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While in Houston, he was honoured to have operated with and learned from two of the most. There are no shortcuts to knowledge and experience. He dedicated 8 years to residency training after medical school in order to be fully trained in both specialties. Well regarded for his teaching ability, Dr. White has given numerous lectures on plastic surgery. In addition to teaching anatomy to medical students, he has served as Clinical Instructor of plastic surgery at Baylor College of Medicine.

Currently, Dr. His reputation for excellence has been recognised by his peers and his frequent contributions to the media. His combination of specific techniques allows him to create natural-appearing ears. Whether removing the excess skin and fat around the eyes eyelid surgery , lifting the brows and smoothing the forehead wrinkles brow lift , or sculpting the face and neck face lift , facial rejuvenation helps patients both look and feel younger. A combination of procedures is often indicated so an individualised approach is best.

A well-trained surgeon with an artistic sense and a conservative approach is a must. Attention to detail is especially important in facial surgery due to the complicated anatomy. It is for this reason that Dr. White first devoted six years to becoming fully trained in head and neck surgery before proceeding with his plastic surgery training.

His approach is to create long-lasting, natural results as inconspicuously as possible. Nasal Surgery Nose re-shaping, or rhinoplasty, is often considered the most difficult operation in plastic surgery. Understanding the complex inter-relationships of surgical changes to the skin, bone and cartilages of the nose requires a thorough understanding of nasal anatomy and years of experience with nasal surgery. Frequently, he is asked to operate on patients who are not pleased with the results from other surgeons after one or more nasal operations.

He frequently performs septoplasty and turbinoplasty to improve the airway and breathing by straightening the nasal septum and making the turbinates smaller. Turbinoplasty has the added benefit of improving or alleviating nasal allergies. White has gone above and beyond all my expectations for a cosmetic surgeon. I really cannot even believe the results. I feel truly beautiful for the very first time in my life!

A good face lift is known to one, but admired by many. Breast Lift and Breast Reduction A breast lift, or mastopexy, is performed to restore the youthful appearance of the breast after pregnancy or weight loss. Lifting the breast, elevating the nipple, and decreasing the size of the areola create this more youthful look. Breast reduction is a similar procedure except that the breast is also reduced in size. With both procedures, Dr. White takes great care to sculpt the breast into the most aesthetically pleasing shape. His closure techniques together with his particular postoperative care instructions help to maintain the shape and minimize scars.

Breast Augmentation Dr. His goal is to create the most beautiful breasts for each patient. The operation seems deceptively simple — making the breasts bigger by putting in implants. Achieving exceptional results, however, requires detailed pre-op planning, precise surgical technique, and careful follow-up. Step 1 involves listening carefully to understand what the patient is hoping to achieve.

Step 2 entails taking several measurements of the breasts and chest, paying close attention to asymmetries, which are surprisingly common. Selecting the proper size implants is one of the most important aspects of surgery. Step 3 is comprehensive education. Every patient is thoroughly informed about the procedure and what to expect. The next three steps occur during surgery. Step 6 is to sculpt or shape the breast tissue when needed to achieve the prettiest breasts.

Step 7 is the follow-up care. White has developed a comprehensive post-op program for rapid recovery and exceptional results. His precise surgical technique avoids bruising and minimises pain so his patients can enjoy a quick recovery. They begin range-of-motion arm exercises on the day of surgery. Many patients feel so good they go shopping or out to lunch the next day.

White is so incredibly passionate about what he does and it shows in his results. I can describe the outcome of my surgery in one word: perfection!

Self-Esteem from a Scalpel: The Ethics of Plastic Surgery

Body contouring Liposuction Liposuction Body sculpting with liposuction has continued to grow in popularity for both men and women. White believes that success in liposuction is determined by three factors: the amount of fat removed, the improvement in overall body shape and contour, and the smoothness of the skin after liposuction.

He optimises each aspect using his advanced Circumferential Micro-Lipo Technique. His specially designed, custom-made cannulas hollow instruments for fat suction allow him to create a more natural look with less chance of unevenness. The circumferential approach allows for even greater fat removal and better body sculpting while using his very small diameter cannulas for smoother contours. A tumescent superwet technique is used to minimize blood loss and allow larger volumes of fat to be removed more safely. Recovery is faster and most patients are able to return to work after several days.

Male breast reduction Breast reduction for men is performed to correct a condition known as Before. It is very common, yet seldom discussed. Just as many women Liposuction of chest and torso. White has developed a technique to treat gynecomastia that leads to impressive results with fewer, less noticeable scars. He uses special liposuction instruments for greater fat and tissue removal so that direct excision of tissue is rarely necessary.

Many men choose to add liposuction of the torso as well to diminish the abdomen and love handles for an even greater physique. Tummy tuck Dramatic results can be achieved with a tummy tuck since it narrows the waist, tightens the tummy, and removes excess skin and fat. As an added bonus, any stretch marks or unsightly scars below the navel are typically removed at the same time.

White has perfected several techniques in order to obtain a more sculpted abdomen and a more natural-looking belly button. This takes more time in surgery; however, he believes the final result is worth this extra effort. For most patients, a fine scar is well hidden beneath the bikini line.

Due to his refined techniques and his special postop protocol, most patients enjoy a quick recovery and are usually only taking Tylenol for discomfort for just two days after surgery. Combining a tummy tuck with liposuction or a breast enhancement procedure can lead to even more outstanding results. I look better at 50 than I did at I love it,thank you Dr. Patients are often amazed by the results.

What is Medical Tourism Back Surgery?

Conclusion Expert advice, personal concern, and trusted experience … these are the hallmarks of Dr. By using innovative techniques, state-of-the-art technology, and specialised instruments, Dr. White is able to offer his patients beautiful results with less discomfort and rapid recovery. He believes the most important factor in choosing a plastic surgeon is the quality of their results.

Credentials, education, training, and experience are very, very important. But it takes more than credentials to achieve natural results — attention to detail and artistic judgment are also critical. White knows that performance counts — both in the operating room as well as after surgery.

He is well-known for his commitment to excellence as well as his outstanding patient care. Discover the difference at usaplasticsurgery. White, MD on Beauty Beauty is a look that pleases the eye. It captures our attention, draws us in, and creates an irresistible urge to gaze and stare.

Looking at beauty brings joy. It makes us happy. It can take many forms… Art. Almost anything. Beauty, like art, can speak to each of us in different ways. It is indeed in the eye of the beholder. And yet true beauty is that rare and special quality that we all admire. Its appeal is universal and. Patient safety and the quality of the final result should be the guiding principles for every operation. A beautiful person is someone blessed with the combination of features that come together to form a look that we admire. It is balance and proportion artistically expressed in the human form.

Although each individual feature may not be perfect, the collective effect is indeed beautiful. Beauty is a quality we long for. It is our desire, our wish, our goal. It is that which we seek and strive to obtain. It drives us to want to look our best. Looking good makes us feel better about ourselves. This is the essence of plastic surgery — to bring joy to the individual by enhancing their beauty. Seeing how a small change on the outside can lead to a big change on the inside is the true reward for a plastic surgeon. The most beautiful woman Andie MacDowell personifies beauty, style, and elegance.

She has a beautiful face, a gorgeous smile, radiant eyes, and a knock-out figure. She has curves in all the right places. But yet her beauty transcends her appearance. She exudes warmth and charm. She is genuine, sophisticated, and immensely talented. Even her voice is distinctly beautiful and unique. She is glamorous and yet down to earth. She has that special quality that sets her apart. A timeless modern beauty. Captivating, engaging, and truly beautiful.

For individuals and entire cultures there are both subjective and objective components to attraction — whether a preference for blonde or brunette here, an appreciation of curves or the slimmer form there, or something more fundamental. A simple comparison of war-era classic films with the modern media makes the point; actresses such as Keira Knightley and Liz Hurley have replaced former visions of beauty like Audrey Hepburn and Ingrid Bergman.

Since the Second World War, as new concerns of health and fitness have gripped developed societies, so our understanding of what is attractive has changed. In earlier eras, when food was often scarce, fat was frequently considered attractive as it could indicate prosperity and a higher chance of survival — hence the cultic statuettes of grossly overweight women found by archaeologists researching primitive cultures.

Perhaps as a reaction to our times of plenty, when obesity is reaching epidemic proportions, today's typical beauties tend far more towards the slender than the shapely. Changing, too, is the image of carefully made-up and maintained beauty common mid-century. Fashion is, by nature, ever-changing. Designers and the media both drive this flux and are influenced by it. This is as true of the human body as it is of the clothes that adorn it. She has so much charisma that the mere presence of her name on a marquee is enough to guarantee a great opening weekend.

Keira Knightley is truly gifted and it is wonderful to watch her work. It seems so effortless. Speciality Dr. In terms of reconstructive surgery, he specialises in face reconstruction in particular nose , reconstruction of extremities, and breast reconstruction. Credentials and Associations Dr. Plastic Surgeon. He is a leader in his field, and as an active member in the community of plastic surgeons, regularly Member of the American Society participates in conferences and symposiums, staying at the forefront of leading edge technology and the of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery.

GMC latest trends. The Institut Universitari Dexeus in Barcelona is a private clinic which houses beds, six operating rooms and has been honoured with numerous awards. I did years of research and I do not believe any other surgeon can make them look so natural.

Benito-Ruiz truly is an expert in his field. Lucy A. It was very easy being able to meet and discuss all the possibilities of various procedures in London, and then fly out to Barcelona for the operation.

Career / Shirley - DORÉ

The aftercare was excellent as Dr. Benito-Ruiz saw me several more times in London, and was extremely helpful. Penny H. Upon meeting Dr. Lois J. You should aim to make an educated and confident choice that will leave you feeling comfortable before, during, and after the procedure. Benito-Ruiz is among the most widely recognised, skilled and talented surgeons in the world and without a doubt, a top choice in Spain.

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It comes down to feeling good and positive from within. Specialty Dr. Pier Albrecht is renowned world-wide for his natural results and minimum scar face lifts. He has designed and published his own techniques especially for neck and midface lifts. The lower face makes people look good, the upper face makes people look young and sexy. He pays special attention to the eyes and eyebrows which he believes should not be lifted towards the forehead but in an oblique way to restore a young and sexy touch to the facial expression.

He focuses on details such as the length of the nose and the position of the ears as rejuvenation important details. About the clinic The Marbella clinic is a discreet and accessible m facility, fully registered by Health Authorities as a hospital, with three operating theatres and comfortable, well-equipped bedrooms, including luxury suites. Apart from Plastic Aesthetic Surgery, the clinic offers all the range of Beauty and.

It boasts ultramodern technological equipment such as computerised diagnosis and bioresonance, echography, pantomography, and a full range of state-of-the-art Lasers and Endoscopic Surgery. Marbella Clinic has been chosen to be the first Spanish Centre to develop the newest computerised teeth implants program in. Publications and Lectures Dr. Pier Albrecht is regularly invited to lecture in International congresses and symposiums on Plastic and Aesthetic Surgery.

He has published numerous articles in scientific and informative magazines about Plastic Surgery, about the relationship between anti-aging, antioxidants and the immune system, in French and international publications. Conclusion Dr Albrecht remains a world expert on Plastic Aesthetic surgery, skin treatments and antiaging techniques. Rejuvenation of the outward appearance is therefore often beneficial for self-esteem and holistic well-being.

Albrecht on Beauty There is no one beauty. Beauty, in general, makes us feel good. It can be intellectual beauty, sensual beauty, spiritual beauty; it can create intellectual pleasure, a physical sensation of desire, strong attraction, or a warm and positive emotion. It relies on shapes, colors, sounds, movements etc. Plastic beauty talks to our mind or senses, inner beauty talks to our soul. Ideal beauty is the right balance between these two.

As a plastic surgeon I work on Plastic beauty. This one has rules and is almost mathematic. Professor Kirwan is widely published in medical journals and is a sought-after speaker. He has donated his surgical skills to help several charities working with people who are.

He is also author of the internationally acclaimed book The Cutting. Professor Kirwan obtained his medical degree from the Victoria University of Manchester in He became a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons in Frederick J. McCoy, one of the founders of plastic surgery in the United States. To prepare students for their own practices, residents of this program were required to complete rigorous training in cosmetic surgery techniques in a busy successful private practice.

His facelift procedures tailor the procedure to the individual with special attention to the ageing neck and the use of chin and cheek implants to rejuvenate the deeper structures. He prefers the closed technique. He also enjoys correcting previous facial cosmetic procedures. Among a variety of procedures, Professor Kirwan offers hair restoration for men and a new line of skin care.

He is the Medical Director of. Patients typically go home the. Patients from overseas who wish to have their surgery in the U. S will be provided. He was appointed. Publications and Lectures Professor Kirwan is often invited to lecture at conferences on plastic surgery. He practices the belief that no medical procedure that is not needed should be performed. In this way, he has earned the trust of past and potential patients as someone who will help enhance their beauty in a tasteful and understated, yet subtly eye-catching way. Professor Kirwan on Beauty The most beautiful woman in the world today is 6 foot tall, has legs at least half that length, no hips, wears a 34 C bra and has breasts like half grapefruits.

Her eyes are large and often blue and she is a sandy blonde. Her hair goes down just below her shoulders and outlines her prominent cheek bones. Her nasal tip has a slight upward slant and her bridge is straight and slightly lower than the tip. The nostrils are in line with the inner angles of the eyes and sit over voluptuous lips and a strong chin. Her skin colour is Mediterranean. Barros is that Ferrari. Until very recently, the male beholder certainly defined our social version of beauty.

But how has this perception arisen? A woman is an object of attention: men look at women and women are aware of it. When a woman walks into a room, she is observed and the observers are men. Consider how the female form has been the subject of so much figurative art. Women, often nude women, have been painted for men to admire. Similarly most pornography caters for male tastes because — to give it a positive spin — the female face and body have always been seen as something to admire.

That is an historical truth, and that is why so much art is representational of women. The reasons men chase good-looking women are rooted deep in our biology. We know attractiveness is a desirable asset, but what is it that defines the physically attractive? Does it have to be supermodel good looks or is it just being well presented?

When men are attracted to women, it is not necessarily for the purpose of reproducing with them, which limits the credibility of the biological conditioning argument. And they are aroused by the obvious parts of the female body that signal sexual pleasure: their lips, their breasts, their buttocks. This was all determined by nature a long time before you and I arrived on the scene but even allowing for the fact that beauty is not all that matters, it does carry some biological weight. From listening to this particular group of patients, Dr. He recognises that each patient has specific requirements that are unique to the individual woman and customises his approach to fulfil their precise needs.

Because each procedure is personalised, Dr. Stevens takes into account the whole body to combine the various procedures to create a complete transformation. This may include erasing the lines and wrinkles around the eyes, rejuvenating the face with a facelift, enhancing the cheekbones or chin with implants and fixing the nose to balance facial features.

During these procedures, Dr. Stevens takes special care to ensure that nipple sensation and the ability to breast feed in the future is preserved by using state-of-the-art laser technology that does not remove the nipple. Through power-assisted liposculpture, Dr. Stevens is able to remove excess fat that does not go away with. Suite Marina del Rey, CA To accommodate these patients, Dr. The initial virtual consult process allows anyone from any country to become a perspective patient and closes the distance between the patient and one of the top surgeons in the world.

The program offers a complete package including transportation, accommodation and medical care for out-of-town patients and guests. Patients and their families have the option of staying at the famous Ritz-Carlton, Marina del Rey, where on-site private duty nurses are available for post-operative assistance. Patients requiring more intensive post-operative care can stay at the purposely designed Serenity facility, which offers complete medical aftercare with nurses in private suites.

Credentials, Publications and Awards Dr. He is currently on staff at St. His extensive list of professional credentials, honours and memberships illustrate the recognition from his colleagues and the international reputation he has achieved. Louis where he was awarded the Senior Prize in Surgery. There he has taught plastic surgeons, performed surgery, lectured on ultrasonic liposuction, breast augmentation, laser breast reduction and lift surgery and advances in laser surgery.

Stevens has authored numerous publications that have appeared in professional journals. Because of his innovation and expertise in cosmetic plastic surgery, Dr. Stevens was nominated by his colleagues. Stevens is the director, and surgeons routinely apply three years in advance for acceptance into this prestigious fellowship. Stevens is frequently asked to teach and speak, both in the United States and internationally. He has been a visiting professor at numerous American and European universities. He is not only recognised as an expert in aesthetic and cosmetic surgery but in.

Stevens was recently inducted into the International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, an organisation that aims to teach standards of care, to help refine plastic surgery techniques and to evaluate and promote emerging trends and technologies. Stevens performs many of these trademark operations in addition to numerous non-surgical options to.

Stevens and the Marina Plastic Surgery Associates are internationally recognised for their experience with cutting-edge technology including laser breast surgery, power-assisted liposculpture and minimal incision facelifts. The teams pioneering research with laser surgery and power-assisted liposculpture contributed to the recent major advances in the field of body contouring. The Stevens Laser Bra technique uses a CO2 laser combined with surgery to correct sagging breasts that occur because of aging and childbearing. As the skin loses its elasticity, the breasts lose their firmness and shape leading to a drooping effect on the chest.

In the past, plastic surgeons would perform a traditional procedure such as mastoplexy or a breast lift that attempted to surgically correct the issue with varying results. Stevens noticed the advantages of laser assisted face-lift surgery that shrunk the sagging skin on the faces of his patients and believed that lasers could do the same for breasts. By effectively creating an internal brassiere using the CO2 laser, his new technique produced a beautiful, long lasting lift of the breast.

Compared to traditional methods, the laser procedure can decrease the time needed to complete the surgery, making it a safer option as less time is required under anaesthesia. Recovery time is quicker and scarring is minimised by utilising dissolvable sutures placed deep beneath the skin to eliminate the need for painful suture removal. This creates a more aesthetically pleasing shape to the breast maintaining a perky uplifted contour that mimics nature. Over the past several years, Dr.

Stevens has performed hundreds of Laser Bra surgeries with impressive postoperative results withstanding the test of time. His pioneering research into combined surgery showed that multiple procedure operations were a safe and effective way to achieve maximum benefits with minimal recovery time. Since then, both plastic surgeons and patients from around the world have come to learn as well as undergo these combined surgeries.

This surgery generally takes three to four hours and frequently fly-in patients can return home within a week to 10 days. Most patients receive a laser breast lift along with a tummy tuck and body sculpting. This facilitates suction removal of fat with more precision and less trauma than other liposuction techniques. Recent innovations in liposuction make this procedure highly desirable among.

Almost 20 years ago, another brainstorm. So many people look to Dr. Grant Stevens and Charlie Sheridan for advice, that it inspired a. The tummy tuck or abdominoplasty is an essential part of the Mommy Makeover. Once skin and muscle tissues have been stretched from pregnancy, they frequently will not retract to their pre-pregnancy form. Stretch marks, belly button deformities and skin laxity are all reasons Dr. Stevens would include the tummy tuck in a Mommy Makeover. The tummy tuck surgically tightens the abdominal muscles and removes excess skin and fat to create a svelte waistline.

As with most of Dr.

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There are several different types of tummy tucks, but all of them involve the removal of excess skin and fat using a lower abdominal incision. The abdominal muscles are tightened and the remaining skin is then pulled downward. After the procedure, many of Dr. Stevens realised early in his career, that excellent surgical results started with healthy skin. He bridged the gap between surgery and skin health, and created one of the first medical day spas. Clients can enjoy a vast array of services, such as permanent makeup, laser hair removal, ThermaCool non-surgical facelifts, Botox wrinkle reduction and injectable fillers to sculpt the facial contour and replace the loss of fat beneath the skin.

Stevens has numerous lasers at his disposal including Fraxel, Cynosure, Thermage, XEO, DUSA and Titan, each having individual properties to erase even the most difficult scars, red spots, brown spots, vascular lesions and wrinkles. Conclusion Dr. Stevens has dedicated his career to women with the stated goal of helping them remain beautiful. His focus on mothers has redefined the field and encouraged the development of new techniques to fit the specific needs of this group.

Through the use of laser technology, power-assisted liposculpture and multiple procedure single surgery, Dr. Stevens has revolutionised the way cosmetic surgeons practice. In addition to his surgical innovations, Dr. For these specific skills, he is sought out by patients the world over to achieve what was once thought impossible. Stevens on Beauty Beauty captures our attention. It is natural, unrehearsed and defined by confidence. It is both a perceptual and subjective experience. It delights our senses.

It is not a function of intellect, but rather an innate excitement, on the level of our soul. Grace Kelly exemplifies this eloquent confidence and beauty! It is natural,unrehearsed and defined by confidence. Stevens reassured my mom that he would take care of me as if I were his own daughter.

And he did. Stevens explained his approach to breast reduction in great detail. He said he would separate skin from breast tissue and remove portions of each, but that he would preserve tissue under the nipple without severing the nerves and blood supply. That made sense to me — it sounded like it would help keep my new breasts in position longer. She took pain medication for several days and admitted to being irritable occasionally, but she and her mom were out shopping and sightseeing in Southern California within four or five days. Three years later That was three years ago.

Today, Becca and her husband, Monty, have an eighteen month old daughter Becca has successfully breastfed. Not only that, having gone through the physical changes of childbearing, her breasts in their internal Laser Bra still look great. Becca has lost weight too, feeling very comfortable with physical activity. Christmas Becca poses with her daughter, Abby, a healthy, breastfed newborn. She has been transformed in more ways than one. I was just an average person - healthy, with no other real problems. It seemed like an extreme measure to have surgery, and I thought people would judge me, saying that the reason I had large breasts was because I had gained a little weight.

I think I just felt that breast reduction was out of my reach. Stevens and his practice; I would have done. Stevens and his practice,I would have done almost anything to find a way to have the surgery. Even without insurance; I would have saved for years. It was that important to me. Take a family member and make a good trip out of it.

I tell anyone who is suffering like I did how happy I am. Breasts are about nurturing; they give love and life. My breasts are central to my feelings about being a woman. Beautiful breasts are important to me. Though Christy says she knew from her early 20s that she wanted to take steps to fine tune her looks, everything fell into place for her two years ago.

Just reaching her mids, she was a few years out of her marriage and she felt free to pursue goals that were important to her as an individual. And her year high school reunion was just around the corner; she wanted to look her best. Stevens is the man with the. Christy had done quite a bit of research about breast enhancement in the Los Angeles area before her consultation with Dr. Stevens had a lot to talk about during the appointment. But Dr. Christy says he gives a lot of his energy and attention to creating the perfect breast for you.

But I know that after two years I am still excited with the results. I feel very beautiful.

Make sure you do this for yourself. I was just so impressed by Dr. Stevens and his practice; I would have done almost anything to find a way to have the surgery. Then she found Dr. I felt people looked at my chest when they talked to me instead of at my face, and many of them actually did. By the time she was an adult, Helen was buying bras with size G cups Grant Stevens This man is amazing!! Along with his team, from his amazingly friendly office staff, Patrice, Charlie Holloway anesthesia , everyone in the operating room Pat A.

Grant Stevens Dear Dr. Stevens, Just wanted to follow up with you after 21 years. You gave me a breast implant surgery years ago in your last month as chief resident at Washington University. To make a long story short, I saw you interviewed recently on some celebrity related program my daughter had on. If you want to feel bad about your looks, spend some time in Seoul. An eerily high number of women there—and men, too—look like anime princesses. Subway riders primp in front of full-length mirrors installed throughout the stations for that purpose.

South Koreans do not merely brood about their physiognomy. They put their money where their mouths—and eyes and noses—used to be. By some estimates, the country has the highest rate of plastic surgery per capita in the world. The United States has sagged to No. It has been estimated that between one-fifth and one-third of women in Seoul have gone under the knife, and one poll reported by the BBC puts the figure at fifty per cent or higher for women in their twenties. Men, by one account, make up fifteen per cent of the market, including a former President of the country, who underwent double-eyelid surgery while in office.

This area is in the high-end Gangnam district, the Beverly Hills of Seoul. I realized that getting stuck in traffic would give me more worry lines, so my translator and I took the subway, which is equipped with Wi-Fi, heated seats, and instructional videos about what to do in the event of a biological or chemical attack.

You know you are in the right neighborhood by the preponderance of slightly bruised and swollen-faced men and women in their twenties and thirties going about their business, despite the bandages. Another clue: there are between four and five hundred clinics and hospitals within a square mile. They are packed into boxy concrete buildings that look as if they were all built on the same day. The area consisted largely of pear and cabbage farms and straw-roofed houses until it was treated to its own speedy face-lift in preparation for the Seoul Olympics.

Some clinics occupy as many as sixteen floors, and the largest encompass several high-rises. Most are more modest. Tall vertical signs in Korean jut from the buildings and overhang the sidewalk like unwrapped rolls of surgical tape. They advertise the names of the clinics, several of which my Korean friends translated for me: Small Face, Magic Nose, Dr. There is also a maternity clinic that specializes in beauty enhancement for brand-new mothers and mothers-to-be. My translator, Kim Kibum, agreed to pose as a potential patient, and I tagged along with him as we went from one clinic to another, conferring with doctors about possible ways to remodel ourselves.

He is not considered young for cosmetic surgery, which, like computer coding, competitive gymnastics, and Trix cereal, is for kids. A typical high-school graduation gift for a Korean teen-ager is either a nose job or a blepharoplasty, also called a double-eyelid surgery the insertion of a crease in the eyelid to make the eye look bigger , which is by far the most common procedure performed in Korea.

The cost of procedures and services in South Korea varies tremendously, but it is not uncommon to pay a third of what it would cost in the United States. Kibum has monolid eyes, a sculpted nose, a perfectly M-shaped upper-lip line, and chin stubble. I have none of those things, nor am I as handsome as Kibum. We were seated on a leather sofa in a purple-lit reception area that looked like the Starship Enterprise, redecorated by Virgin Atlantic.

The women who work there—as in all the clinics that I visited—wear uniforms of short skirts, high heels, and tight tops. Their bodies and faces, aside from the occasional nose shaped too much like a ski jump, are advertisements for the handiwork of the Korean medical profession. Everyone is female, except most of the doctors and the barista at the coffee bar complimentary cappuccino! I asked Kibum to explain the name Small Face.

Ten years ago it was a bigger challenge but now, at this age, you already take it more easily.

My daughter needs plastic surgery – how can I tell her?

An idea of the essential self having been actualised at the early middle age is typical for many cosmetic surgery patients. Along with ageing, the body is felt to gradually move away from the real self. The comparison between photographs and their image in the mirror had been the typical final motive for seeking surgery.

Some people feel they do well from such comparison, like Elsi, who told me about a photograph of her old schoolmates gathering together after long decades:. I looked the freshest of all, I always have. The fact is that at this age, at last, your body starts to sag But you can do a lot by yourself. She had undergone a facelift, an upper eyelid surgery and her breasts had been reduced and lifted.

In addition, a tummy tuck had been done and a liposuction had been performed on her thighs, hips and knees. At the time of the interview, she was planning still more liposuction. Elsi was clearly proud of her hard work on her body. However, like many other interviewees who admitted having got into a vicious circle of cosmetic surgery, Elsi moralised about those others who had gone too far with their beauty projects. Many also stated that their own choices had been voluntary while others were probably pushed by someone.

In sum, interview participants felt that to stay forever middle aged was morally acceptable and even admirable although exceptions exist. One woman said that as a religious person, her numerous surgeries had caused her a moral dilemma. In Finland, Lutheranism has traditionally included a moral view of beautifying as vain and sinful and cosmetic surgery is probably the ultimate form of this. Those who reject or oppose cosmetic surgery often also perceive it as unnatural or violent. A human being is not untouchable [ But the body, this is only like any matter.

Pirkko, 57, underwent a breast augmentation and planned several new procedures. Yet, even some of those who, in the privacy of interviews, said that it was morally acceptable to pursue cosmetic surgery, remained secretive about their use of surgery when with friends and family. Some women rationalised having had cosmetic surgery on the grounds that they believed they had aged abnormally quickly due to hard life experiences.

One group consisted of women who had always borne heavy responsibilities and had experience of life changes, such as divorce. One of them was Hilja, 84, who talked about her life as if it had long been sacrificed for others. Hilja became a single parent of three children and supported them by working multiple shifts as a midwife. Later, Hilja started to purposefully empower herself. Instead, she decided to invest her time and money in herself, including getting two facelifts, and started to travel with her friends.

Some felt that sorrow and worries were literally cut off from the body and had been left on the operating table. Two women, Vieno and Laila, both 56, for example, wanted to relieve their suffering by having facelifts after the deaths of their husbands. During the interview, Laila started to cry while she remembered all her sorrows:. My husband got cancer and lost his job … I also lost both parents and my children moved away from home. A phase of seven years when I lost everything; my husband died and my mum died right after. During his last days I took care of my husband at home, learnt to inject the morphine myself … It was so tough that I thought that I must erase those years from my face.

Anja, 67, on the other hand, said that several Restylane injections in three periods and upper eyelid surgery had helped her to get on her feet again after many exhausting battles with her brother concerning their family business. Tuula, 62, had suffered from cancer for many years with varying phases. At the time of the interview, Tuula was going to have her third eyelid surgery and was willing to have the third facelift too, if the cancer did not come back soon.

In summary, for many women, cosmetic surgery offered an opportunity to move on from difficult life events such as abuse, divorce, sickness, and depression. Most dramatically the compensation for tough life experiences and, simultaneously, the regaining of respectability had been sought by those women who had decided to be born again after their husbands had left them. After the divorce in her forties, Liisi became seriously depressed and abused alcohol, and could barely manage her work as an entrepreneur. After years of hard life she even considered killing her youngest child and herself.

Finally, Liisi managed to seek help and started to recover little by little. The breasts were lifted up with a nipple transfer and augmented, and liposuction was applied to the knees, thighs and stomach. Her upper eyelids were operated upon and implants were set in the cheeks. The feeling of being accepted was enough. Many single ageing women, however, long for an intimate relationship. In a culture where an ageing woman is asexualised e. Dinnerstein and Weitz or her sexuality is represented as ridiculous or grotesque Markson cosmetic surgery offers a possibility and licence to extend romantic life.

Ageing women are valued more for their role in the home, but this does not save them from pressures linked with ageing. Some women become grandmothers after their working careers and seek to gain extra advantages by having cosmetic surgery. Some had ended up in cosmetic surgery because their children had passed remarks about their wrinkles or even explicitly asked them to undergo surgery.

Oili described her decision to get a Dermalive injection which, unfortunately, caused a serious rejection and had to be removed by several more operations. That is to say, retirement means a radical retreat from active life and respected status. Both phases of manhood are valorised by the following stories from Pentti and Pertti. It really attracts attention [ I was doddering down the street and had a windcheater on, perhaps dangling a little, and a cane [ I was not drunk, it was only my appearance. For Pertti, his colleagues agreed that after the surgery he looked like a more focused worker.

Thus, cosmetic surgery can be seen to help in regaining respectability at work or in romance after humiliating experiences linked with an increasingly aged appearance. I have argued that Finnish consumers purchase cosmetic surgery to improve their quality of life. Improving quality of life for these consumers means masking signs of ageing and of negative emotions. In most cases, the interviewees felt that the surgery changed their appearance to better reflect their inner self, and helped them start again after tough life experiences.

In some cases, women and men felt that surgery was inevitable. The negative social feedback given to visual signs of ageing almost demanded a surgical solution. Yet, even though men and women strategically resist ageist stereotypes and discrimination by choosing surgical procedures, they simultaneously help reinforce such beliefs by trying to reconstruct youthful bodies through surgery. This is troubling, as increased rates of cosmetic surgery can shift cultural definitions of normal ageing. The ideological core of cosmetic surgery — and the ideal of positive ageing linked to it — is that age is a subjective attitude rather than a biological fact, and one can actively resist mental and physical ageing e.

Bytheway In fact, the subjective attitude cannot be detached from the cultural discourses of ageing. The rise of the rejuvenation surgery stems from the everyday representations of the normative body, which is young, beautiful, healthy, happy, effective, and often white. Cosmetic surgery is perhaps not used to deny the accumulation of years, but to control the visual signs of negative emotions and of the body equated with ageing.

‘A second youth’: pursuing happiness and respectability through cosmetic surgery in Finland

The use of cosmetic surgery is thus an attempt to construct an image of happiness and interconnectedness, representing not only successful ageing but having a good life. My informants revealed that looking youthful meant being happy, harmonious and loved, which are all included in their definitions of beauty. I have shown that cosmetic surgery involves the manipulation of emotions both at the lived and representative levels, since, in an aestheticised culture, the boundary between the lived bodily experiences, such as emotions, and representations of the body have become blurred cf.

Ferguson , Shusterman The association of youth with happiness is so strong that feelings of oppression and depression not directly caused by ageing are cured by surgical procedures which lessen the marks of ageing, as some of the above cases have shown. This analysis also adds to the understanding of the local contexts in which cosmetic surgery is pursued. In a country that values the sturdy woman and views cosmetic surgery negatively, cosmetic surgery rates are growing, revealing hierarchies of whiteness and appearance.

Through cosmetic surgeries, the traditionally melancholic and reserved Finnish body is moulded to represent positiveness and openness; that is to say, that surgery is used to imitate American outgoingness and constant cheer e.