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That century and the first half of the 18th presents a busy and sometimes bizarre biographical landscape. It was an era of experimentation and preparation rather than of successful achievement. In the New World, the American Colonies began to develop a scattered biographical activity, none of it of lasting importance. In this era women appear for the first time as biographers. Lady Fanshawe wrote a life of her ambassador-husband ; Lucy Hutchinson, one of her Puritan warrior-husbands written after , published ; and Margaret Cavendish, duchess of Newcastle, produced a warm, bustling life—still good reading today—of her duke, an amiable mediocrity The Life of the Thrice Noble Prince William Cavendishe, Duke Marquess, and Earl of Newcastle , Also the author of an autobiography , Roger North likewise produced, as a preface to his life of Francis, the first extensive critical essay on biography, which anticipates some of the ideas of Samuel Johnson and James Boswell.

Johnson, literary dictator of his age, critic and lexicographer who turned his hand to many kinds of literature , himself created the first English professional biographies in The Lives of the English Poets. For more than one reason the somewhat disreputable and incredibly diligent Scots lawyer James Boswell can be called the unique genius of biographical literature, bestriding both autobiography and biography.

Since World War II there have often been years, in the United States, when the annual bibliographies reveal that more books or articles were published about Johnson and Boswell than about all the rest of biographical literature together. Printing and Parenting in Early Modern England. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, Cave, Terence.

Manchester: Manchester UP, Claeys, Gregory. Restoration and Augustan British Utopias. Davis, J. Dunton, John. Goldstone, Jack A.

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Revolution and Rebellion in the Early Modern World. Berkeley: University of California Press, Goodwin, Francis. The Man in The Moone. Greig, Martin. Hailbrunn, Benoit. Jonathan E. New York: Routledge, Halpern, Richard. Hill, Christopher. New York: Viking, Holt, Douglas B. Kinney, Arthur F. Amherst, Mass. Dominic Baker-Smith, and Arthur F. Kinner, and A. Newark: University of Delaware, Lawson, Peter. Leslie, Marina. Renaissance Utopias and the Problem of History. Levy, Sidney J. Levy on Marketing. Lupton, Thomas. Manuel, Frank Edward. Utopian Thought in the Western World.

Cambridge, MA: Belknap, Mascuch, Michael. More, Thomas. More, Thomas, George M. Utopia: Latin Text and an English Translation. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, Morson, Gary Saul. Austin: University of Texas Press, Parks, Stephen. New York: Garland, Plomer, Henry R. London: Bibliographical Society, Saeger, Michael Baird. By Douglas A. Aldershot, Hampshire, England: Ashgate, Saltzman, Paul.

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Bronwen Price. Tapsell, Grant. Woodbridge: Boydell, Thuesen, Peter Johannes. Oxford: Oxford UP, Womock, Laurence. Yamada, Akihiro. Tokyo: Mesei UP, Her book project examines early modern print and modern digital cultures, focusing on paratextual materials as unique sites of labor, cultural capital, and maker-consumer relationships. Posted by whow at PM. No comments:. Newer Post Older Post Home. Subscribe to: Post Comments Atom. Miles Fletcher's Device c. Solicited materials, including book reviews, also undergo this procedure. Results following split-votes are determined by the Editor.

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Efforts like those made by Erasmus, Thomas More, and Michelangelo increased the status of the artist in the new world of the Renaissance. In one part of the book, More describes the people and places of the fictional island of Utopia. A map of the island is shown here. This, too, was shocking to many readers. Thomas More also describes how Utopians wage war. They love peace, he says, but when they go to war they do so with a vengeance.

They often bring captured people home and make them slaves. In addition, Thomas More brings up the subject of land enclosures. In his time, wealthy men in England were buying up all of the available land. Thomas More was clearly against the enclosure of land. He shows, in Utopia, how the people of that island prevented this from happening on their land. We could say a lot more about Utopia.

It is not a very long book, but it is so full of ideas, thoughts, and morals, all cleverly disguised, that one can spend a lifetime reading and rereading it. Utopia was one of the greatest books of the sixteenth century and it remains one of the great classics of today. Thomas More had fulfilled many of his desires. He had become a husband, a father, a property owner, 47 48 Thomas More and a published author in London. He also had many friends, some of them in high places.

His ideas would continue to be discussed and debated for centuries after he was gone. After falling from a horse b. During childbirth c. After contracting a fever d. As a result of a rare disease 4 What does the word utopia mean in Latin? At the same time, however, the demands on his time increased with his growing literary fame.

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Some of them washed dishes. Others prepared meals or made beds. A servant such as Thomas More, however, served an entirely different purpose. He was a man of substance, someone whose advice the king might seek. A servant such as Thomas More was a free man, but he could find himself in serious trouble if he displeased the king. He was a man of some importance in the royal court. More knew a great deal about literature, science, and world events. The king and his servant often watched the stars together from the roof of one of the royal palaces. Thomas More had spent a great deal of time practicing the law.

So, his legal knowledge was very useful to King Henry. A little older than Thomas More, Thomas Wolsey was the son of a butcher. Thomas Wolsey was also a very ambitious man who made many enemies during his rise to the top. All was not fun and games in the royal court, however. There was a conflict forming between England and France. And as your good lordships well know, that we had so short warning for this journey, that our time was very little and scarce to prepare ourselves and our company forward. The king had a reputation for turning against people who displeased him.

So, Thomas More continued to travel on diplomatic assignments, as needed. The only reason he did not attract more attention and more envy was because Thomas Wolsey had become far more prestigious. Soon Wolsey was named as the cardinal of York and the chief minister to the king, along with many other titles. To show off his greatness, Cardinal Wolsey had a vast new palace built upriver from London on the Thames. This became Hampton Court Palace. This was probably not true. When he came to the throne at age 18, King Henry decided to spend as much money as was necessary to make him and his court seem glorious and powerful.

All of the palaces were decorated in the finest style. Hampton Court Palace was especially beautiful. A huge clock was visible to everyone who entered. The famous astronomical clock told the time in England and indicated when the tides rose and fell at Greenwich.

He still maintained control over his kingdom, however. The king played the lute. Queen Catherine played the harp and, between them, they inspired many nobles to become musicians. The king was, for a long time, the best dancer at his own court, and Tudor music remains popular even today. The quickstep dance tunes of the sixteenth century have a timeless quality to them.

This is not true of the homes of many other great nobles. Quite a few families had to sell their estates over the centuries. Those that still have their homes often have to open parts of them to tourists, in order to pay for the upkeep. More never became truly rich, but he was able to move his family from Bucklersbury, which had been nice enough, to Chelsea, just outside of London.

It was there that Hans Holbein completed his famous painting of the More family. Thomas More had a chance to see Desiderius Erasmus again in the spring of In fact, Thomas More had the chance to see many important people from England and France when the great festival known as the Field of Cloth of Gold was held just outside of Calais, on the French side of the English Channel. For some time, the kings of England and France had wanted to get together for a great conference.

The members of the royal courts of both nations were also eager to come together.

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There would be opportunities for horsemanship, swordplay, and other challenges. King Francis I of France brought an equal number of people. This, therefore, was not the time to show off his skills. While King Henry and King Francis had a great time, holding tournaments in which English and French nobles rode against each other, Thomas More enjoyed a quieter time. He met with his old friend Desiderius Erasmus and with Guilluame Buade, a French scholar he had never met before. When the Field of the Cloth of Gold broke up after two weeks, Erasmus rode back to his home in Belgium.

Thomas More went back to England by ship. Nothing very important was achieved at the conference, which was unfortunate because the kings of both England and France were about to face a formidable new challenge. It was called Lutheranism and it would eventually change into Protestantism, and alter the face of religion. The religious unity of the Middle Ages was about to be shattered.

They hated each other quite heartily, even from a distance. Martin Luther was a German monk, born about five years after Thomas More. Like Thomas More, Martin Luther had an ambitious father. Like Thomas More, Martin Luther was also pressured by his father to become an important lawyer, a man of business. In the summer of , Martin Luther became upset by the number of indulgences that were being sold in his part of Germany. Indulgences were not intended to help the person who bought them. This did not, however, prevent ambitious salespeople from selling many indulgences to people who had the mistaken idea that they could lessen their own time in purgatory.

In response, he posted the 95 Theses on the door of the church in Wittenberg, Germany, as dramatized in this picture. Martin Luther became so upset with this practice that he wrote a long list of statements and nailed them on the door of the church in Wittenberg, Germany. After all, Luther did not hate the church.

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Much like Thomas More, some miles away, Martin Luther also loved the church. Because the pope and other church leaders refused to create any reforms, however, Luther continued his statements. The king was a fine writer in Latin and he was quite intelligent. Still, it is likely he had help from Thomas More and some other members of the royal council to write his book.

Without help, the writing of the book probably would have taken much longer. If King Henry defended Pope Leo too strongly, the king would not be able to disagree with the pope on any matters at all. Defense of the Seven Sacraments was a bold blow in the war of words between the king and Martin Luther. Not surprisingly, Martin Luther struck back. His answer was another book entitled Against Henry, King of the English.

Martin Luther had a fierce temper and sometimes a foul mouth, as well. Thomas More loved to write elegant prose. He loved words for their own sake. At about the same time, Thomas More experienced yet another boost to his career. More was not a natural politician. He did love to speak, however, and the position of speaker gave him the perfect opportunity to do so. More did his best for the king and the cardinal, but the tax amount agreed to by the House of Commons was less than what was desired.

He was a faithful and loyal servant to the crown. One believed firmly in the Roman Catholic Church. The other wanted to reform that church. When reform was not possible, he started a new church. Martin Luther became a monk in Once the battle began between those who followed Martin Luther, known as the Lutherans, and Roman Catholics who followed the pope, Martin Luther and Thomas More became bitter enemies. They never met, but they traded blows in their written works. Thomas More clearly liked this part of his work. Like many people of his time, he believed there should be no mercy for heretics.

Anyone who willfully went against the edicts of the Roman Catholic Church should be severely punished. He was a successful lawyer, an able servant of the crown, and he was providing for his large and growing family. Two of his daughters were married on the same day in and Thomas More looked forward to seeing his future grandchildren.

Five b. Three c. Four d. His wife, Queen Catherine of Aragon, was a Spanish princess. During the course of their year marriage, Queen Catherine had not given birth to a son.

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At the time, the lack of a male heir presented a great problem. He believed that only under the leadership of a son would the kingdom be secure. He had found a new love in his life. She had spent her first ten years at home in England, before spending several years at royal courts in France and Holland.

She was an enchanting young woman with beautiful dark hair. By , the king had fallen deeply in love with Anne Boleyn. Years later, Thomas More remembered that King Henry first brought up the subject of divorce in King Henry wanted to divorce Queen Catherine so that he could marry Anne Boleyn, but he needed to figure out how this could be done. Thomas More was not in favor of this change. He liked Queen Catherine and knew that the people of London were also very fond of her.

For that reason alone, he advised the king not to seek a divorce. Other members of the royal court reacted differently. Cardinal Thomas Wolsey had made his name, his fame, and his living by always providing whatever the king wanted. Cardinal Wolsey now promised to find a way for the king to divorce the queen. The emperor had not ordered the soldiers to go to war, but his soldiers went ahead, attacking and capturing the city.

Pope Clement VII was forced to flee. He found refuge in Castle San Angelo, on the banks of 77 Thomas More 78 the Tiber River—the only secure place in Rome, from which he could not venture out. Queen Catherine of England was the aunt of Emperor Charles V, and he did not wish to see his aunt humiliated or disgraced. Princess Catherine came to England in and married Prince Arthur, the heir to the English throne.

When he died just six months later, she became a widow as a young woman. Eighteen years passed. In that time, Queen Catherine had one child, Princess Mary. All of this was very complicated, but it boiled down to this fact—King Henry wanted a divorce and Pope Clement VII would not grant him one. King Henry was madly in love with Anne Boleyn and, in , he married her in secret. Months later, he granted himself a divorce.

He was able to do this because he had made himself the leader of the Church of England. Poor Queen Catherine was separated from her beloved daughter, Princess Mary. Catherine was sent to a damp old castle in England and kept away from the court. She died in His marriage to Catherine lasted for 18 years. The other wives were not so lucky. His counselors and lawyers assured him that the only way to end his marriage was to have a public hearing with a representative from the pope present.

They do know, however, that the court at Blackfriars helped to bring about the downfall of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey. She fell to her knees in front of King Henry and begged him to tell her how she had offended him. King Henry looked away, deeply embarrassed. Everyone knew Queen Catherine had been a model wife in all ways but one.

She had one daughter, Princess Mary, but she had not provided the king with any sons. Queen Catherine almost won the day. Anne Boleyn, he might have listened to his advisors and given up on the whole Great Matter. Unfortunately for Queen Catherine, he was crazy about Anne Boleyn and he insisted on marrying her. The pope and Cardinal Campeggio had two reasons for being against the 81 Thomas More 82 divorce. To do so would confirm many of the accusations made by Martin Luther against the Roman Catholic Church. Cardinal Campeggio left England with the Great Matter still unresolved.

Meanwhile, Cardinal Wolsey, who had promised King Henry he would solve the Great Matter, now feared for his estates and his life. Everyone knew that King Henry had a horrible temper when things did not go his way. King Henry assured the cardinal that he still favored him and that all would be well, but there were two other men conspiring against Cardinal Wolsey.

The two dukes were men of prestigious families with valuable lands and estates. The two dukes required him to return the gilded neck chain that was the symbol of his office. Thomas Wolsey sent letters to King Henry, begging the king to see him, but the letters were returned. She was his aunt. She was his sister. She was his mother. She was his daughter. Throughout his life, Thomas More liked to say that he had never sought high office, but that the offices had simply come to him.

This was not 86 Thomas More, Lord Chancellor always true. This position was full of responsibility and danger. That would be even more dangerous than accepting the post. So, Thomas More took the new position. Around this time, in the autumn of , there was a large fire at Chelsea, where Thomas More lived. All of his barns and cornfields were destroyed. At the time of the fire, Thomas More was at court, in the service of the king. After learning of the fire, Thomas More wrote a letter to his wife, one of the few people who had survived: Mistress Alice, in my most heart way I recommend me to you.

He sent us all that we have lost and sayeth he has by such a chance taken away that again his pleasure be fulfilled; let us never grudge thereat but take in good worth and heartily thank him as well for adversity as for prosperity. They seem to have had a rather businesslike relationship, with her providing household management and him being the connection to the outside world.

The letter also indicated that Thomas More remained very much a man of faith. Even though he Thomas More, Lord Chancellor was Lord Chancellor, the second-most-important man in the land, he still recommended to his wife that they thank God for adversity as well as for prosperity. At first, the job was not too burdensome. He had practiced law for many years and now he could make some improvements in the legal system. Unfortunately, his anger against the Lutherans, or Protestants, was now intense.

Thomas More had always been a faithful follower of the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church. Now he had the power to make other people follow the rules of the church. Heretics, those who did not follow the church, would be brought to justice. Thomas More never had anyone tortured in front of him, but he did send men to the torture chamber, knowing what would happen to them. Thomas More, Lord Chancellor wanted to ensure that the Roman Catholic faith remained the law of the land. Both of them had loved and defended the Catholic Church.

The Duke of Norfolk and the Duke of Suffolk were also unable to solve it. Chancellor Thomas More did not wish to solve it. He wanted the king to forget about it, for the good of the kingdom. Thomas Cromwell and Thomas More had known each other for years. Both of them had served the king while Cardinal Wolsey was Lord Chancellor. This would mean a break with more than 1, years of tradition. England had been Roman Catholic since the early Middle Ages. The bishops, Mass, and the sacraments could all remain, with King Henry himself as the new pope, or supreme head of the church.

King Henry was not eager to break from Roman Catholic tradition. He had argued for the power of the pope in his book against Martin Luther. He was, however, still madly in love with Anne Boleyn. He desperately needed a divorce. Thomas Cromwell should have been more cautious. He should have remembered what had happened to Cardinal Wolsey. Instead, Thomas Cromwell pushed the Great Matter forward. King Henry announced that the bishops of England would need to swear allegiance to him personally, rather than to the pope in Rome.

Around this time, Thomas Cromwell started referring to the pope as the bishop of Rome. Thomas More was saddened by what was happening around him. At the top was the king or queen. Next came the great lords of the realm—men like the Duke of Norfolk and the Duke of Suffolk. Next in line came the great merchants and tradesmen of the realm.

They generally lived in inner-city London. Next came the gentry, the lowerranked nobles who lived in the countryside. Then came the yeoman farmers, men who owned their own land. Finally, there were the tenant farmers, people who rented land from others. There were some exceptions to the rule, of course. Generally speaking, however, nearly everyone wanted to live close to London and have access to the royal court.

Thomas More had been at the center of power for many years. He told his friends he was delighted to be leaving it. He did not wish to see King Henry, or any other king, take away powers that belonged only to the pope. In December , Thomas More handed over his neck chain, the symbol of his office. He was Lord Chancellor no more. At home b. In the service of the king c. On a diplomatic mission to France d. At a government meeting in London 2 What was the name for those people who did not follow the teachings of the Catholic Church?

Heretics b. Lunatics c. Heathens d. Sinners 3 Breaking with the Roman Catholic Church would mean breaking with how many years of established traditions? Thomas More, Lord Chancellor Thomas more was a firm believer in a. For the first time in about 15 years, he could retire to his family, his books, and his land in Chelsea. He was pleased with the change. He had grown weary of public service. True, he had grown wealthy in the service of King Henry VIII, enjoyed great power, and 98 A Prisoner of Conscience done some good things with that power, but now he could relax.

Thomas More was happy to return home. He had missed the regular contact with his family, which was now becoming very large. His three daughters were all married. Margaret had married William Roper.

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Cecily had married John Heron. Elizabeth had married Lord Dauncy. His son was also now married. There were seven grandchildren in the family already. Thomas More enjoyed teaching his grandchildren as much as he had enjoyed teaching his own children. There were other matters to work on, as well. The house, land, and farm all required a good deal of management. Dame Alice More had done this for years, but now Thomas More was able to work with her. There were many reasons for Thomas More to be happy and content in his retirement, but he was not allowed to enjoy it.

A few months after that, King Henry granted himself a divorce. He was probably the first person in history 99 Thomas More to do so. She was sent to live in a drafty, old castle, and she was forbidden from seeing her beloved daughter, Princess Mary. Believing he needed money, they sent him enough to buy a new gown for the event, but Thomas More would not go.