Its third envoy, Ali Aziz Efendi , died in which led to the establishment of the first Muslim cemetery in Germany. Once trading treaties were established between the Ottomans and the Prussians in the nineteenth century, Turks and Germans were encouraged to cross over to each other's lands for trade. Consequently, in the same year, the West German government signed a labour recruitment agreement with the Republic of Turkey on 30 October , and officially invited the Turkish people to emigrate to the country.
Surveillance and prayer – comparing Muslim prison chaplaincy in Germany’s federal states
By —62, German employers played a crucial role in pressuring the State to end the two-year limitation clause of the " Gastarbeiter " "guest worker" agreement so that Turkish workers could stay in West Germany for longer. Most Turkish people who immigrated to West Germany intended to live there temporarily and then return to Turkey so that they could build a new life with the money they had earned. Indeed, return-migration had increased during the recession of , the oil crisis , followed by the policy of giving remigration bonuses in the early s. This was in part because labour shortages continued in low paying, low-status service jobs such as electronics, textiles, and garment work; and in part to further the goal of family reunification.
These debates about citizenship were accompanied by expressions of xenophobia and ethnic violence that targeted the Turkish population. Turkish communities experienced considerable fear for their safety throughout Germany, with some 1, reported cases of right wing violence, and 2, cases the year after. Citizenship laws that established eligibility according to place of birth rather than according to descent have been slow in coming and restrictions on dual citizenship are still onerous.
However, increasing numbers of second-generation Turks have opted for German citizenship and are becoming more involved in the political process. Initially, some Bulgarian Turks arrived in Germany during the introduction of the family reunification laws of The Bulgarian Turks were able to take advantage of this law despite the very small number of Bulgarian citizens in Germany.
This is because some Turkish workers in Germany who arrived from Turkey were actually part of the Bulgarian-Turkish minority who had left Bulgaria during the communist regime during the s and still held Bulgarian citizenship , alongside their Turkish citizenship.
Crime and criminal justice history in Germany. A report on recent trends
The migration of Bulgarian Turks to Germany increased further once communism in Bulgaria came to an end in Bulgarian Turks who were unable to join the massive migration wave to Turkey in , during "big excursion", were faced with severe economic disadvantages and faced discrimination through State policies of Bulgarisation.
Hence, from the early s onwards many Bulgarian Turks sought asylum in Germany. The Bulgarian Turks have generally been attracted to Germany because they rely on the well-established German-Turkish community for gaining employment. From the s onwards, the Turkish minority of Greece , particularly the Turks of Western Thrace , began to immigrate to Germany alongside other Greek citizens. Article 19 of the Greek Constitution essentially stripped off the Western Thrace Turks living abroad particularly those in Germany and Turkey of their Greek citizenship.
Many Western Thrace Turks who did intend on returning to Greece were discriminated against and were refused the right to a hearing. Estimates of the number of Western Thrace Turks who lost their citizenship range between several hundred to several thousand. The migration of Western Thrace Turks to Germany continued to increase in the s and s.
This was because the Thracian tobacco industry was affected by a severe crisis and many tobacco growers lost their income. In particular, they have been particularly adamant in pressuring the Greek State to resolve the legal issues in regards to Article 19 of the Citizenship Law. Turkish Cypriots began to emigrate from Cyprus to Western Europe, mostly to the United Kingdom but also a few to Germany , during the Cyprus conflict s and its immediate aftermath.
Today there is approximately 2, Turkish Cypriots living in Germany. Due to the numerous wars in Lebanon since the s onwards, many Lebanese Turks have sought refuge in Turkey and Europe , particularly in Germany. Indeed, many Lebanese Turks were aware of the large German-Turkish population and saw this as an opportunity to find work once settling in Europe. In particular, the largest wave of Lebanese-Turkish migration occurred once the Israel-Lebanon war of began. During this period more than 20, Turks fled Lebanon, particularly from Beirut , and settled in Germany.
Although 1. This is because the German state does not categorise immigrants, or their descendants, in terms of ethnicity. Consequently, ethnic Turks who have German citizenship are categorised as "German" rather than "Turkish". Similarly, those with Turkish citizenship are categorised as "Turkish" irrespective of their ethnicity. Hence, ethnic minorities from Turkey who have also immigrated to Germany are not distinguished as a separate group, according to their ethnicities.
Furthermore, the significant number of ethnic Turkish communities who have arrived in Germany from the Balkans , Cyprus , and the Arab World are recorded according to their citizenship, such as "Bulgarian", "Cypriot", "Greek", "Iraqi", "Lebanese" "Macedonian", "Romanian", "Syrian" etc. Whilst these ethnic Turkish communities have different nationalities , they share the same ethnic, linguistic, cultural and religious origins as mainland ethnic Turks. Young women of Turkish origin are twice as likely to attempt suicide as their female German peers.
Researchers assume the higher rate is due to family conflicts involving differences in how a young woman should behave according to Turkish and German values. The causes for the higher rate was given as low education and social status of these groups along with cultural traditions of violence against women.
Estimates of the total Turkish population in Germany, including those of partial descent, have ranged considerably because the German census does not collect data on ethnicity. Academic estimates have often ranged between 2. Estimates suggest that the total number of people living in Germany who originate from Turkey only including ethnic minorities from Turkey , particularly the Kurds reaches, or is more than, five million people    to 5. Some academics have also quoted the much higher estimates made by European officials.
For example, Tessa Szyszkowitz has quoted one estimate by a European official suggesting that there are seven million Turks living in Germany, including the second generation. The Turkish community in Germany is concentrated predominantly in urban centers. In regards to return-migration, many Turkish nationals and German Turks have also migrated from Germany to Turkey , for retirement or professional reasons.
Official German records show that there are 2. Turkish immigrants make up Germany's second biggest immigrant group with almost 3 million people and are very poorly integrated, ranked last in Berlin Institute's integration ranking. For decades Turkish citizens in Germany were unable to become German citizens because of the traditional German construct of "nationhood". The legal notion of citizenship was based on "blood ties" of a German parent jus sanguinis — as opposed to citizenship based on country of birth and residence jus soli.
This adhered to the political notion that Germany was not a country of immigration. In Germany's citizenship law was somewhat relaxed with the introduction of the Foreigner's Law; this gave Turkish workers the right to apply for a permanent residency permit after eight years of living in the country. Hence, they were deprived of the right to hold dual citizenship because it would increase the Turkish population in the country.
Chancellor Helmut Kohl officially stated this as the main reason for denying dual citizenship in when he said the following:. Nonetheless, another citizenship reform law was soon introduced after Helmut Kohl finished his last term as Chancellor.
The Citizenship Law of , which was officially taken into effect on 1 January , has facilitated the acquisition of German citizenship for people born outside of Germany, making it available to Turkish immigrants after eight years of legal residence in the country. Former Turkish citizens who have given up their citizenship can apply for the "Blue Card" Mavi Kart , which gives them some rights in Turkey, such as the right to live and work in Turkey, the right to possess and inherit land or the right to inherit; however, they do not have the right to vote.
It has been criticized that there is a media and political bias against German Turks compared to Kurds in Germany, for example, when pro-Erdogan Turks demonstrate the media and many politicians warn against these demonstrations, but the same media and politicians remain silent about the many regular pro-PKK Kurdish demonstrations. He disguised himself as a Turkish worker called "Ali Levent" for over two years and took on minimal-wage jobs and confronted German institutions. He found that many employers did not register or insure their Turkish workers.
Moreover, major employers like Thyssen did not give their Turkish workers adequate breaks and did not pay them their full wage. In The Local and Der Spiegel reported that a new study reveals Turks in Germany lag behind other migrant groups when it comes to education and jobs. Immigrants of Turkish origin were also found to be the least successful in the labour market: 30 percent did not finish school, many were often jobless, the percentage of housewives was high and many were dependent on welfare.
Conversely, they had a significantly higher birth rate. The Turkish people who immigrated to Germany brought their culture with them, including their language, religion, food, and arts. These cultural traditions have also been passed down to their descendants who maintain these values. Consequently, German Turks have also exposed their culture to the greater German society. This is particularly noticeable in the developing landscape of the country, with numerous Turkish restaurants, grocery stores, teahouses, and mosques scattered across Germany.
Moreover, the Turks in Germany have also been exposed to the German culture - as is evident on the influence it has played in the Turkish dialect spoken by the Turkish community in Germany. The Turkish cuisine first arrived in Germany during the sixteenth century and was consumed among aristocratic circles.
- Qué hacer para desarrollar la autoestima en los niños de 6 a 12 años (Spanish Edition).
- Bram Stoker: Dracula - The relationship of Jonathan and Mina Harker;
- Fanny Hill, Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure.
- Daniel Koehler - Director.
- Fred H. Cate and James X. Dempsey?
By the early s Turks began to open fast-food restaurants serving popular kebap dishes. Moreover, since the s, Turks have opened grocery stores and open-air markets where they sell ingredients suitable for Turkish home-cooking, such as spices, fruits, and vegetables. Turkish is the second most spoken language in Germany, after German. It was brought to the country by Turkish immigrants who spoke it as their first language. These immigrants mainly learned German through employment, mass media, and social settings, and it has now become a second language for many of them.
Nonetheless, most Turkish immigrants have passed down their mother tongue to their children and descendants.
In general, German-born Turks become bilingual at an early age, learning Turkish at home and German in state schools; thereafter, a dialectal variety often remains in their repertoire of both languages. German-born Turks mainly speak the German language more fluently than their "domestic"-style Turkish language.
Consequently, they often speak the Turkish language with a German accent or a modelled German dialect. Parents generally encourage their children to improve their Turkish language skills further by attending private Turkish classes or choosing Turkish as a subject at school. In some states of Germany the Turkish language has even been approved as a subject to be studied for the Abitur. Turkish has also been influential in greater German society. For example, advertisements and banners in public spaces can be found written in Turkish. Hence, it is also familiar to other ethnic groups - it can even serve as a vernacular for some non-Turkish children and adolescents in urban neighborhoods with dominant Turkish communities.
It is also common within the Turkish community to code-switch between the German and Turkish languages. However, with the developing formation of a Turkish middle class in Germany, there is an increasing number of people of Turkish-origin who are proficient in using the standard German language, particularly in academia and the arts. The Turkish people in Germany are predominantly Muslim and form the largest ethnic group which practices Islam in Germany.
In Germany, Quranic schools are run as private initiatives, institutions which were formerly frowned upon or largely banned under the Secularism in Turkey. The schools teach traditional Islamic values to Turkish children which makes it harder for them to integrate into German society.
About half agreed that there is only "one true religion". The religious practices of the Turks are often intersect with their political persuasions. For example, Turks who follow the Kemalist ideology tend to be more secular and often do not practice their religion. Nonetheless, in general, religion within the Turkish community has been particularly important for ethnic reassurance in order to retain the Turkish culture rather than solely practicing the Islamic faith.
According to the Census, a majority The first phase in Turkish-German Cinema began in the s and lasted through to the s; it involved writers placing much of their attention on story-lines that represented the living and working conditions of the Turkish immigrant workers in Germany. By the s a second phase shifted towards focusing more on mass entertainment and involved the work of Turkish and German-born Turkish German filmmakers.
Critical engagements in story-telling increased further by the turn of the twenty-first century. Numerous films of the s onwards launched the careers of many film directors, writers, and actors and actresses. By focusing on similarities and differences of the two cultures using comedy, these films have shifted from the earlier Turkish-German drama films of the s which focused on culture clashes; in its place, these films have celebrated integration and interethnic romance.
Indeed, stories confronting Turkish labour migration, and debates about integration , multiculturalism , and identity, are reoccurring themes in Turkish-German cinema. Nonetheless, not all films directed, produced or written by German Turks are necessarily about the "Turkish-experience" in Germany.
Systematic Government Access to Private-Sector Data in Germany
Several Turkish-origin actors from Germany have also starred in Turkish films, such as Haluk Piyes who starred in O da beni seviyor In the first decade of the twenty-first century several German-Turkish television series' gained popularity in Germany and in some cases gained popularity abroad too. The critically acclaimed series was also shown in more than 70 other countries. The comedy consisted of fifty-two episodes and three seasons. Whilst Turkish-origin journalists are still underrepresented, several have made successful careers as reporters and TV presenters including Erkan Arikan de  and Nazan Eckes.
Many German Turks have also starred in numerous critically acclaimed Turkish soap operas. Since the s Turkish people in Germany have produced a range of literature. Their work became widely available from the late s onwards, when Turkish-origin writers began to gain sponsorships by German institutions and major publishing houses.
In particular, German audiences have often been captivated by Oriental depictions of the Turkish community. In the mid-twentieth century the Turkish immigrant community in Germany mostly followed the music industry in Turkey, particularly pop music and Turkish folk music. Hence, the Turkish music industry became very profitable in Germany. By the s, the " arabesque " genre erupted in Turkey and became particularly popular among Turks in Germany.
These songs were often played and sang by the Turkish community in Germany in coffee houses and taverns that replicated those in Turkey. These spaces also provided the first stage for semi-professional and professional musicians. By the s the German-born Turks became more influential in the music industry in both Germany and Turkey. In general, many German-born Turks were brought up listening to Turkish pop music, which greatly influenced the music they began to produce.
However, the German-born Turks were also influenced by hip-hop music and rap music. In several German-Turkish musicians released the song "Sen de bizdensin" "You are one of us". German Turkish rap groups have sold and continue to sell hundreds of thousands of albums and singles, particularly in Turkey, telling their stories of integration and assimilation struggles they experienced due to discrimination they faced during their upbringing in Germany.
There are also several female rappers of Turkish-origin, such as Dr. Many football players of Turkish origin in Germany have been successful in first-division German and Turkish football clubs, as well as other European clubs. However, in regards to playing for national teams, many players of Turkish origin who were born in Germany have chosen to play for the Turkish national football team. This is partly due to Germany's strict rules on dual citizenship which forces German-Turks to choose whether to have German or Turkish citizenship by the age of 23 in accordance with the German Citizenship Law of Nonetheless, in recent years there has been an increase in the number of players choosing to represent Germany.
Moreover, they were the winners of the Berliner Landespokal in , , and The Turks in Germany began to be active in politics by establishing associations and federations in the s and s — though these were mainly based on Turkish politics rather than German politics. With the reunification of East Germany and West Germany , unemployment in the country had increased and some political parties, particularly the Christian Democratic Union CDU , used anti-immigration discourses as a political tool in their campaigns.
To counter this, many people of Turkish origin became more politically active and began to work in local elections and in the young branches of the Social Democratic Party SDP and the Green Party. Several associations were founded by almost all German parties to organise meetings for Turkish voters. This played an important gateway for those who aspired to become politicians. By the end of the first decade of the twenty-first century, the number of German MPs of Turkish origin remained similar to the previous elections.
Since the German elections , Turkish-origin MPs have been elected into Federal Parliament from four different parties. Since then, Ismail Ertug was elected as a Member of the European Parliament in and was re-elected in The name of the party was officially announced at pm. Several Turks born or raised in Germany have entered Turkish politics. Leyla İmret was raised in Bremen and in was elected mayor of Cizre.
Germany is effectively Turkey's 4th largest electoral district. Legacies and Prospects of the Historiography of Southeastern Europe. PDF Downloads. Naissance des Voyages extraordinaires: les contextes culturels de deux des premiers romans de Jules Verne. From the Perspective of '' in the History Textbooks for Gymnasiasts.
Adornos Exilschriften. Fictions de la bicyclette. Von der Exilliteratur hin zur Migrantenliteratur, Die polnische Literaturzeitschrift Bundesstrasse 1. Soziologosche Auseinandersetzung mit der Problematik des Rechtsextremismus am Beispiel des vereinigten Deutschlands.
- Turks in Germany - Wikipedia!
- A Conversation with Fritz Stern!
- The Wedding Dress;
A German View. The Italian Adjustment to the European Integration: - Technocrats, political parties and social actors in the "transition"period -.