To make sure that good network signal coverage, mmWave Base stations should be designed with high density rather than macro-cellular Base Station T. Generally, about the same site-to-site distance as microcell or pico-cell implementation in a urban area is recommended for mmWave technology. Transmission is dependent upon narrow beams, which reduces the interference of nearby mmWave Base Stations and broaden the connection range. This permits significant cover of scope among neighboring Base Stations Z.
Image Source: Advances in Circuits, Systems, Signal Processing and Telecommunications Unlike cell frameworks that segment the geographic territory into cells with every cell served by one or a Base Station, the mmWave Base Station's structure a framework with an expansive number of nodes to which a User's Equipment can connect T. The mmWave network gets rid of the issue of poor connection quality at the cell edge that is present in cell framework and empowers high caliber level with equal level of service irrespective of the location of the User's Equipment C-X.
Wang, With the high density of mmWave Base Stations, the expense to link each Base Station through a wired framework can be very high F. One answer for alleviate the expense and assist the deployment is to permit some mmWave Base stations to connect with the backhaul through other mmWave Base Stations Lazaropoulos, The ideal activity of the law of large numbers smoothens out frequency dependency in the channel and, together, enormous increases in spectral efficiency can be accomplished Goldsmith, At a hub level, it is a scalable innovation.
Further break down of sectors is not possible due to the fact that there is restricted space for massive directive antennas, there is an unavoidable angle spread of the propagation; thus, single-client MIMO is compelled by the set number of antennas that can fit in certain cell phones E. Larsson, Conversely, there is no restriction on the number of base station antennas in Massive MIMO provided that time-division duplexing is utilized to empower channel estimation through uplink pilots A.
It empowers new deployments and architectures, while one can imagine direct substitution of macro base stations with varieties of low-increase resounding receivers. Furthermore, other deployments are possible, for example, conformal arrays on the veneers of high-rises or arrays on water tanks in provincial areas Federico Boccardi, et al. Channel estimation is basic and right now is the fundamental challenge for further research.
Client movement forces a limited intelligence interim amid which channel learning must be gained and used Goldsmith, Furthermore, subsequently there is a limited number of orthogonal pilot successions that can be assigned to mobile gadgets. Reuse of pilot groupings causes pilot contamination and coherent interference, which develops with the number of receivers as quick as the needed signals Kumar1, et al. Yet, an extensive advancement effort is still needed to exhibit the cost effectiveness of this solution.
In conclusion, the implementation of Massive MIMO for 5G could mean a groundbreaking technological innovation with regards to today's top class in framework and component design. To further support these major changes, Massive MIMO developers ought to further work on fixing the challenges discussed above and indicating practical execution and changes by means of theoretical research, and test-bed experiments Zhu, Furthermore, the normal cellular mobile network architecture usually makes use of an outdoor base station BS in between a cell communication with mobile users, regardless of them being inside a building or outside BOJKOVIC, et al.
The main idea of developing the 5G technology is to distinguish between outdoor and indoor usage so as to reduce the los of network propagation C-X. However, for this to take place there has to be some distributed assisted antennas DAS and massive multiple-input multiple output MIMO innovation Federico Boccardi, et al. Massive MIMO would mean a great deal of improvement in spectral and energy efficiency with the help of a simple linear processing from antennas to base station Federico Boccardi, et al.
However, there are still some challenges involved with the adoption of massive MIMO in the 5G cellular wireless architecture E. In addition, Massive MIMO might encounter pilot interference from other nearby cells if the transmission strength is very high thus may cause thermal noise. Network scope can be enhanced by building smaller cells indoors where network signal is not so strong.
This can only be made possible in the future with smaller and lighter hardware and also a reduction in cost Woon Hau Chin, et al. Furthermore, alterations in the functional architecture of the network enables higher data rates and signal control to be channeled through the internet, thus enabling tiny cells to be distributed anywhere through internet connectivity 3rd Generation Partnership Project, , Small cells can be of different types from low powered femtocells usually used in residential and organizational settings, to the higher powered picocells which is usually for a wider outdoor use or complementing for macro cell loopholes BOJKOVIC, et al.
The simultaneous functioning of various classes of base stations, macro-, femto-, and pico- base stations is referred to as heterogeneous networks or HetNets. It is used for a flexible coverage area and an improved spectral efficiency. Covering various base stations can also improve the growing data traffic especially when the movement of data is improved so as to take of the features of heterogeneous networks 3rd Generation Partnership Project, , This will reduce the stress on cellular networks and divert the load from the all important scarce licensed spectrum wireless radio frequency bands.
And also it can provide a much higher throughput to wireless network users 3rd Generation Partnership Project, , This is a recognized problem as stated by the IEEE Together with power control, device to device communication can decrease the interference mostly in unlicensed spectrum bands. Woon Hau Chin, et al. This is very unsuitable more especially when the devices are very close.
In situations like machine to machine M2M communications, whereby the amount of devices can be relatively large, it would make more sense if devices could directly communicate with nearby device when it is needed 3rd Generation Partnership Project. In non-licensed spectrum, devices can communicate using mobile wireless technologies such as Bluetooth or WLAN in ad hoc mode.
Furthermore, these connections are prone to interference from other devices Woon Hau Chin, et al. Contrastingly, making use of licensed spectrum will ensure a particular degree of quality of service QoS if the connection is adequately handled. Device to Device communications will need the base station to enhance connections in order to prevent intra-cell obstruction 3rd Generation Partnership Project, , McKeown et al.
In this regard, the network control plane can be detached from the data plane of the network, this greatly makes the management of network simple and makes the introduction of new services or changes in network configuration easy Woon Hau Chin, et al. Software based SDN controllers maintain global network view and it also accommodates the network Intelligence.
There has also been debates to incorporate SDN to mobile networks. Therefore, software defined Networking is a welcomed innovation and its definitely the future of wireless telecommunication and the 5th generation of network technologies. Furthermore, there are some challenges associated with the introduction of Software defined networking and these problems has to be addressed for a successful use of SDN in the future wireless networking. The most important challenge of SDN is the fact that the International standardization is still in progress and an agreed upon programmable platform for the deployment of SDN components is still to be developed.
From delay-sensitive video applications to super-low latency, from fast entertainment applications in vehicles to portability on interest for connected objects, and from best effort applications to solid and ultra- dependable ones, for example, health and security Nokia Corporation, Besides, used cases will be conveyed over an extensive variety of gadgets e.
The used cases and used case families serve as a contribution for stipulating necessities and characterizing the foundation of the 5G design NGMN, The used cases are not intended to be comprehensive, but instead as a device to guarantee that the level of adaptability required in 5G is very much caught. The accompanying outline demonstrates the eight use case families with one illustration use case given for every family, and the portrayal of these families and the used case examples are given beneath A.
The center is service accessibility in densely- populated zones e. Setting acknowledgment will be a fundamental perspective, at the system edge i. A situation will develop in which video is accessible to everybody, paying little heed to the physical area, the device being used, and the network connection. The quantity of simultaneously dynamic connections, coupled with the needed performance information rate and the end-to-end latency will exhibit a testing circumstance NGMN, Clients will cooperate through different wirelessly connected gadgets Simon Fletcher, Super- high traffic volume, and for a few applications latency, are the principle challenges relevant for this used case Nokia, To bolster the future quality cloud services, there will be a requirement for higher QoE with client throughput consistency, fast and reliable networks, and consistent interworking across clouds, networks and devices Nokia Corporation, NGMN, Starting from the earliest form of wireless communication with smoke signals to the cellular communication era with the 1G analog wireless communication.
This was also called the dial up when users had to first connect to the phone operator before your call could be put through to the receiver. In this era telephone calls were only made nationally or within a region. Wireless communication later evolved to the 2G GSM digital wireless communication technology which bore the mobile cell phones. In this era telephony has evolved from the cumbersome devices to a more portable system. The 5G technology is still a concept, this report discussed briefly the basic idea behind the 5G network architecture and the future of communications. The information used in writing this paper were mostly journals of previous research that has been done in the area of Wireless communication technology and architecture, these materials were critically studied and analysed for best results and a clear understanding.
While there is still further research to be done in the aspect of the 5th generation of mobile wireless technology, it concluded that 5G will be a network of various enabling technologies which will make the and beyond Era a truly digitized world. However, research should focus more on the need to create more wireless spectrum in order for there to be effective broadband communication.
This project has been a very informative and interesting one as I learnt more about wireless mobile communications technology that I did before and I had more time to do this again I would explore different aspects where I failed to discuss such as the internet of things, LiFi, Telemedicine and Augmented Reality amongst others. Osseiran, e. Akinniranye, A. Wireless Engineering and Technology, 4 4 , pp. OpenFlow: enabling innovation in campus networks. Baiocchi, A. Journal of Communications and Networks, 15 2 , pp. Bhaumick, D.
Mobile Networks and Applications. Buehrer, R. Chen, Y. Cihangir, A. Antennas Wirel. Lett, 13 2 , pp. Cisco White Paper. Condoluci, M. Wang, e. Solving the spectrum crunch: reduce, reuse, recycle. PwC Communications Review, 1 2 , pp. Deloitte, Addressing spectrum strategy issues that jeopardize U. Hossain, e. Larsson, e. Eissa, M. Opportunities and Challenges with Very Large Arrays,. Federico Boccardi, Robert W. Heath Jr. Marz, Five Disruptive Technology Directions for 5G. Gayathri, S. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 9 Goldsmith, A. Hang Zhang, S. A Wireless World:, 1 54 , pp.
IEEE Network, International Telecommunications Union, ACM Visa, 1 4 , pp. Kumar1, A. Lazaropoulos, A. Trends in Renewable Energy, 1 2 , pp. Lenard, T. Technology Policy Institute: Studying the global information economy, April, 1 1 , pp. Mir, M. Sumit , K. Mishra, A. Cellular technologies for emerging markets. New York: Amazon. Fundamentals of Cellular Network Planning and Optimization. Mohebbi Nia, M. Wireless Pers Communication, I 6 , pp. Muniyal, B.
(PDF) 5G and Future Communications Network Architecture | Dan-jumbo Idaerefagha - uketerinucuz.tk
OpenFlow: enabling innovation in campus networks,. NGMN, Future of Wireless Communication , 17 february, 1 1 , pp. Nokia Corporation, All data is presented light sources in a degree panorama in a way that lights up area's of the city that are more heavily monitored than others. By adding the physical sensors that are used in the city to the installation, it becomes a kind of diorama, helping the audience to recognise the sensors in the city and understand their function.
The installation aims to translate the hidden abstraction of these technologies into a readable experience for a broad audience, providing a sense of ownership necessary for a nuanced discussion about the future of smart cities. A circular projection, 10 meters in diameter displays a wireless landscape that extends the visualisation in the iPad app. WifiTapestry is a dynamic wall hanging that visualises the wireless activity of a space.
The tapestry visualises the ever changing "landscape" of radio frequencies around us. The invisible signals from Cellphones, printers and all kinds of smart devices leave an imprint as they try to negotiate available wireless channels. A controller listens to all traffic across 13 channels of the 2.
Whenever data is transmitted on a channel, the controller sends a current to an array of thermal elements embedded in the tapestry, converting data into heat and activating a thermochromic yarn woven into the tapestry. Like a Shroud of Turin, streams of data transmitted through a space appear as visual traces from an invisible dimension that gradually form and dissolve.
The Deleted City is a digital archaeology of the world wide web as it exploded into the 21st century. At that time the web was often described as an enormous digital library that you could visit or contribute to by building a homepage. The early citizens of the net or netizens took their netizenship serious, and built homepages about themselves and subjects they were experts in.
These pioneers found their brave new world at Geocities , a free webhosting provider that was modelled after a city and where you could get a free "piece of land" to build your digital home in a certain neighbourhood based on the subject of your homepage. Heartland was — as a neigbourhood for all things rural — by far the largest, but there were neighbourhoods for fashion, arts and far east related topics to name just a few. Around the turn of the century, Geocities had tens of millions of "homesteaders" as the digital tennants were called and was bought by Yahoo for three and a half billion dollars.
Ten years later in , as other metaphores of the internet such as the social network had taken over, and the homesteaders had left their properties vacant after migrating to Facebook , Geocities was shut down and deleted.
In an heroic effort to preserve 10 years of collaborative work by 35 million people, the Archive Team made a backup of the site just before it shut down. The resulting Gigabyte bittorrent file is the digital Pompeii that is the subject of an interactive excavation that allows you to wander through an episode of recent online history.
Deep inside Arizona's painted desert, lies Roden Crater, an extinct volcanic cinder cone. It is the site of a monumental artwork by James Turrell. Over the last 30 years, Turrell, famous for his installations concerning the perception of light, transformed the crater's eye into a naked-eye observatory that will eventually consist of 20 spaces each constructed to allow the observation of a specific portion of the sky or celestial event.
The Interactive Celestial Map I made is part of the artists website and visualizes the relation between the sky above Roden Crater and the alignment of the skyspaces created by the artist. The interactive module shows the sky and the arrangement of the sun, the moon and the stars above Roden Crater at the current time displayed over a map of the crater. Dragging a circular slider around the visualization allows you to go back and forth in time and observe how the celestial bodies align with the observation spaces in the crater at different points in time.
The sun and moon rise and set, stars and planets move across the night sky and the summer an winter solstices mark the moments where the sun aligns with an opening in a space and projects it's image on a precisely positioned surface. An auto-play button animates the sky in fast forward while a calendar allows you to see the sky at a specific date in the past or future. The aim of this visualization is to show on one hand the beauty and overwhelming complexity of the natural cycle of wet and dry seasons, and on the other hand highlight the challenge of carefully managing our use of groundwater.
An interactive feature allows the audience to engage with the visualization by adding their own city to a srcrolling ticker of historic groundwater levels across the world using a mobile application. The website headsup An interview about this project has been published by The Smithsonian. Atlas of Pentecostalism is a dynamic online database, which visually maps the growth of global Pentecostalism as a diverse and networked religion. The database uses global crowdsourcing, big data, cinematography, interviews and academic collaborations to provide an independent perspective on Pentecostalism as it evolves.
The database expands with time and can also be ordered as an eBook or print-on-demand book, which freezes the dynamic data at that moment. Each day, a new version of the atlas is computed by a computer program and uploaded to the website. The book contains a frozen version of the database, including all the maps, transcripts of the interviews and the entire visual database. This unique, real-time and growing book is an expanding record of the fastest growing religion in the world.
While the book provides a global view of Pentecostalism, the film Great Expectations zooms in to one church in Lagos, Nigeria. Rather then telling a story, the split screen documentary allows you to experience the emotional appeal and exuberant nature of Pentecostal worship. The film, which has no beginning and no end loops continuously, and takes you to a new place each time you load the page. Each scene in the film has been tagged with keywords.
Keywords allow for matches between a scene and specific items in the database; images, maps or parts of an interview that relate to that scene. These links allow you to explore the database and move back and forth between the film and other parts of the website. As the database continues to grow the relations between the film, and the database will change from day to day. The same principle is applied to the interviews. While the database grows, relations between the various items in the database will continue to change, the book will grow and this website will give new perspectives on the fastest growing religion in world.
Packed in boxes and sorted on shelves, the objects offer us a glimpse behind the scenes of architecture and the evolution of the Dutch urban landscape. Hidden in all these boxes lies a world of ideas: about forms, materials, people and the environment, a world of possibilities, successes and failures. For anyone familiar with the structure of this archive it is a well-organised database of shelves and volumes.
For the layperson it is an endless series of boxes. The link between the boxes and the information they contain comes in the form of a digital file. You enter a search term in to the computer and the programme directs you to the right box. The installation allows the user to play with the archive. Instead of boxes in endless rows of archive cupboards, the boxes can be arranged in endless configurations; chronologically, by architect, by format, or materials used.
A gigantic construction of boxes with drawings, or a seemingly never-ending landscape of boxes full of architectural models. The space in which this experiment takes place is a virtual one. With Virtual Reality glasses the visitor can step out of the physical environment and enter the virtual archive. To make the transition clear the installation takes the form of a small space built from real archive boxes. As soon as you put the glasses on you see a virtual version of the same space. Enter a search term and the space transforms in to a new environment based on a new configuration.
You search using a virtual keyboard. As soon as you type a letter a list appears with possible search terms. By combining search terms you can filter the results, from the very broad to the very specific. If you linger at a certain box, it can be opened, and then the contents appear in the image. If you look away you return to the spatial environment. The starting point for the installation is the discovery of the archive. From very broad and almost random, to very specific. You can sort very specifically, with the box next to you full of drawings by the same architectural office, in the same city, or a model of the same material.
Datavisualization for the Beijing Media Art Biennale The interactive visualization shows the curatorial framework and provides a theoretical and scientific context for the artworks on display. Embedded in the program as both a web-app and an installation, the visualization functions as integral part of the exhibition. Research for a data visualization. Taking six hours to complete, this four color fine liner plot is the tactile outcome of a processing sketch that aims to visualize various international broadcasting networks. The artwork was developed in close collaboration with the residents with the goal of disclosing their childhood memories.
The resulting image archive has been made accessible by developing a website and 30 aluminum photo signs that are permanently displayed in the street and act as a reference to specific themes within the website. The signs are therefor a physical representation of the structure of the online archive, and at the same time, encourage people to visit the website.
Apart from the geographic approach, the website provides a chronologic perspective. When switching between these views, a swarm of hundreds of images moves from their geographic position to their chronologic position. Even though some of these attempts have been very successful, they usually conform to the old idea of the library in digital form. My research will focus on the new paradigm of the non-physical book existing in a uniform database environment. The absence of physical limitations and the uniformity of the structure in which the book exists, opens up new ways of thinking about the book.
The book no longer starts at the first page, and ends at the last, it can be a collection of quotes, pages or chapters from different books in the library. Like a DJ mixes records, readers or lecturers can recompose text by making connections or by sampling books. The uniform structure allows us to add data to the book, making it more valuable There are many undefined places in the city. Development plans, vacant buildings and public policy leave many buildings and areas in a long-term state of transition.
A state that is often prolonged by economic downturn. The disparity between a place's current state and it's planned future often spans many years and many square meters. Time and space the Transitiekaart Transition Map aims to visualize and make public in order to facilitate the use of these places for cultural, social and artistic purposes. In doing so it's organizers hope to provide a new context for short term research and urban- development that contributes to better urban quality and public participation.
The Transitiekaart shows places in the city that are in transition and matches them to a database of project proposals. The result is a selection of possible areas and buildings that may be suitable location for a project. To make sure projects are socially and economically embedded in their environments, historic and statistical cartographic layers provide context for determining the best location for a specific project.
Once a project is matched to a location, the Transitiekaart will provide legal templates to speed up the process of realizing a project. The media theatre is a space in which walls and floor consist of projection surfaces. By running specific interactive and audiovisual applications the entire space can be transformed to fit any occasion. We have been asked to develop a series of audiovisual and interactive applications to be used in the discussion and decisionmaking process.
For this we developed a total of nine applications, one of which is a interactive cartographic simulation giving a variety of perspectives on the Netherlands by using the vast amount of cartographic material Rijkswaterstaat keeps. Another example is a ad-hoc social network in which datavisualizations are generated in real-time, based on questions answered by participants with a handheld computer The applications use a projection surface consisting of a total of 15 projectors and 7. From historic sign paintings to locally commissioned public benches, street lights and ornaments of all sorts, the app aims to highlight the rich tradition of applied arts and crafts in the city.
The application includes filters, an interactive timeline and a 13 kilometer curated typographic city walk. What happens when you enter the same search phrase into two different browsers on two different computers?
Challenges and Opportunities of Optical Wireless Communication Technologies
One is a Mac running safari with all default settings enabled an the other is a stripped down Linux computer running the TOR-browser a browser that let's you surf the web anonymously. The result is two very different outcomes. The first computer is presenting personalised results based on cookies, ip-tracking and other identifying information. The second produces a more neutral or less personalised result.
The installation compares the search results of these two computers for a variety of queries and visualizes the differences. The same webpage that tops the list in the personalised browser could be way down on page 12 in the TOR browser, or vice versa. A line connecting each corresponding page between the two searches highlights the difference between them. Collectively all the lines together reveal a kind of fingerprint of the personalisation algorithm, showing which pages it moved upward and which pages downward.
A series of large prints compares different queries, a interactive app allows you to explore a rotating prayer wheel visualization and highlight the individual hyperlinks. Wandering Intelligence is a visual feedback loop based on image recognition, a algorithmic stream of consciousness driven by a perpetual translation between image and language. A commission by the Dutch Ministry of Finance to design a proposal for a commemorative Euro coin celebrating the 50 year anniversary of the World Wildlife Fund in the Netherlands. It is thereby both a call for engagement with the cause of the WWF and it provides the actual data that signifies this dramatic decline.
The coin's obverse heads side shows a graphic structure generated by a computer program known as the game of life : a simple mathematical simulation of "life" on a two dimensional grid. This structure — representing a petri dish at micro level or a planet at marco level — forms a 0. The coin's reverse tails side shows a visualization of the data acquired from the Zoological Society of London as a downwards spiral spanning the last 50 years. Its structure, which is similar to the coin's obverse, starts as a rich diversity that gradually thins out towards the present.
The installation highlights the life and work of seventeenth century painter Frans Hals. The story is told on 50 differently sized screens spanning three walls of the space in a "salon style" arrangement. While the screens can be used to display individual paintings, they can also act as one fragmented cinematic screen showing timelines, maps and datavisualizations. The story contains biographic timelines, super high resolution close-up's and scientific images such as Ultra Violet, X-Ray and microscopic details.
Design Networks is a map that visualizes the world of international design fairs. The map shows the fairs and their participants as a new continent of professional design, with the important fairs being attracted to the center of the map, and the smaller fairs circling the periphery. The back of the map provides an index with coordinates for all companies on the map. Uigeverij Fosfor is a publishing house dedicated to journalism and non-fiction. As part of a series of long reads we've developed a experiment template for cross platform storytelling.
The concept behind the template is based on the spine. Traditionally a spine allows you to estimate the volume of a book. The digital spine of the template reveals the volume of text and other media elements that are linked to the text. The amount of data sent, the number of simultaneous TCP connections, and other options are configurable through a simple command line interface. Tcptest is able to work in two modes: One-shot: the chosen number of TCP connections is generated only once.
Continuous: the chosen number of TCP connections is generated in a persistent and cyclic way. In both the modes above, Tcptest provides the average duration time of connections and other monitoring parameters made available by the Linux kernel. Continuous mode also provides the number of running and completed connections every second.
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