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Salamanca, 4, 5 y 6 de abril de Programas activos de empleo para las personas con discapacidad. Una perspectiva Europea. Propuestas de mejora del marco normativo de la accesibilidad audiovisual. Propuesta de Modelo de Ordenanza Municipal reguladora del servicio de Autotaxi accesible. Protecting the rights of people with autism in the fields of education and employment: international, european and national perspectives. Providing reasonable accommodation for persons with disabilities in the workplace in the EU. Good practices and financing schemes. Final report. Cortes de Castilla-La Mancha, Proyecto de Ley de Igualdad de Oportunidades para las personas con discapacidad.

Fondation Roi Baudouin, Cabrerizo de Diago, R. La realidad del estigma social entre las personas con enfermedad mental en la CAPV. Informe de resultados obtenidos en el estudio realizado. Reasonable accommodation and sheltered workshops for people with disabilities. Costs and returns of investments. Parlamento Europeo, El reflejo de la mujer en el espejo de la discapacidad. El salario de las personas con discapacidad. El sector de la discapacidad: realidad, necesidades y retos futuros epub.

Los servicios de ocio de las asociaciones de discapacidad. Departamento de Derechos Sociales, Gobierno de Navarra, Sexualidad y mujer con discapacidad. Proyecto SWOD. Sexualidades diversas. Predif, Anexo de indicadores. Informe general. CAPV Lanbide, Manual de Referencia. Good practices and recommendations in support of a flexicurity approach.

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A job search approach. Young persons with disabilities: global study on ending gender-based violence, and realising sexual and reproductive health and rights. United Nations Population Fund, Los zapatos de Marta. Generalitat de Catalunya. Departament de Salut, Adolescent alcohol-related behaviours: trends and inequalities in the WHO European Region, Alcohol and inequities. Guidance for addressing inequities in alcohol-related harm. Comunidad de Madrid, VV. RAND Europe, Beber y conducir. Manual de Seguridad Vial para decisores y profesionales. Bereaved through substance use. Guidelines for those whose work brings them into contact with adults bereaved after a drug or alcohol-related death.

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Introducción

Hanspeter K. Josep M. Vergara Dir. Servicio de Estudios La Caixa. Can Trust Effects on Development be Generalized? A Response by Quantile. La Carta de los Comunes. Para el cuidado y disfrute de lo que de todos es. Breve historia de los billetes y monedas en euros. OCDE Publishing, Crisis esta crisis y salud nuestra salud.

Bubok, Marzo de Crisis financiera y rescates bancarios en Europa. Crisis y cambio en la sociedad global. Anuario Crisis y fractura social en Europa. De la coyuntura a la estructura: los efectos permanentes de la crisis. Deducciones fiscales reembolsables. Departamento de Derechos Sociales del Gobierno de Navarra, Josep Oliver Alonso. Caixa Catalunya. Directorio de Empresas y Organizaciones Sociales Does fiscal austerity affect public opinion? Banco Central Europeo, Las dotaciones de capital. Perspectiva internacional.

Funcas, Tesis doctoral de Teresa Savall Morera. El trabajo antes que el capital. Ediciones Abya-Yala, Aitor Lacuesta y Sergio Puente. Le Monde diplomatique, Resultados definitivos. Las escalas de la crisis. Dieter Gerdesmeier. Estrategia aragonesa de competitividad y crecimiento. Nuevos instrumentos para el desarrollo mundial. Nueva York. The European Crisis and its Human Cost. This particular variety of Spanish has been given many names.

In fact, neutral Spanish is something that was thought up by several film production companies in Mexico in the mids. In order to make their products cost-effective in the Spanish-speaking markets, these companies agreed to encourage the use of a new variety of Spanish, which they called neutral Spanish or Castilian. The aim was to establish a set of common rules that could work across political and geographical borders, although they would be descriptive rather than prescriptive.

The result would be, as R. Nevertheless, since then, the proposal has continued to receive a certain amount of criticism, fundamentally on the grounds that we are talking about a Spanish language that claims to belong to everyone but in fact belongs to no-one. At the same time, these detractors call for an effort to maintain unity in diversity see J.

Douglas or any of the arguments raised on the issue during the 3 rd Congress of the Spanish Language held in Argentina in In short, it is impossible to preserve linguistic differences, which are markers of identity, while at the same time constructing a neutral variety of Spanish. There are, however, some who defend the existence of this neutral variety but not as an artifice devoid of any identity.

Instead, they see it as a way of bringing the million speakers of Spanish closer together without losing their identity in the process. This is, for example, the opinion of A. Grijelmo , who endorses the existence of a so-called neutral variety not to be mistaken for basic or poor and which helps to enhance understanding among the different Spanish-speaking countries.

In a similar vein, A. Nevertheless, they share a common foundation that can be observed in formal cultured communication, where there are few geographical variations they are nearly always lexical and phonic when they do occur. In their opinion, standard Spanish is represented by that formal cultured expression we use "when we feel the need to express ourselves properly" in the media, in essays or in scientific and technical books. Nonetheless, the problem remains for texts that, despite being considered as specialized, do not follow the pattern of formal cultured expression referred to by the scholars, as we shall see.

Before going on to analyze the relationship between neutral Spanish and medical translation, we need to briefly consider the matter of Spanglish , which in recent years has burst into certain mass media, and even some genres belonging to areas of specialization, and has been mistaken for the neutral variety of the language. This problem is especially severe in the United States and certain Central American and Caribbean countries 5 , owing to the diverse linguistic and cultural origins of its population and to the large number of Spanish speakers living there. The influence that English has historically had and continues to have in some Spanish-speaking areas of America is undeniable.

The truth is, however, texts in Spanish that reproduce the syntactic and grammatical structures of English are found with increasing frequency and more so in the USA. And what is more worrying is that they use new expressions that result from a random fusion of structures from the two languages and which blur the distinction between them.

We are not just talking about the influence of English an issue that has filled reams of paper in the literature and which can be felt in most European languages in areas of usage such as computing or the new technologies, above all since they have become generally available to a large part of the population. In fact, there is a school of thought that came about in the USA in the 70s that considers Spanglish , as a hybrid culture, to be the only chance that the 40 million Hispanics living in the United States have to achieve full citizenship; it provides them with a set of distinguishing marks in a foreign country.

Thus, as stated by A.


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Prieto 6 :. For Prieto, Spanglish is no longer just a kind of street slang, and a number of initiatives have sprung up to promote it, in some cases even under the supervision and guidance of university professors. Thus, in , I. As I see it and quite apart from its anecdotal nature, such a proposal would not be acknowledged by any speaker of either Spanish or English as belonging to his or her own language.

These are, then, isolated initiatives that do little more than confirm the fact that, despite the attempts that have been made, Spanglish is a form of street slang that has enjoyed some degree of popularity in certain means of communication but could in no way satisfy the needs of all the different areas of usage of a language.

Spanglish is not the expression of a contact that takes place through the use of structures and words from other languages that has been standardized either by the corresponding institutions or by generalized idiomatic usage. It is a form of slang that clearly fails to comply with the rules, since it is the result of the misuse of the two languages it draws upon, that is, it is the product of a process of linguistic interference. It is therefore not acceptable in Spanish or in English as a standard form of the language. And the upshot of all this is that, in many cases, the boundless spread of this linguistic variant is causing meanings to be lost, and always to the prejudice of Spanish.

It is true that, as pointed out by J. And thus, with regard to Spanglish , this author states that "Es una jerga. But it is nonetheless true that, as I see it, there should be some kind of filter that marks the limits of such creativity. Because is it acceptable for a text in Spanish to be written with no accents and with capital letters at the beginning of every word? To what extent can we accept that the use of the passive was just a slip? Are explicit use and reiteration of pronouns tolerable? Do we have to go on accepting the fact that words like evento or ignorar change their original meanings to those that event and ignore have in English?

He also adds that justifying its use by arguing that "that's the way people say it" is not a very serious linguistic criterion. In his opinion 41 , from the point of view of translation, we have to try to render other cultures in terms of our reality, defend the language Spanish, English, whichever and create "necessary neologisms" that help us to perpetuate our language with the same respect as that shown by those who handed it down to us. This incorrect invasion by English has also made itself felt in certain areas of specialization, and particularly in the popular informative genres.

Thus, in the field of medicine and more specifically public health it is common to find poor translations from English, which make use of the spelling and typographical, lexical and syntactic parameters we mentioned above. Examples such as:. That is to say, the popular informative scientific medical literature in Spanish contains numerous examples of hybrid syntactic and lexical forms as well as typographical conventions that reproduce English structures in the Spanish language. As a result, it is almost impossible to construct a coherent scientific or pseudoscientific discourse.

It is within this context that the existence of a neutral variety of Spanish could help systematize usage. However, such a variant would be something more than a colloquial language made up of certain slang forms that allow or facilitate communication among people from different cultures, who have not acquired a good level of linguistic competence in the target language and therefore generate their own slang from the elements they know in the two languages, with the prime purpose of being able to communicate with each other.

Medical translation is part of what is known as specialized translation and therefore the materials it works with are specialized languages. In addition to the accepted features of this type of functional diatopic varieties denotation, universality, predominant referential function, precision, conciseness, and so forth , from the linguistic point of view, we must also take into account the large amount of specialized terminology used "terminological density" , which can be a serious problem for the translator.

But what relationship can we establish between the so-called neutral Spanish and translation in the specialized field of medicine? The truth is that, as we have just seen, the debate over whether a neutral variety of the language is needed or not has focused mainly on the media and it could therefore be understood as an issue that affects the standard, general language more than specialized languages.

Very few studies have been conducted to analyze the presence of neutral Spanish in translation and even fewer have centered their attention on the field of specialized translation. And of course medical translation is no exception. Special attention is paid to issues concerning the problems translators face when working with specialized languages particularly in the English-Spanish language pair see, for example, B.

But no one associates the possible solutions to these problems with the existence of a neutral variety of the language, which a priori is understood to be linked to the standard language. In an interview with the translator C. There are then reasons that make it advisable to consider, albeit only as a hypothesis, the need for a neutral variety of Spanish in the translation of specialized medical texts whether they are of a popular informative nature or not. This need has in fact already been contemplated for the case of English, and takes the form of defending what is known as Global English.

For Rubens 33 :. Furthermore, as we shall see, the case of medicine is rather heterodox because it displays characteristics that lead us to consider the need for a neutral variety more clearly than in other areas of specialization:. Let us go on and take a brief look at how these aspects actually affect the particular case of specialized medical language. As we have pointed out above, the existence of a continuum between common language and specialized language is more obvious in the field of medicine than in others used in the so-called experimental sciences.

This is because, as we shall see below, medical language contains a number of characteristics that, in principle, do not tie in with those that are commonly accepted for specialized languages. In his opinion, medical terminology, as the essential vehicle of communication for modern scientific biomedicine, is not restricted to the realm of specialized publications, congresses, hospitals and laboratories, for example. Rather, it is also to be found in many other spheres that, at first sight, would appear to be quite distinct, such as the discourse used in the mass media, political discourse or even, according to this author, colloquial language.

Thus 77 , far from the supposed neutrality that has traditionally been assigned to scientific terms, they actually have a manifest cultural content see J. In their work they offer proof of this incorporation of medical terminology into the general language, with semantic fields, such as that of disease, that include terms that are loaded with denotation, designation and referentiality in contrast to the norm in scientific discourse. They also provide examples like the term kleptomaniac , which is heavily loaded with negative moral connotations in the general language but is seen as a purely pathological concept in the field of medicine.

The phenomenon of the relationship between the metaphors made up of medical concepts and political ideologies are also considered with examples like: the health of the nation ; corruption as a cancer that is either detected in time or ends up killing you ; comparing the political situation to a festering sore or the virus of corruption , depending on the semantic content the speaker wishes to convey. In their opinion 86 , it is a curious fact that these metaphors are always based on biomedical concepts modern scientific medicine and not on those from folk-medicine popular medicine.

A similar line is taken by B. And this analysis will be largely focused on the language used by the two communities. Thus, we can find examples where up to three terms are used to express the same concept, as is the case of lipoma , adipoma and steatoma to refer to tumors in fatty tissues. In his opinion, then, there are obvious ties between the health professional's world and that of the layperson: "[ Therefore, and in conclusion, it becomes obvious that the language of medicine contains a series of specific characteristics deriving from the very nature of the scientific knowledge it conveys and from the workings of the society in which it is immersed that turn it into a paradigmatic case of hybridism between specialized language and the common language.

In addition, we must also take into account the prevalence of certain genres of text that are used to make the findings of research known. Broadly speaking, we could state that they are published mostly in essayistic genres either as scientific or popular informative books or articles. This favors an increased usage of the standard language together with the terms that make up the conceptual structure and, depending on the degree of specialization, the use of different characteristics that can be established "[ We have already seen how the problem of neutral Spanish has a particularly significant influence on popular informative specialized texts.

For, as we have stated above, popular informative texts are at the same time specialized texts. Thus, in medical genres of a popular informative nature 8 , we can find lexical items from the common language, paraphrases that are pseudo-equivalent to the terms, terms with metaphorical definitions, and so forth, all of which furthers dispersion and may, in some cases, make the text more difficult to understand.

Some authors consider that the standard shared by different Spanish-speaking countries is so high that one could almost speak of the existence of a neutral variety of Spanish cf. Likewise, they claim that the differences arise from the use of certain collocations, verb forms or, generally, vocabulary that are not very common in some registers in peninsular Spanish either because they are no longer used and are considered to be archaic or because they do not have that particular meaning in the Spanish used in Spain 9 ; they are not, however, an impediment to understanding.

Yet, the truth is that we sometimes come across health care research journals that include popular informative genres with grammatical structures and lexical items that are specific to a geographical variety.

Así es la escuela más cara del mundo - HARVARD

Such cases may prevent smooth communication and can therefore give rise to a series of problems. This is the case of the journal Adolescente a quarterly bulletin of the epidemiological and adolescent health services research unit , sponsored by the PAHO. It offers, as a sample of some of the conclusions from the study, extracts from the opinions expressed by the adolescents, such as the following:.

These are obviously not the most common cases, but the truth is that including passages like this in popular informative scientific texts can hamper communication, which could be made easier by the existence of a pan-Hispanic norm intralinguistic translation.