W walkthrough A type of review in which an author leads members of the review through a work product and the members ask questions and make comments about possible issues. They consist of a set of guidelines for making content accessible, primarily for people with disabilities.
- The Dancing Wu Li Masters: An Overview of the New Physics.
- Moon Turn The Tides Gently Gently Away.
- Sur les flancs du Mont Pellegrino (MON PETIT EDITE) (French Edition).
- Ex-PM Nawaz Sharif arrested, as election violence mounts.
- SAP Manufacturing Execution?
Website Analysis and Measurement Inventory A questionnaire-based usability test technique for measuring web site software quality from the end user's point of view. Wideband Delphi An expert-based test estimation technique that aims at making an accurate estimation using the collective wisdom of the team members. See also: pointer. XiL test environment A generalized term for dynamic testing in different virtual test environments. XP Acronym for Extreme Programming. XSS Acronym for cross-site scripting. Testvorgehensweise in einem Projekt mit agiler Softwareentwicklung, die Techniken und Methoden wie z.
Benutzer oder irgendeine andere Person oder ein System , welche mit dem zu testenden System auf eine bestimmte Art interagiert. Testen , das auf einer systematischen Analyse von z. Ein Ansatz zum Testen , der auf den Anforderungen basiert. Testen mit dem Ziel, die Angemessenheit eines Softwareprodukts zu bestimmen. Eine Person oder ein Prozess , die bzw.
Der Grad, zu dem eine Komponente oder ein System auf unterschiedliche oder sich weiterentwickelnde Hardware- und Softwareumgebungen angepasst werden kann. Syntaktisch definierte Einheit einer Programmiersprache z. Ein Teil des Wertebereichs eines mit dem Testobjekt verbundenen Datenelements, in dem aufgrund der Spezifikation erwartet wird, dass das Testobjekt alle Werte gleichartig behandelt. Ein Dokument, das die Ergebnisse eines Assessments zusammenfasst, z.
Eine Bedingung die nicht mehr weiter zerlegt werden kann, d. Ein Strukturelement z. Testmittel , z. Die Verwendung einer Software , z. Eine Teststrategie , bei der das Testteam auf die Informationseingaben eines oder mehrerer Stakeholder vertraut um die Details der Teststrategie zu bestimmen. Ein System , bei dem die steuernde Aktion oder Eingabe von der Ausgabe bzw. Das Vorgehen zur Feststellung, wie ein Sicherheitsangriff gelingen konnte, und die Bewertung des verursachten Schadens.
Statisches Analyseverfahren, das auf der Definition und Verwendung von Variablen basiert und fehlerhafte Zugriffssequenzen auf die Variablen des Testobjekts nachweist. Prozess der Bewertung des Verhaltens z. Eine Tabelle, die zur Darstellung einer Menge von Bedingungen und aus ihnen resultierenden Aktionen dient.
Testen , das auf der Erfahrung, dem Wissen und der Intuition des Testers basiert. Testansatz, bei dem die Testsuite alle Kombinationen von Eingabewerten und Vorbedingungen umfasst. Experten-Review der Gebrauchstauglichkeit. Ein informelles Review der Gebrauchstauglichkeit , bei dem die Gutachter Experten sind.
Eine Softwareentwicklungsmethode, die innerhalb der agilen Softwareentwicklung angewandt wird. Ein Ergebnis , das einen Fehlerzustand nicht anzeigt, obwohl der Fehlerzustand im Testobjekt enthalten ist. Ein Testergebnis , das einen Fehlerzustand anzeigt, obwohl der Fehlerzustand nicht im Testobjekt enthalten ist.
Ein Attribut einer Komponente oder eines Systems , spezifiziert oder abgeleitet aus der Anforderungsspezifikation z. Fehler- und Abweichungsmanagementwerkzeug. Ein Werkzeug zur Aufzeichnung und Statusverfolgung von Abweichungen. Das physikalische oder funktionale Erscheinungsbild eines Fehlers. Siehe fehlerbasiertes Testentwurfsverfahren. Fehlerdichte einer Komponente des Testautomatisierungscodes.
Ein Werkzeug zur Einpflanzung d. Eine systematische Liste von Fehlerarten mit ihrer hierarchischen Gliederung in Fehlerkategorien. Eine Komponente oder eine Gruppe von Komponenten, welche die ein- und ausgehende Netzwerkkommunikation anhand von vorgegebenen Sicherheitsregeln kontrolliert. Eine Art von Reviews , die einem definierten Prozess folgt und ein formell dokumentiertes Ergebnis liefert. Der Grad, zu dem eine Komponente oder ein System durch bestimmte Benutzer in einem bestimmten Nutzungskontext genutzt werden kann, um festgelegte Ziele effektiv, effizient und zufriedenstellend zu erreichen.
Eine Anforderung an die Gebrauchstauglichkeit einer Komponente oder eines Systems. Gebrauchstauglichkeitstest mit lautem Denken. Ein Verfahren zur Beschreibung der Risikobestandteile. Testen , um die Genauigkeit eines Softwareprodukts zu bestimmen. Die Ursache eines Fehlerzustands. Ein Teilnehmer eines Reviews , der Befunde zu einem Arbeitsprodukt erhebt. Eine Person oder ein Unternehmen, die bzw.
Eine Art von Reviews , die keinem formalen dokumentierten Ablauf folgt. Ein Prozessmodell , dass eine detaillierte Beschreibung von guten Engineering-Praktiken, wie z. Eine formale Reviewart deren Ziel die Identifizierung von Befunden in einem Arbeitsprodukt ist, und welche Messungen zur Verbesserung des Reviewprozesses und des Softwareentwicklungsprozesses liefert.
Testen der Installierbarkeit eines Softwareprodukts. Der Grad, zu dem eine Komponente oder ein System Informationen mit anderen Komponenten oder Systemen austauschen kann. Die Anordnung eines Computersystems bzw. Testen von Software , die verwendet wird, um Daten zu konvertieren z. Die Person, die ein Assessment leitet. Ein erfahrener Manager, der die Testmanager leitet. Ein Testkonzept , das mehrere Teststufen oder Testarten koordiniert. Markiert einen Zeitpunkt im Projekt -prozess , zu dem ein bestimmtes Arbeitsergebnis oder definiertes Zwischenergebnis fertig gestellt sein soll.
Eine Teststrategie , bei der das Testteam einen festgelegten Satz an Testbedingungen nutzt, z. Ein Testautomatisierungsansatz. Eine Teststrategie , bei der das Testteam Testmittel von Modellen ableitet. Eine neutrale Person, die eine Gebrauchstauglichkeitstestsitzung leitet. Ein Test , der zeigen soll, dass eine Komponente oder ein System nicht funktioniert. Ein Teil-Netzwerk mit einem bestimmten Vertrauensniveau. Der Prozess der Entwicklung und Implementierung eines Nutzungsprofiles. Testen durch Personen, die nicht an einem gemeinsamen Ort mit dem Projektteam arbeiten und nicht Mitarbeiter im Unternehmen des Projektteams sind.
Eine Form des Integrationstests , die auf solche Paare von Komponenten abzielt, die entsprechend der Darstellung im Aufrufgraphen zusammenarbeiten. Testen zur Bestimmung der Performanz eines Softwareprodukts. Ein Reviewverfahren, bei dem die Gutachter das Arbeitsergebnis aus unterschiedlichen Gesichtspunkten beurteilen. Eine Folge von Ereignissen wie z. Ein Testkonzept , das sich typischerweise auf eine Testphase bezieht. Eine Aussage, welche die Werte wahr oder falsch annehmen kann, und welche die Steuerung des nachfolgenden Kontrollflusses bestimmen kann. Die Stufe der Wichtigkeit, die einem Objekt z.
Beim Benutzer oder Betreiber eingesetzte Hard- und Softwareprodukte, auf denen die zu testende Komponente oder das System betrieben wird. Eine Praktik der agilen Softwareentwicklung, bei der zwei Programmierer gemeinsam an einem Arbeitsplatz arbeiten. Ein Standard , welcher die erforderlichen Eigenschaften eines Designs oder einer Designbeschreibung von Daten oder Programmkomponenten beschreibt. Eine Teststrategie , bei der das Testteam vorgegebenen Prozessen folgt, wobei die Prozesse Elemente adressieren wie Dokumentation, die angemessene Identifikation und Nutzung der Testbasis und der Testorakel , und die Organisation des Testteams.
Ein spezieller Meilenstein im Projekt. Eine Matrix, welche die Kernverantwortlichkeiten der verschiedenen beteiligten Rollen an der Fertigstellung von Aufgaben oder Arbeitsergebnissen in einem Projekt oder Prozess beschreibt. Testen , welches dynamisch auf das Testobjekt und bereits erhaltene Testergebnisse reagiert. Abnahmetest mit dem Ziel zu verifizieren, ob ein System zu relevanten Gesetzen, Richtlinien und Vorschriften konform ist.
Grad der Prozessverbesserung in einem vordefinierten Satz von Prozessgebieten, in dem alle spezifischen und generischen Ziele erreicht werden. Eine strukturierte Menge von Elementen, die bestimmte Aspekte des Reifegrades einer Organisation beschreiben und die bei der Definition und dem Verstehen der Prozesse der Organisation helfen.
Ein Review , das die Testbasis in Hinblick auf ihre Testbarkeit bewertet. Der allgemeine Prozess der Risikoidentifikation und Risikobewertung. Ein Reviewverfahren, bei dem die Gutachter ein Arbeitsergebnis aus der Perspektive unterschiedlicher Stakeholder-Rollen bewerten. Eine Methode, bei der sehr spezifische Ziele anstelle von allgemeinen Zielen definiert werden. Ein statischer Analysator , der zum Auffinden bestimmter Sicherheitsschwachstellen im Code genutzt wird. Testen zur Bestimmung der Skalierbarkeit eines Softwareprodukts. Manuelles oder automatisiertes Testen , das einem Testskript folgt.
Ein Testverfahren zur Bewertung der Gebrauchstauglichkeit der Software aus Endbenutzersicht, das auf einem Fragenkatalog basiert. Ein Versuch, eine Person hereinzulegen, damit sie Information z. Eine Teststrategie , bei der das Testteam einem Standard folgt. Ein Verfahren der Skripterstellung, das eine Bibliothek wiederverwendbarer Teil- Skripte aufbaut und nutzt. Systematischer Test- und Evaluierungsprozess.
Eine einfache zehnstufige Skala, die eine globale Sicht auf subjektive Bewertungen der Gebrauchstauglichkeit liefert. Schrittweise Reduktion der Sicherheitsschwachstellen eines Systems durch Anwendung einer Sicherheitsrichtlinie und verschiedener Schichten des Zugriffsschutzes. Test des fertigen, integrierten Systems aus Softwarekomponenten, Hardwarekomponenten und Mechanik zum Nachweis der Einhaltung der Systemanforderungen und der Lieferbereitschaft des Gesamtsystems.
Testen , um die Ressourcennutzung eines Softwareprodukts festzustellen. Eine indiviualisierte Softwareschnittelle, die es erlaubt ein Testobjekt automatisiert zu testen. Ein Testbericht , der eine Bewertung der entsprechenden Testelemente gegen Endekriterien liefert. Ein Werkzeug, das eine Umgebung zur Testautomatisierung bereitstellt. Ein abstrakter Plan, um langfristige Ziele der Testautomatisierung unter gegebenen Randbedingungen zu erreichen. Ein Teil eines Testobjekts , das im Testprozess verwendet wird.
Zwei Personen, z. Eine systematische Technik zur Abdeckung aller paarweisen Kombinationen von Variablen durch den Einsatz orthogonaler Arrays. Eine sachkundige Fachperson, die am Testen einer Komponente oder eines Systems beteiligt ist. Eine Menge von Vorbedingungen, Eingaben, Aktionen falls anwendbar , erwarteten Ergebnissen und Nachbedingungen, welche auf Basis von Testbedingungen entwickelt wurden. Ein Modell, das die Testmittel beschreibt, die zum Testen einer Komponente oder eines zu testenden Systems genutzt werden. Die Komponente oder das System , welches getestet wird.
Person, welche Verbesserungen am Testprozess auf der Grundlage des Testverbesserungskonzepts vornimmt. Angelehnt an das agile Manifest. Ein Dokument, das auf hohem Abstraktionsniveau die Prinzipien, den Ansatz und die wichtigsten Ziele einer Organisation in Bezug auf das Testen zusammenfasst. Die Umsetzung einer Teststrategie in einem spezifischen Projekt. Die Analyse von Transaktionen zwischen Personen und im menschlichen Bewusstsein.
Der Grad, zu dem eine Beziehung zwischen zwei oder mehr Arbeitsergebnissen hergestellt werden kann. Ein sequentielles Entwicklungsmodell, der eine eins-zu-eins Beziehung zwischen den Phasen der Software -Entwicklung von der Anforderungsspezifikation bis zur Lieferung, und den korrespondierenden Teststufen vom Abnahmetest bis zum Komponententest beschreibt.
Eine Reviewart, bei der ein Autor die Reviewteilnehmer durch ein Arbeitsergebnis leitet und die Teilnehmer Fragen stellen und potentielle Befunde kommentieren. Testen , um die Wartbarkeit eines Softwareprodukts zu bestimmen. Website Analysis and MeasureMent Inventory. Testen , um die Wiederherstellbarkeit eines Softwareprodukts zu ermitteln. A use case in which some actors with malicious intent are causing harm to the system or to other actors. The criteria that a component or system must satisfy in order to be accepted by a user, customer, or other authorized entity. Formal testing with respect to user needs, requirements , and business processes conducted to determine whether or not a system satisfies the acceptance criteria and to enable the user, customers or other authorized entity to determine whether or not to accept the system.
The degree to which a component or system can be used by people with the widest range of characteristics and capabilities to achieve a specified goal in a specified context of use. Testing to determine the ease by which users with disabilities can use a component or system. The process of obtaining user account information based on trial and error with the intention of using that information in a security attack. The capability of the software product to provide the right or agreed results or effects with the needed degree of precision. Testing to determine the accuracy of a software product.
The phase within the IDEAL model where the improvements are developed, put into practice, and deployed across the organization. User or any other person or system that interacts with the test object in a specific way. A review technique carried out by independent reviewers informally, without a structured process. The degree to which a component or system can be adapted for different or evolving hardware and software environments.
A statement on the values that underpin Agile software development. A group of software development methodologies based on iterative incremental development, where requirements and solutions evolve through collaboration between self-organizing cross-functional teams. Testing practice for a project using Agile software development methodologies, incorporating techniques and methods, such as extreme programming XP , treating development as the customer of testing and emphasizing the test -first design paradigm.
Simulated or actual operational testing conducted in the developer's test environment , by roles outside the development organization. A test strategy whereby the test team analyzes the test basis to identify the test conditions to cover. Testing based on a systematic analysis of e. The degree to which an assessment can be made for a component or system of either the impact of one or more intended changes, the diagnosis of deficiencies or causes of failures , or the identification of parts to be modified.
Any condition that deviates from expectation based on requirements specifications , design documents, user documents, standards , etc. Software that is used to detect and inhibit malware. Testing performed by submitting commands to the software under test using programming interfaces of the application directly. A document summarizing the assessment results, e. A condition that cannot be decomposed, i. A path or means by which an attacker can gain access to a system for malicious purposes.
A person or process that attempts to access data, functions or other restricted areas of the system without authorization , potentially with malicious intent. The capability of the software product to be attractive to the user. An independent examination of a work product, process , or set of processes that is performed by a third party to assess compliance with specifications , standards , contractual agreements, or other criteria.
A procedure determining whether a person or a process is, in fact, who or what it is declared to be. Permission given to a user or process to access resources. Defect density of a component of the test automation code. One of four levels that specify the item's or element's necessary requirements of ISO and safety measures to avoid an unreasonable residual risk. The degree to which a component or system is operational and accessible when required for use.
Testing to compare two or more variants of a test item or a simulation model of the same test item by executing the same test cases on all variants and comparing the results. A strategic tool for measuring whether the operational activities of a company are aligned with its objectives in terms of business vision and strategy. The response of a component or system to a set of input values and preconditions. A superior method or innovative practice that contributes to the improved performance of an organization under given context, usually recognized as "best" by other peer organizations.
Simulated or actual operational testing conducted at an external site, by roles outside the development organization. Testing, either functional or non-functional, without reference to the internal structure of the component or system. A network of compromised computers, called bots or robots, which is controlled by a third party and used to transmit malware or spam, or to launch attacks. A minimum or maximum value of an ordered equivalence partition.
A black-box test technique in which test cases are designed based on boundary values. A white-box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute branches. A publicly displayed chart that depicts the outstanding effort versus time in an iteration. A framework that describes the key elements of an effective product development and maintenance process. A test automation approach, where inputs to the test object are recorded during manual testing in order to generate automated test scripts that could be executed later i.
A type of test execution tool where inputs are recorded during manual testing in order to generate automated test scripts that can be executed later i. Acronym for Computer Aided Software Testing. A graphical representation used to organize and display the interrelationships of various possible root causes of a problem.
A black-box test design technique in which test cases are designed from cause-effect graphs. The process of confirming that a component , system or person complies with its specified requirements , e. The capability of the software product to enable specified modifications to be implemented.
An experience-based test technique whereby the experienced tester uses a high-level list of items to be noted, checked, or remembered, or a set of rules or criteria against which a product has to be verified. A tree showing equivalence partitions hierarchically ordered, which is used to design test cases in the classification tree method. Testing performed by submitting commands to the software under test using a dedicated command-line interface.
A system in which the controlling action or input is dependent on the output or changes in output. Acronym for Capability Maturity Model Integration. An analysis method that determines which parts of the software have been executed covered by the test suite and which parts have not been executed, e. Excessive emotional or psychological dependence on another person, specifically in trying to change that person's current undesirable behavior while supporting them in continuing that behavior.
A standard that describes the characteristics of a design or a design description of data or program components. The degree to which a component or system can perform its required functions while sharing an environment and resources with other components or systems without a negative impact on any of them. A decision table in which combinations of inputs that are impossible or lead to the same outputs are merged into one column rule , by setting the conditions that do not influence the outputs to don't care.
A black-box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute specific combinations of values of several parameters. A software product that is developed for the general market, i.
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The degree to which a component or system can exchange information with other components or systems. A computer program that translates programs expressed in a high-order language into their machine language equivalents. The capability of the software product to adhere to standards , conventions or regulations in laws and similar prescriptions. Testing to determine the compliance of the component or system. Testing performed to expose defects in the interfaces and interactions between integrated components. A description of a component 's function in terms of its output values for specified input values under specified conditions , and required non-functional behavior e.
The testing of individual hardware or software components. The practice of determining how a security attack has succeeded and assessing the damage caused. The percentage of condition outcomes that have been exercised by a test suite. A white-box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute condition outcomes.
In managing project risks , the period of time within which a contingency action must be implemented in order to be effective in reducing the impact of the risk. The composition of a component or system as defined by the number, nature, and interconnections of its constituent parts. An aggregation of work products that is designated for configuration management and treated as a single entity in the configuration management process. A discipline applying technical and administrative direction and surveillance to identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of a configuration item , control changes to those characteristics, record and report change processing and implementation status, and verify compliance with specified requirements.
A tool that provides support for the identification and control of configuration items , their status over changes and versions, and the release of baselines consisting of configuration items. Dynamic testing conducted after fixing defects with the objective to confirm that failures caused by those defects do not occur anymore. A test strategy whereby the test team relies on the input of one or more key stakeholders to determine the details of the strategy. A process model providing a detailed description of good engineering practices, e.
Users, tasks, equipment hardware, software and materials , and the physical and social environments in which a software product is used. A capability maturity model structure wherein capability levels provide a recommended order for approaching process improvement within specified process areas. Acceptance testing conducted to verify whether a system satisfies its contractual requirements. A statistical process control tool used to monitor a process and determine whether it is statistically controlled. The sequence in which operations are performed during the execution of a test item. A form of static analysis based on a control flow graph.
An abstract representation of all possible control flows through a component or system. A test technique in which test cases are designed on the basis of control flows. A metric that shows progress toward a defined criterion, e. Testing of software used to convert data from existing systems for use in replacement systems. A dashboard -style representation of the status of corporate performance data. The total costs incurred on quality activities and issues and often split into prevention costs, appraisal costs, internal failure costs and external failure costs.
The degree to which specified coverage items have been determined or have been exercised by a test suite expressed as a percentage. An attribute or combination of attributes that is derived from one or more test conditions by using a test technique that enables the measurement of the thoroughness of the test execution. A tool that provides objective measures of what structural elements, e. An element necessary for an organization or project to achieve its mission. A content-based model for test process improvement built around twelve critical processes.
A vulnerability that allows attackers to inject malicious code into an otherwise benign website. Software developed specifically for a set of users or customers. The maximum number of linear, independent paths through a program. A development activity whereby a complete system is compiled and linked every day often overnight , so that a consistent system is available at any time including all latest changes. A representation of dynamic measurements of operational performance for some organization or activity, using metrics represented via metaphors such as visual dials, counters, and other devices resembling those on the dashboard of an automobile, so that the effects of events or activities can be easily understood and related to operational goals.
An executable statement where a variable is assigned a value. An abstract representation of the sequence and possible changes of the state of data objects, where the state of an object is any of creation, usage, or destruction. A form of static analysis based on the definition and usage of variables. A white-box test technique in which test cases are designed to execute definition-use pairs of variables. The protection of personally identifiable information or otherwise sensitive information from undesired disclosure.
A scripting technique that stores test input and expected results in a table or spreadsheet, so that a single control script can execute all of the tests in the table. The process of finding , analyzing and removing the causes of failures in software. A tool used by programmers to reproduce failures , investigate the state of programs and find the corresponding defect.
A type of statement in which a choice between two or more possible outcomes controls which set of actions will result. The percentage of all condition outcomes and decision outcomes that have been exercised by a test suite. A white-box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute condition outcomes and decision outcomes.
The result of a decision that determines the next statement to be executed. A table used to show sets of conditions and the actions resulting from them. A white-box test technique in which test cases are designed to execute decision outcomes. An imperfection or deficiency in a work product where it does not meet its requirements or specifications. The number of defects per unit size of a work product. The number of defects found by a test level , divided by the number found by that test level and any other means afterwards. The process of recognizing and recording defects , classifying them, investigating them, taking action to resolve them, and disposing of them when resolved.
A cross-functional team of stakeholders who manage reported defects from initial detection to ultimate resolution defect removal, defect deferral, or report cancellation. A tool that facilitates the recording and status tracking of defects. Documentation of the occurrence, nature, and status of a defect. A system of hierarchical categories designed to be a useful aid for reproducibly classifying defects. The association of a definition of a variable with the subsequent use of that variable. A physical or logical subnetwork that contains and exposes an organization's external-facing services to an untrusted network, commonly the Internet.
An iterative four-step problem -solving process plan-do-check-act typically used in process improvement. A security attack that is intended to overload the system with requests such that legitimate requests cannot be serviced. The phase within the IDEAL model where it is determined where one is, relative to where one wants to be. A black-box test design technique that is used to identify efficient and effective test cases when multiple variables can or should be tested together. The process of evaluating behavior , e.
A tool that provides run-time information on the state of the software code. Testing that involves the execution of the software of a component or system. Extent to which correct and complete goals are achieved. Resources expended in relation to the extent with which users achieve specified goals.
Acronym for European Foundation for Quality Management excellence model. A development lifecycle sub-model that applies an iterative approach to detailed design, coding and testing within an overall sequential model. The ability, capacity, and skill to identify, assess, and manage the emotions of one's self, of others, and of groups. A device, computer program, or system that accepts the same inputs and produces the same outputs as a given system. The process of encoding information so that only authorized parties can retrieve the original information, usually by means of a specific decryption key or process.
The set of conditions for officially starting a defined task. An executable statement or process step which defines a point at which a given process is intended to begin. An abstraction of the real environment of a component or system including other components , processes, and environment conditions , in a real-time simulation. A portion of the value domain of a data element related to the test object for which all values are expected to be treated the same based on the specification.
The percentage of equivalence partitions that have been exercised by a test suite. A black-box test technique in which test cases are designed to exercise equivalence partitions by using one representative member of each partition. A test technique in which tests are derived on the basis of the tester 's knowledge of past failures , or general knowledge of failure modes. The ability of a system or component to continue normal operation despite the presence of erroneous inputs.
A defect that was not detected in a previous test level which is supposed to find such type of defects. The phase within the IDEAL model where the specifics of how an organization will reach its destination are planned. European Foundation for Quality Management excellence model.
A non-prescriptive framework for an organization's quality management system , defined and owned by the European Foundation for Quality Management, based on five 'Enabling' criteria covering what an organization does , and four 'Results' criteria covering what an organization achieves. A statement which, when compiled, is translated into object code, and which will be executed procedurally when the program is running and may perform an action on data. A program element is said to be exercised by a test case when the input value causes the execution of that element, such as a statement , decision , or other structural element.
A test approach in which the test suite comprises all combinations of input values and preconditions. The set of conditions for officially completing a defined task. An executable statement or process step which defines a point at which a given process is intended to cease. The predicted observable behavior of a component or system executing under specified conditions , based on its specification or another source. An informal usability review in which the reviewers are experts. An approach to testing whereby the testers dynamically design and execute tests based on their knowledge, exploration of the test item and the results of previous tests.
A software engineering methodology used within Agile software development whereby core practices are programming in pairs, doing extensive code review , unit testing of all code, and simplicity and clarity in code. The leader and main person responsible for an inspection or review process. A test is deemed to fail if its actual result does not match its expected result.
Testing by simulating failure modes or actually causing failures in a controlled environment. An event in which a component or system does not perform a required function within specified limits. The physical or functional manifestation of a failure. A systematic approach to risk identification and analysis of identifying possible modes of failure and attempting to prevent their occurrence. The ratio of the number of failures of a given category to a given unit of measure. A test result which fails to identify the presence of a defect that is actually present in the test object.
A test result in which a defect is reported although no such defect actually exists in the test object. Directed and focused attempt to evaluate a specific quality characteristic of a test object by attempting to force specific failures to occur. The process of intentionally adding defects to a system for the purpose of finding out whether the system can detect, and possibly recover from, a defect.
The process of intentionally adding defects to those already in the component or system for the purpose of monitoring the rate of detection and removal, and estimating the number of remaining defects. A tool for seeding i. The capability of the software product to maintain a specified level of performance in cases of software faults defects or of infringement of its specified interface. A technique used to analyze the causes of faults defects. A path for which a set of input values and preconditions exists which causes it to be executed.
An attribute of a component or system specified or implied by requirements documentation for example reliability , usability or design constraints. An iterative and incremental software development process driven from a client-valued functionality feature perspective. A result of an evaluation that identifies some important issue, problem , or opportunity.
A computational model consisting of a finite number of states and transitions between those states, possibly with accompanying actions. A component or set of components that controls incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules. A type of review that follows a defined process with a formally documented output.
A type of evaluation designed and used to improve the quality of a component or system , especially when it is still being designed. Method aiming to measure the size of the functionality of an information system. An integration approach that combines the components or systems for the purpose of getting a basic functionality working early.
A requirement that specifies a function that a component or system must be able to perform. The degree to which a component or system provides functions that meet stated and implied needs when used under specified conditions. Testing conducted to evaluate the compliance of a component or system with functional requirements. The process of testing to determine the functionality of a software product.
A software testing technique used to discover security vulnerabilities by inputting massive amounts of random data, called fuzz, to the component or system. Representation of the layers, components , and interfaces of a test automation architecture , allowing for a structured and modular approach to implement test automation. An approach to software measurement using a three-level model conceptual level goal , operational level question and quantitative level metric.
Testing performed by interacting with the software under test via the graphical user interface. A person or organization who is actively involved in security attacks , usually with malicious intent. Dynamic testing performed using real hardware with integrated software in a simulated environment. Testing performed to expose defects in the interfaces and interaction between hardware and software components. Transformation of a variable length string of characters into a usually shorter fixed-length value or key.
A technique used to characterize the elements of risk. A usability review technique that targets usability problems in the user interface or user interface design. A test case without concrete values for input data and expected results. The tracing of requirements for a test level through the layers of test documentation e. An approach to design that aims to make software products more usable by focusing on the use of the software products and applying human factors, ergonomics, and usability knowledge and techniques. A tool used to check that no broken hyperlinks are present on a web site.
An organizational improvement model that serves as a roadmap for initiating, planning, and implementing improvement actions. The identification of all work products affected by a change, including an estimate of the resources needed to accomplish the change. The process of recognizing and recording incidents , classifying them, investigating them, taking action to resolve them, and disposing of them when resolved. A tool that facilitates the recording and status tracking of incidents.
Documentation of the occurrence, nature, and status of an incident. A development lifecycle model in which the project scope is generally determined early in the project lifecycle, but time and cost estimates are routinely modified as the project team understanding of the product increases. Separation of responsibilities, which encourages the accomplishment of objective testing. A measure that provides an estimate or evaluation of specified attributes derived from a model with respect to defined information needs.
A path that cannot be exercised by any set of possible input values. Measures that protect and defend information and information systems by ensuring their availability , integrity, authentication , confidentiality, and non-repudiation. The protection of information and information systems from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, or destruction in order to provide confidentiality, integrity, and availability. Data received by a component or system from an external source. Testing performed by people who are co-located with the project team but are not fellow employees.
A type of formal review to identify issues in a work product, which provides measurement to improve the review process and the software development process. The capability of the software product to be installed in a specified environment. Testing the installability of a software product. Supplied instructions on any suitable media, which guides the installer through the installation process. Supplied software on any suitable media, which leads the installer through the installation process.
The process of combining components or systems into larger assemblies. Testing performed to expose defects in the interfaces and in the interactions between integrated components or systems. An integration test type that is concerned with testing the interfaces between components or systems. The degree to which two or more components or systems can exchange information and use the information that has been exchanged.
Testing to determine the interoperability of a software product. A system which monitors activities on the 7 layers of the OSI model from network to application level, to detect violations of the security policy. Testing using input values that should be rejected by the component or system. A development lifecycle where a project is broken into a usually large number of iterations.
A scripting technique that uses data files to contain not only test data and expected results , but also keywords related to the application being tested. The person who leads an assessment. The capability of the software product to enable the user to learn its application. The phase within the IDEAL model where one learns from experiences and improves one's ability to adopt new processes and technologies in the future. The level to which a test object is modified by adjusting it for testability.
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A test plan that typically addresses one test level. A description of the processes, workflows, and activities used in the development, delivery, maintenance , and retirement of a system. A simple scripting technique without any control structure in the test scripts. Documentation defining a designated number of virtual users who process a defined set of transactions in a specified time period that a component or system being tested may experience in production.
A type of performance testing conducted to evaluate the behavior of a component or system under varying loads, usually between anticipated conditions of low, typical, and peak usage. A test case with concrete values for input data and expected results. The degree to which a component or system can be modified by the intended maintainers. The process of modifying a component or system after delivery to correct defects , improve quality attributes , or adapt to a changed environment.
Testing the changes to an operational system or the impact of a changed environment to an operational system. Static analysis aiming to detect and remove malicious code received at an interface. A systematic evaluation of software acquisition, supply, development, operation, or maintenance process , performed by or on behalf of management that monitors progress, determines the status of plans and schedules, confirms requirements and their system allocation, or evaluates the effectiveness of management approaches to achieve fitness for purpose.
A view of quality , whereby quality is measured by the degree to which a product or service conforms to its intended design and requirements. A test plan that is used to coordinate multiple test levels or test types. Degree of process improvement across a predefined set of process areas in which all goals in the set are attained. A structured collection of elements that describe certain aspects of maturity in an organization, and aid in the definition and understanding of an organization's processes.
The arithmetic mean average time between failures of a system. The arithmetic mean average time a system will take to recover from any failure. The number or category assigned to an attribute of an entity by making a measurement. The process of assigning a number or category to an entity to describe an attribute of that entity.
A table containing different test approaches, testing techniques and test types that are required depending on the Automotive Safety Integrity Level ASIL and on the context of the test object. A test strategy whereby the test team uses a pre-determined set of test conditions such as a quality standard , a checklist, or a collection of generalized, logical test conditions which may relate to a particular domain, application or type of testing.
A measurement scale and the method used for measurement. A point in time in a project at which defined intermediate deliverables and results should be ready. A diagram used to represent words, ideas, tasks, or other items linked to and arranged around a central keyword or idea. Dynamic testing performed using a simulation model of the system in a simulated environment. A test strategy whereby the test team derives testware from models. A tool that supports the creation, amendment and verification of models of the software or system.
A neutral person who conducts a usability test session.
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The percentage of all single condition outcomes that independently affect a decision outcome that have been exercised by a test case suite. A white-box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute single condition outcomes that independently affect a decision outcome. The percentage of combinations of all single condition outcomes within one statement that have been exercised by a test suite. A white-box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute combinations of single condition outcomes within one statement.
An indicator of psychological preference representing the different personalities and communication styles of people. Tests aimed at showing that a component or system does not work. A form of integration testing where all of the nodes that connect to a given node are the basis for the integration testing. A sub-network with a defined level of trust. A requirement that describes how the component or system will do what it is intended to do. Testing conducted to evaluate the compliance of a component or system with non-functional requirements.
Model-based test approach whereby test cases are generated into a repository for future execution. Model-based test approach whereby test cases are generated and executed simultaneously. A software tool that is available to all potential users in source code form, usually via the internet. A system in which controlling action or input is independent of the output or changes in output.
The capability of the software product to enable the user to operate and control it. Hardware and software products installed at users' or customers' sites where the component or system under test will be used. An actual or predicted pattern of use of the component or system. The process of developing and implementing an operational profile. Testing conducted to evaluate a component or system in its operational environment. A 2-dimensional array constructed with special mathematical properties, such that choosing any two columns in the array provides every pair combination of each number in the array.
A systematic way of testing all-pair combinations of variables using orthogonal arrays. Data transmitted by a component or system to an external destination. Testing performed by people who are not co-located with the project team and are not fellow employees. An agile software development practice in which two programmers work together on one workstation. Two persons, e. A form of integration testing that targets pairs of components that work together, as shown in a call graph. A black-box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute all possible discrete combinations of each pair of input parameters.
A statistical technique in decision making that is used for selection of a limited number of factors that produce significant overall effect. A test is deemed to pass if its actual result matches its expected result. Decision rules used to determine whether a test item function or feature has passed or failed a test. A security attack recovering secret passwords stored in a computer system or transmitted over a network. A sequence of events, e. A white-box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute paths. A form of review of work products performed by others qualified to do the same work.
A testing technique aiming to exploit security vulnerabilities known or unknown to gain unauthorized access. The degree to which a component or system uses time, resources and capacity when accomplishing its designated functions. Testing to determine the performance of a software product.
A test tool that generates load for a designated test item and that measures and records its performance during test execution. A review technique whereby reviewers evaluate the work product from different viewpoints. A security attack intended to redirect a web site's traffic to a fraudulent web site without the user's knowledge or consent.
The percentage of defects that are removed in the same phase of the software lifecycle in which they were introduced. A test plan that typically addresses one test phase. An attempt to acquire personal or sensitive information by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication. A consensus-based estimation technique, mostly used to estimate effort or relative size of user stories in Agile software development. The ease with which the software product can be transferred from one hardware or software environment to another.
The expected state of a test item and its environment at the end of test case execution. The required state of a test item and its environment prior to test case execution. A statement that can evaluate to true or false and may be used to determine the control flow of subsequent decision logic. A systematic approach to risk-based testing that employs product risk identification and analysis to create a product risk matrix based on likelihood and impact.
The effect on the component or system by the measurement instrument when the component or system is being measured, e. A set of interrelated activities, which transform inputs into outputs. A disciplined evaluation of an organization's software processes against a reference model. A program of activities designed to improve the performance and maturity of the organization's processes, and the result of such a program. A process model providing a generic body of best practices and how to improve a process in a prescribed step-by-step manner.
A test strategy whereby the test team follows a set of predefined processes, whereby the processes address such items as documentation, the proper identification and use of the test basis and test oracle s , and the organization of the test team. A scripting technique where scripts are structured into scenarios which represent use cases of the software under test.
A risk impacting the quality of a product. A view of quality , wherein quality is based on a well-defined set of quality characteristics. A project is a unique set of coordinated and controlled activities with start and finish dates undertaken to achieve an objective conforming to specific requirements , including the constraints of time, cost and resources. A structured way to capture lessons learned and to create specific action plans for improving on the next project or next project phase. A risk that impacts project success.
A series which appears to be random but is in fact generated according to some prearranged sequence. The process of demonstrating the ability to fulfill specified requirements. Part of quality management focused on providing confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled. The operational techniques and activities, part of quality management , that are focused on fulfilling quality requirements. A method to transform user demands into design quality , to deploy the functions forming quality , and to deploy methods for achieving the design quality into subsystems and component parts, and ultimately to specific elements of the manufacturing process.
A special milestone in a project. Coordinated activities to direct and control an organization with regard to quality. A product risk related to a quality characteristic. A matrix describing the participation by various roles in completing tasks or deliverables for a project or process. A black-box test design technique where test cases are selected, possibly using a pseudo-random generation algorithm, to match an operational profile. A proprietary adaptable iterative software development process framework consisting of four project lifecycle phases: inception, elaboration, construction and transition.
A test strategy whereby the test team waits to design and implement tests until the software is received, reacting to the actual system under test. Testing that dynamically responds to the system under test and test results being obtained. The exploration of a target area aiming to gain information that can be useful for an attack. The capability of the software product to re-establish a specified level of performance and recover the data directly affected in case of failure.
A degradation in the quality of a component or system due to a change. Testing of a previously tested component or system following modification to ensure that defects have not been introduced or have been uncovered in unchanged areas of the software , as a result of the changes made. Testing using various techniques to manage the risk of regression , e. Acceptance testing conducted to verify whether a system conforms to relevant laws, policies and regulations.
A document identifying test items , their configuration , current status and other delivery information delivered by development to testing , and possibly other stakeholders, at the start of a test execution phase. The degree to which a component or system performs specified functions under specified conditions for a specified period of time. A model that shows the growth in reliability over time during continuous testing of a component or system as a result of the removal of defects that result in reliability failures.
The capability of the software product to be used in place of another specified software product for the same purpose in the same environment.
A tool that supports the recording of requirements , requirements attributes e. The period of time in the software lifecycle during which the requirements for a software product are defined and documented.
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An approach to testing in which test cases are designed based on test objectives and test conditions derived from requirements , e. The capability of the software product to use appropriate amounts and types of resources, for example the amounts of main and secondary memory used by the program and the sizes of required temporary or overflow files, when the software performs its function under stated conditions.
The process of testing to determine the resource-utilization of a software product. The defined set of testing activities that must be repeated when testing is re-started after a suspension. A meeting at the end of a project during which the project team members evaluate the project and learn lessons that can be applied to the next project. A type of static testing during which a work product or process is evaluated by one or more individuals to detect issues and to provide improvements. A document describing the approach, resources and schedule of intended review activities.
A tool that provides support to the review process. A participant in a review , who identifies issues in the work product. The overall process of risk identification and risk assessment. The process to examine identified risks and determine the risk level. The process of finding , recognizing and describing risks. The damage that will be caused if the risk becomes an actual outcome or event.
The qualitative or quantitative measure of a risk defined by impact and likelihood. The estimated probability that a risk will become an actual outcome or event. The coordinated activities to direct and control an organization with regard to risk. The process through which decisions are reached and protective measures are implemented for reducing or maintaining risks to specified levels. Testing in which the management, selection, prioritization, and use of testing activities and resources are based on corresponding risk types and risk levels.
The degree to which a component or system can function correctly in the presence of invalid inputs or stressful environmental conditions. A review technique where reviewers evaluate a work product from the perspective of different stakeholder roles. A source of a defect such that if it is removed, the occurrence of the defect type is decreased or removed. An analysis technique aimed at identifying the root causes of defects. James A. Hans Modrow and James A. Bewerten Sie diesen Beitrag:. Wer bezahlt den Osten? Deutschlandarchiv bei Twitter. Twitter Mittwoch, Eine Betrachtung von Prof.
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