are the same, and the thoughts o f love t h a t they evoke. See Chabas, Vuelo y e s t i l o I Madrid, , p. L i k e numbers IV p. Aimons-nous doucement.


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Je connais les engins de son v i e i l arsenal: Crime, horreur et folie. Me volvi" a l enemigo t e r r i b l e , centro de l a neurosis, ombligo de l a locura. The tones of red and black represent sexual passion and s i n , and are probably derived from Verlaine's "There" p.

In the same stanza the countryside r e f l e c t e d i n h i s eyes may have been suggested by the l i n e s i n La bonne chanson number V p. The same poem contains the l i n e s "Quelle j o i e Parmi l e s champs de b i d murl T h i s s i n g i n g sky corresponds t o Machado's laughing sky. The two sonnets of "Se' buena" p,64 are the culmination of these poems of 'La buena cancidn' i n the sense t h a t they d e s c r i b e at l e n g t h , i n the very Soyez mere Amante ou soeur, soyez l a douceur". Sagesse I 16 p. A comparison of the uses of the words paz and s e n c i l l e by means of the computer concordances e s t a b l i s h e d the c l o s e l i n k between these poems.

Un gros tapage fatigue". L'endroit f a i t semblant d'Stre g a i. E t mon coeur s ' e f f r a y a d'envier maint pauvre homme. I t has been observed that Antonio Machado knew h i s 26 B a u d e l a i r e , and the two brothers shared a common fund of l i t e r a r y knowledge and reference. I l l Alma. La buena cancion. Parabolas y otras p o e s i a s. But presumably something had t o be omitted i f Machado was t o in c l u d e the e r o t i c poems fromry.

The verse Verlaine's p o e t r y. En l a obra La luna blanca Luce en e l bos que; De cada rama P a r t e una voz So l a enramada Revons, c'est l'heure. Suena, es l a hora. Un vaste et tendre Apaisement Semble descendre Du firmament Que l ' a s t r e i r i s e. Un t i e r n o y vasto Recogindento B a j a r parece D e l firmamento Qhe e l a s t r o i r i s a , C'est l'heure exquise. Even i f he had not known the French poet's work w e l l when he began, as we 32 know that he d i d , he must have become deeply imbued w i t h i t i n the course o f such a lengthy task.

However, I have been unable t o f i n d any evidence o f when they were begun. I t s cynicism derives p a r t l y , as Moreno V i l l a points out, from Espronceda, but i t s p r o s a i c tone and c i t y subject matter have French antecedents. In h i s speech to the Academy i n 3 he apologised profusely f o r E l mai poema. But h i s awareness of i t s r e a l importance i s apparent through the ir o n y. In an interview with Juan Sampelayo i n A r r i b a , September 28, , he c a l l s E l mai poema his favourite book.

Los autores como actores Mexico, , p. Brotherston, pp. The f i r s t and most important sub-heading i n the book i s that which, already used i n Caprichos. But preceding i t are two key poems, "Retrato" p. The s t y l e , f l u c t u a t i n g between Esproncedan swagger and French degonflage, i s Machado's own. Cosas", "Nada grave". Je s u i s un sensuel. Plaignez-moi, c a r j e s u i s mauvais et non mechant. Moi l e blase'". Chanson usee et b i e n f i n i e , Ta jeunesse T i e n s - c ' e s t -Boujours neuf - calomnie Tes pauvres amours Rousselot P a r i s , , pp.

Vian does not remark the originality of using i t in poetry nor the ironic use to which i t is put. Machado is satirising much of Spain in laughing at himself. He is also indirectly making a plea for realistic poetry, a plea he will make again in "Internacional". He insists that he is not the traditional Romantic idea of a poet, not a gamester, a toper nor a Don Juan. Like most people, he admires s k i l l and agility, prefers gaiety and sunshine to gloomy high-mindedness and classical modes.

Rather than be such a poet, that i s , a melancholy phil-Hellene, he would prefer to be a good banderillero. But the implication of these lines is not, as most critics have assumed, that Machado would rather be a bullfighter than a poet, but that he would rather be a bullfighter than "un tal poeta".

And clearly, Machado knows his own worth, knows that he is nof'un t a l poeta" but an innovator of considerable s k i l l. The mention of Montmartre and the Macarena is significant. The slang music-hall songs of Montmartre, like those of Aristide Bruant and Xavier Privas, and the words of flamenco songs are alike in their concern with the l i f e of the poor, with crime, passion and death, and this is the world that Machado describes in E l mal poema. Brotherston points out, not to be taken s e r i o u s l y p. The self-deprecating manner and the humility are once again i r o n i c.

But he continued to be a Bohemian and a poet, as d i d Machado, despite h i s protestations o f age and i l l n e s s. The second stanza of the poem i s no longer i r o n i c but savagely eloquent. The Muse weeps, abandoned. Like Baudelaire's "Muse malade" p.

She f i n d s , as does Verlaine's "voyageur" i n Sagesse 1 , 3 , p. The prosaic s t y l e p e r s i s t s , with i n t e r -jections l i k e " Ique' demonioi" and "mejor dicho". Indeed much of the poem i s l i k e a dramatic monologue of the kind r e c i t e d i n nineteenth century music-halls. This combination of r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e s o f speech, " l a Musa", " e l Arte" w i t h everyday speech gives a freshness to the former.

The image of Art leaving Spain i s reminiscent o f two other poems i n Spanish, Garcf Perrandes de Jerena's cantiga from the Cancionero de 1 2 0 Baena where Love leaves Spain with a l l h i s t r a i n , and Darfo's " E l campo"ffrom Prosas profanas, of which these are the l a s t l i n e s : "Yo soy l a Poesfa que un tiemppaquf reino": Yo soy e l p o s t r e r gaucho que parte para siempre De nuestra v i e j a p a t r i a llevando e l corazoni" The t h i r d stanza of "Prdlogo-epflogo" i s on women and derives from number III of Verlaine's 'Lucien L e t i n o i s ' from Amour, p.

Prudent, sage, calme ennemi, N'exage'rant jamais t a v i c t o i r e a. Et doux, trop doux souvent In De'dicaces, "A Charles de S i v r y " p. Cancionero de Baena I I I ed. See p. The sub-heading ' E l mal poema' covers the next f i v e poems i n the book, the f i r s t of which i s "Yo, poeta decadente.. I t ends on a note of weary impotence with another conversational phrase, "Todo es conforme y segdn", which, l i k e the meaningless "Bueno, pues 0 nada" i s used to bring a Spanish conversation to a close. A s i m i l a r cry of helplessness i s found at the end of Verlaine's 'Lucien Le'tinois' V, p.

By using i t Machado exploits the i r o n i c p o s s i b i l i t i e s of comparing his own beloved c t i t t l e "de'classe'e" with the most b e a u t i f u l woman of antiquity, and also perhaps implies that she too can inspire a poet just as Phryne inspired the great orator Hyperides. I t would seem that Phryne, l i k e Medea and Helen, was one of the women commonly invoked by the Decadents, f o r Lorrain uses her name without explanation i n a description of a pantomime: "Phrynette, cette petite soeur cadette et decadente 12 de Phryne'" i s a "mousseuse hetaire". The fashion for being i n love w i t h The expression " b i s n i e t o s d e l C i d " from "Yo, poeta decadente Machado clearly speaks of the same people in "Internacional".

His evening i s a g i f t for a l l men, belonging to no one, and bequeathing the twilight with i t s lovely nuances of colour. Verlaine too, i n "Nocturne Parisien" p. The line "padre del matiz divino" may refer both to the evening and to Verlaine and his nuances. Baudelaire's "Le cre'puscule de matin" p. A l l this i s not to say that Machado had not experienced evening and dawn 14 i n the c i t y for himself: we know from Pe'rez Perrero that he had, frequently. But i t i s clear that his experience was affected by his reading, so that he saw the city i n the same terms as the French poets he admired.

The f i f t h stanza, with i t s reference to thirst as l i f e ' s main preoccupation, recalls Verlaine's use of the image in "Priere du matin" p. The end of the poem with i t s impertinent last l i n e is one of Machado's most accomplished. See this ch. Nous en moquons nous?

N i ayer n i manana. The next poem, "gombra", appended p. I n number V p. After 'Canciones y coplas 1 which do not concern lis here, comes the next sub-section 'Horas', containing eight poems, two of which are in French. The "batalla de amor" reference echoes that i n "Prologo-epflogo" and Verlaine's 'Lassitude". The poem i s extraordinarily like one on the same theme, "Rondeau" by Musset, who was one of the favourite poets of Machado's generation.

Le peigne en main A son miroir Manon court m'oublier. Helasl L'amour sans lendemain n i ve i l l e F u t - i l jamais? Pe'rez Ferrero pp. The one thing that seems clear i s that when Machado embarked on his uncle's boat for Marseilles he was escaping from a love a f f a i r. The mood i n "Marina" i s exalted and has much i n common with Baudelaire's "Le voyage" p. Ultimas p. Au fond de l'lnconnu pour t r o u v e r du nouveau? The two poems i n French, appended pp. Darfo too had attempted t o w r i t e poems i n French, i n A z u l , w i t h no greater success.

The poem does not merit a prolonged study, but i t maybe observed that Dubus's "Le mauvais chemin" p. The "ombre malsaine" seems t o have been i n s p i r e d by "des demons malsains dans 1'atmosphere" from Ba u d e l a i r e ' s "Le crdpuscule du s o i r " p. The "ombre malsaine" i s a l s o reminiscent o f the "vapeur malsaine" of V e r l a i n e ' s "Nocturne p a r i s i e n " p.

Levent des poussi e r e s Au s o u f f l e mauvais See chapter I I I , p. Sombra, de mi mismo misterio surgiste, y tambien conmigo iras al misterio, al volver al seno de la tierra triste The rhyming of "luna" with " oportuna", which also occurs in "Retrato", is probably an echo from Verlaine's "Votre Sme est un paysage choisi" from Fetes galantes p.

It was not published in Tristes y alegres but clearly dates from that time, like a number of other poems in E l mal poema. Machado obviously rescued i t from deserved oblivion in order to f i l l out the volume. His poetic output was always painfully slow, as he explains in his 22 speech to the Academy, and a l l his volumes of collected verse after Caprichos contain poems that were not worth preserving. The last sub-title in the book is 'Dedicatorias', which corresponds to Verlaine's Dedicaces.

It consists of eight poems, only four of which I propose to discuss. The last three are purely occasional verse - one to the Queen, one to Gdmez Carrillo on the publication of his book Grecia and one on an horchatera written for a calendar of Spanish girls in El Heraldo. The fi r s t poem, "A Santiago Iglesias" p.

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Machado's poem is in fact a Parnassian sonnet with an envib. The elaborate metaphor on the goldsmith's art likened to poetry is a commonplace of Parnassian theory. Gautier's "La Heredia's sonnets on the medieval and Renaissance goldsmiths pp. Verlaine's "ciseaux des Pensees" become "el pensamiento en fuego" that melts and moulds the gold.

The function of words in a sentence is shown primarily by the word order. Analytic languages aka isolating languages. Languagescan be classified into typological categories based on how words are formed. Ananalytic language is one in which words tend to be one syllable long with noaffixes, as in Chinese or Vietnamese. The function of words in a sentence isshown primarily by word order.

Analytic languages are also known as isolatinglanguages. It is alanguage that is used for a special purpose and has, among others, a specificfunctional goal. Pidgins are auxiliary languages but there are also instancesof artificial auxiliary languages such as Esperanto, Business English, MaritimeEnglish and Air-Traffic Control English. They have a specialized jargon whichtends to be the most difficult part as they are not syntactically complex. Whendecreolization takes place, a range of varieties develop.

In such a situation acontinuum appears in the language and speakers in that speech community show arange of different pronunciation features, which are usually associated withsocial stratification. The basilect is the bottom variety which is closer tothe creole and further away from the standard. This termis closely related to bilingualism. In the same way that someone speaking twolanguages would be considered bilingual, someone who can use two dialects canbe considered bidialectal.

Being bidialectal implies that the differencesbetween the concerned codes are not so great as to prevent mutualintelligibility. It substituted Black English which assumed that all black peopleused the same variety. Term usedin comparative and historical linguistics to refer to words or phrases whichhave spread from one language or dialect and are used in another.

They can occurat a different linguistic level such as syntactic. Borrowing can be originatedby:. Dell Hymesconsidered that linguistic knowledge of grammar, pronunciation and lexicon isnot enough. The additional knowledge allows speakers to be sensitive to somedetermining factors such as the context, the type of interlocutor, and theregister, for example. Communicative competence is acquired by native speakersof the language but it also needs to be acquired by non-native speakers,together with linguistic competence.

The ethnography of speaking studies what is necessary to be communicatively competent in different speech communities. This term refersto the actions undertaken in order to partially modify the nature orcharacteristics of a language in some way pronunciation, syntactic or morphologicalpatterns…. CP may also control the incorporation of new vocabulary. CP isclosely related to status planning which refers to whether the status of alanguage could or should be raised or lowered. It is thestudy and search for idiosyncratic features in language use within a geographicalarea.

Dialectologists usually analyze the typical vocabulary, pronunciation,intonation, patterns, and other characteristics, and try to match these withspecific geographic areas. This field of research analyses linguistic units above the sentence level, i. Objective: explore the different functions of language in social interaction. This fieldof research refers to the analysis of linguistic units above the sentencelevel, i. By analyzing written or aural texts,discourse analysts explore the different functions of language in socialinteraction. This termrefers to the combination of social and situational factors that generallyinfluence the choice of code by speakers: code, dialect, location, register,style, topic, etc.

The same speaker will use different styles. This concept isfrequently used in studies of code-switching in multilingual contexts wherevarious languages, dialects or styles are employed in different socialsettings. Bilingualswho do not longer use their languages but who acquired them in the past andreached a comprehensive knowledge and command.

This term refers to any creole which is English-based and therefore has received borrowings from English. Due to the post-creole continuum, that language may still be receiving words from English. A term thatin addition to the definition of the ethnography of speaking includes nonverbalaspects of communication, for instance, distance between speaker and hearer,eye contact, etc. Branch of sociolinguistics that studies the norms and rules for using language in social situations in different cultures.

It studiesthe norms and rules for using language in social situations in differentcultures. The ethnography of speaking dealswith aspects such as the different types of language to be used under differentcircumstances. Branch of sociology that deals with the content of what is being said rather than the way it is being said. Ethnometholdologists do not study speech or language, they study:. This branchof sociology deals with the content of what is being said rather than the wayit is being said. Ethnomethodologists do not study speech or language but thecontent of what is being said and, what is more what is not being said becauseof shared knowledge or common-sense knowledge.

This is alanguage spoken by an immigrant group or individual in another country. Thisterm is to be distinguished from Indigenous Language which also refers to aminority language but in this case alludes to the natives of that land. Inempirical research this term refers to any person who provides information tobe analyzed and is consequently a source of data for the researcher. In languageteaching and learning this term is used to refer to any negative influence e. Interference usually hindersthe learning process and causes a problem to the language learner whereaspositive interlinguistic influence helps or favors the language learner.

Graduallanguage loss. It can refer to the loss of a mother tongue that has beenacquired and due to lack of use, it is gradually forgotten. This happens amongthe second and the third generation of immigrants. It can also refer to theloss of a language that was learnt through formal instruction but graduallyforgotten after a period of disuse. These decisions are normally made for practical purposes:.

This termrefers to a situation where language shift in a speech community ends in thetotal shift to another language. This phenomenon would be referred as languagedeath if a language shift ends with the total loss of a language from theworld, i. Department of the EU, located in Strasburg, has responsibilities for actions concerning the progress of language education policies within the EU member states. Is in charge of:. This termrefers to the language from which most of the vocabulary has been taken to forma pidgin or creole. English, French, Spanish and Portuguese.

The contactbetween one or more of these European languages and a native language favouredthe development of pidgins and creoles in different parts of the world. The name of a term invented by the critics, to signifythat part which the deities, angels, or demons are made to act in a poem; forthe ancient poets are in one respect like many modern ladies. It is a long, fictional narrative in verse.

Language usedby speakers who have different mother tongues and need a common language tocommunicate among them. They have existed since ancient times but the mostremarkable example nowadays is English, which is spoken by some people as amother tongue, many others use it as a second language, and still others as aforeign language, but, as a rule, it serves as a lingua franca forinternational and intercultural communication.

Also refers to other dimensions of language as system, independently of the sociolinguistic value of its variations and the pragmatic functions of its realizations. It refersto lexical, phonological, syntactical knowledge and skills and other dimensionsof language as system, independently of the sociolinguistic value of itsvariation and the pragmatic functions of its realizations. This componentrelates to the range and quality of knowledge phonetic distinctions or precisionof vocabulary but also to cognitive organization and the way this knowledge isstored activation, recall, etc.

This termis equivalent to lingua franca. It is a language used by speakers of different languages tocommunicate with each other. When decreolization takes place, i. In such a situation a continuum appears in the language and speakers in that speech continuum show a range of different pronunciation features, which are usually associated with social stratification.

The mesolect is the intermediate variety, or varieties, which is between the creole and the standard. The mesolect is the intermediate variety, or varieties,which is between the creole and the standard. The studyof sociolinguistics in relation to small groups of speakers, speech communitiesor the speech of individuals. This branch of sociolinguistics deals, forexample, with the analysis of face-to-face interaction and discourse analysis. This term is used in opposition to macro-sociolinguistics which refers tolarger scale study of language in society.

A personwho has spoken a language since early childhood. In second language learning they have traditionallyrepresented the model to follow in the process of learning but this is aninefficient approach. Recent studies have shown that, contrary to popular belief, native speaker's introspection is an unreliable guide to actual usage. Any of the varieties of English that have emerged as a consequence of the ample spread of this language during the colonial period i.

It refersto any of the varieties of English that have emerged as a consequence of theample spread of this language during the colonial period. English spoken inIndia, Kenya, Singapore or Jamaica. Also known as World Englishes, it does notemphasize the recognition of English as an international language that showsformal and functional variation in different contexts, as a result of its usein multilingual and multicultural contexts.

It does not emphasize the dichotomy between native and non-native use but embodies the recognition of English as an international language that shows formal and functional variation in different contexts, as a result of its use in multilingual and multicultural contexts. A phenomenon that takes place during sociolinguistic research. Occurs when the sociolinguist needs to gather data from a single speaker of group of speakers in a speech community. What really interests sociolinguists is the way people speak when they do not know that they are being observed.

This term is concerned with the functional use of linguistic resources production of language functions, speech acts, etc. It also concerns the mastery of discourse, cohesion and coherence, the identification of text types and forms, irony, parody, etc. This termis concerned with the functional use of linguistic resources production oflanguage functions, speech acts, etc.

It also concerns the mastery of discourse, cohesionand coherence, the identification of text types and forms, irony, parody, etc. A branch of linguistics that studies the use of language in communication, i. Within pragmatics, discourse analysis studies language in discourse. It is abranch of linguistics that studies the use of language in communication, i. Within pragmatics, discourse analysis studies language indiscourse. This term describes the degree of skill that someone has attained in a language and his or her ability over the four basic skills: speaking, reading, writing and listening.

The origin of pidgins is not clear and there is an ongoing debate about it, but some specialists, the monogeneticists, suggest that all pidgins based on an European language derive from this lingua franca. Refers to the sociocultural conditions of language use. It is a technique to collect speech samples to gather information about a given speaker or group of speakers, in a speech community. This qualitative method of research is of prime importance for the sociolinguist as it provides face to face interaction with the informant with a technique that allows recording for later analysis.

It is atechnique to collect speech samples to gather information about a givenspeaker, or group of speakers, in a speech community. This qualitative methodof research is of prime importance for the sociolinguist as it providesface-to-face interaction with the informant with a technique that allowsrecording for later analysis.

This termrefers to actions aiming at raising or lowering the status of a language ordialect and which basically refers to decisions regarding the selection ofparticular varieties for particular purposes or communicative functions. SP isclosely related to corpus planning as language planning policies can never besolely corpus-oriented or status-oriented. This termrefers to the instances and characteristics of variation which occur at thepresent time in language.

That is, the way variation affects language at agiven time in history, for instance: gender, register, style, etc. In inflectional languages words have a number of suffixes which vary their shape according to the word they are added to. A single suffix can express a number of different grammatical concepts, as in Latin. Synthetic languages are also known as inflectional. Ininflectional languages words have a number of suffixes which vary their shapeaccording to the word they are added to.

A single suffix can express a number ofdifferent grammatical concepts, as in Latin. Synthetic languages are also knownas inflectional. General conversational patterns are arranged in a way that onlyone speaker speaks at a time but the way turn-taking is organized depends oncultural specific factors. Conversation needs to be two-way otherwise it turnsinto a monologue. Term usedto refer to a sort of language that is considered as a separate entity for somereason but which generally shares a great deal of common features with standardor other varieties.

Not considered a different language. Language varieties canbe very wide spread and standardized such as Australian English or American Englishbut they can also be very localized such as Cockney in London and Scouse inLiverpool. Language varieties can be very wide spread and standardised such as Australian English or American English, but they can also be very localised such as Cockney London or Scouse Liverpool.

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