His volunteer efforts, professional work and recreational activities have taken him all across Canada, to the U. What he has learned from his travels is reflected in his writing. Irfan lives in Toronto, Canada with his wife, four children, and a growing number of grand children. Irfan Alli. The similarity between freedom and slavery. What makes the world blind. Who is to be considered religious. What is the greatness of humanity. Why you should monitor your thoughts and words.
What an eye for an eye does. About the seven deadly sins. This end usually implies a moral upliftment or progress of an individual or society. Therefore, non-co-operation in Satyagraha is in fact a means to secure the co-operation of the opponent consistently with truth and justice. While Gandhi's idea of satyagraha as a political means attracted a widespread following among Indians, the support was not universal.
For example, Muslim leaders such as Jinnah opposed the satyagraha idea, accused Gandhi to be reviving Hinduism through political activism, and began effort to counter Gandhi with Muslim nationalism and a demand for Muslim homeland. Churchill stated that the civil disobedience movement spectacle of Gandhi only increased "the danger to which white people there [British India] are exposed". Although Gandhi was not the originator of the principle of nonviolence, he was the first to apply it in the political field on a large scale.
Gandhi's views came under heavy criticism in Britain when it was under attack from Nazi Germany , and later when the Holocaust was revealed. He told the British people in , "I would like you to lay down the arms you have as being useless for saving you or humanity. You will invite Herr Hitler and Signor Mussolini to take what they want of the countries you call your possessions If these gentlemen choose to occupy your homes, you will vacate them. If they do not give you free passage out, you will allow yourselves, man, woman, and child, to be slaughtered, but you will refuse to owe allegiance to them.
In a post-war interview in , he said, "Hitler killed five million Jews. It is the greatest crime of our time.
Browse more videos
But the Jews should have offered themselves to the butcher's knife. They should have thrown themselves into the sea from cliffs It would have aroused the world and the people of Germany As it is they succumbed anyway in their millions. Gandhi believed that Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism were traditions of Hinduism, with shared history, rites and ideas.
At other times, he acknowledged that he knew little about Buddhism other than his reading of Edwin Arnold 's book on it. Based on that book, he considered Buddhism to be a reform movement and the Buddha to be a Hindu. Sikhism, to Gandhi, was an integral part of Hinduism, in the form of another reform movement. Sikh and Buddhist leaders disagreed with Gandhi, a disagreement Gandhi respected as a difference of opinion.
Gandhi had generally positive and empathetic views of Islam , and he extensively studied the Quran. He viewed Islam as a faith that proactively promoted peace, and felt that non-violence had a predominant place in the Quran. It was the rigid simplicity, the utter self-effacement of the Prophet, the scrupulous regard for pledges, his intense devotion to his friends and followers, his intrepidity, his fearlessness, his absolute trust in God and in his own mission.
However, Gandhi's empathy towards Islam, and his eager willingness to valorize peaceful Muslim social activists, was viewed by many Hindus as an appeasement of Muslims and later became a leading cause for his assassination at the hands of intolerant Hindu extremists. While Gandhi expressed mostly positive views of Islam, he did occasionally criticize Muslims. Gandhi believed that numerous interpreters have interpreted it to fit their preconceived notions.
Gandhi criticised Muslims who "betray intolerance of criticism by a non-Muslim of anything related to Islam", such as the penalty of stoning to death under Islamic law. To Gandhi, Islam has "nothing to fear from criticism even if it be unreasonable". One of the strategies Gandhi adopted was to work with Muslim leaders of pre-partition India, to oppose the British imperialism in and outside the Indian subcontinent. By , Ataturk had ended the Caliphate, the Khilafat Movement was over, and Muslim support for Gandhi had largely evaporated.
In , Gandhi gave another reason to why he got involved in the Khilafat movement and the Middle East affairs between Britain and the Ottoman Empire. Gandhi explained to his co-religionists Hindu that he sympathised and campaigned for the Islamic cause, not because he cared for the Sultan, but because "I wanted to enlist the Mussalman's sympathy in the matter of cow protection".
Naeem Qureshi, like the then Indian Muslim leaders who had combined religion and politics, Gandhi too imported his religion into his political strategy during the Khilafat movement. In the s, Gandhi pooled ideas with some Muslim leaders who sought religious harmony like him, and opposed the proposed partition of British India into India and Pakistan. For example, his close friend Badshah Khan suggested that they should work towards opening Hindu temples for Muslim prayers, and Islamic mosques for Hindu prayers, to bring the two religious groups closer.
The Hindu nationalist groups objected and began confronting Gandhi for this one-sided practice, by shouting and demonstrating inside the Hindu temples, in the last years of his life. Gandhi criticised as well as praised Christianity. He was critical of Christian missionary efforts in British India, because they mixed medical or education assistance with demands that the beneficiary convert to Christianity. It did not lead to inner transformation or moral advance or to the Christian teaching of "love", but was based on false one-sided criticisms of other religions, when Christian societies faced similar problems in South Africa and Europe.
It led to the converted person hating his neighbours and other religions, it divided people rather than bringing them closer in compassion. According to Gandhi, "no religious tradition could claim a monopoly over truth or salvation". According to Gandhi, the message of Jesus wasn't to humiliate and imperialistically rule over other people considering them inferior or second class or slaves, but that "when the hungry are fed and peace comes to our individual and collective life, then Christ is born". Gandhi believed that his long acquaintance with Christianity had made him like it as well as find it imperfect.
He asked Christians to stop humiliating his country and his people as heathens, idolators and other abusive language, and to change their negative views of India. He believed that Christians should introspect on the "true meaning of religion" and get a desire to study and learn from Indian religions in the spirit of universal brotherhood. Some colonial era Christian preachers and faithfuls considered Gandhi as a saint. Recent scholars question these romantic biographies and state that Gandhi was neither a Christian figure nor mirrored a Christian saint.
According to Kumaraswamy, Gandhi initially supported Arab demands with respect to Palestine. He justified this support by invoking Islam, stating that "non-Muslims cannot acquire sovereign jurisdiction" in Jazirat al-Arab the Arabian Peninsula. In the post-Khilafat period, Gandhi neither negated Jewish demands nor did he use Islamic texts or history to support Muslim claims against Israel.
Gandhi's silence after the Khilafat period may represent an evolution in his understanding of the conflicting religious claims over Palestine, according to Kumaraswamy. Gandhi discussed the persecution of the Jews in Germany and the emigration of Jews from Europe to Palestine through his lens of Satyagraha. Gandhi thought the Zionists in Palestine represented European imperialism and used violence to achieve their goals; he argued that "the Jews should disclaim any intention of realizing their aspiration under the protection of arms and should rely wholly on the goodwill of Arabs.
No exception can possibly be taken to the natural desire of the Jews to find a home in Palestine. But they must wait for its fulfillment till Arab opinion is ripe for it.
In , Gandhi stated that his "sympathies are all with the Jews. I have known them intimately in South Africa. Some of them became life-long companions. Gandhi reiterated his stance that "the Jews seek to convert the Arab heart", and use " satyagraha in confronting the Arabs" in Gandhi was brought up as a vegetarian by his devout Hindu mother. Gandhi believed that any form of food inescapably harms some form of living organism, but one should seek to understand and reduce the violence in what one consumes because "there is essential unity of all life".
Gandhi believed that some life forms are more capable of suffering, and non-violence to him meant not having the intent as well as active efforts to minimise hurt, injury or suffering to all life forms. He believed that slaughtering animals is unnecessary, as other sources of foods are available. Food to Gandhi was not only a source of sustaining one's body, but a source of his impact on other living beings, and one that affected his mind, character and spiritual well being.
Beyond his religious beliefs, Gandhi stated another motivation for his experiments with diet. He attempted to find the most non-violent vegetarian meal that the poorest human could afford, taking meticulous notes on vegetables and fruits, and his observations with his own body and his ashram in Gujarat. His experiments with food began in the s and continued for several decades. He believed that each vegetarian should experiment with his or her diet because, in his studies at his ashram he saw "one man's food may be poison for another".
Gandhi championed animal rights in general. Other than making vegetarian choices, he actively campaigned against dissection studies and experimentation on live animals vivisection in the name of science and medical studies. He wrote, "Vivisection in my opinion is the blackest of all the blackest crimes that man is at present committing against god and his fair creation. Gandhi used fasting as a political device, often threatening suicide unless demands were met.
Congress publicised the fasts as a political action that generated widespread sympathy. In response the government tried to manipulate news coverage to minimise his challenge to the Raj. He fasted in to protest the voting scheme for separate political representation for Dalits; Gandhi did not want them segregated. The British government stopped the London press from showing photographs of his emaciated body, because it would elicit sympathy.
Gandhi's hunger strike took place during a two-year prison term for the anticolonial Quit India movement. The government called on nutritional experts to demystify his action, and again no photos were allowed. However, his final fast in , after the end of British rule in India, his hunger strike was lauded by the British press and this time did include full-length photos.
Alter states that Gandhi's fasting, vegetarianism and diet was more than a political leverage, it was a part of his experiments with self restraint and healthy living. He was "profoundly skeptical of traditional Ayurveda", encouraging it to study the scientific method and adopt its progressive learning approach. Gandhi believed yoga offered health benefits. He believed that a healthy nutritional diet based on regional foods and hygiene were essential to good health . These records indicate that despite being underweight at He avoided modern medication and experiemented extensively with water and earth healing.
While his cardio records show his heart was normal, there were several instances he suffered from ailments like Malaria and was also operated twice for piles and appendicts. Despite health challenges Gandhi was able to walk about kms in his lifetime which comes to an average of 18 kms per day and is equivalent to walking around the earth twice .
Gandhi strongly favoured the emancipation of women, and urged "the women to fight for their own self-development. At various occasions, Gandhi credited his orthodox Hindu mother, and his wife, for first lessons in satyagraha. Some historians such as Angela Woollacott and Kumari Jayawardena state that even though Gandhi often and publicly expressed his belief in the equality of sexes, yet his vision was one of gender difference and complementarity between them.
Women, to Gandhi, should be educated to be better in the domestic realm and educate the next generation. His views on women's rights were less liberal and more similar to puritan-Victorian expectations of women, states Jayawardena, than other Hindu leaders with him who supported economic independence and equal gender rights in all aspects. Gandhi's experiment with abstinence went beyond sex, and extended to food. He consulted the Jain scholar Rajchandra, whom he fondly called Raychandbhai. Gandhi began abstaining from cow's milk in , and did so even when doctors advised him to consume milk.
Gandhi tried to test and prove to himself his brahmacharya. The experiments began some time after the death of his wife in February At the start of his experiment he had women sleep in the same room but in different beds. He later slept with women in the same bed but clothed, and finally he slept naked with women. In April , Gandhi referenced being naked with several "women or girls" in a letter to Birla as part of the experiments. Manu stated that the experiment had no "ill effect" on her. Gandhi also shared his bed with year-old Abha, wife of his grandnephew Kanu. Gandhi would sleep with both Manu and Abha at the same time.
Those who went public said they felt as though they were sleeping with their ageing mother. According to Sean Scalmer, Gandhi in his final year of life was an ascetic, looked ugly and a sickly skeletal figure, already caricatured in the Western media. However, Gandhi said that if he would not let Manu sleep with him, it would be a sign of weakness.
Some of his staff resigned, including two of his newspaper's editors who had refused to print some of Gandhi's sermons dealing with his experiments. Gandhi spoke out against untouchability early in his life. One of the major speeches he made on untouchability was at Nagpur in , where he called untouchability as a great evil in Hindu society. In his remarks, he stated that the phenomena of untouchability is not unique to the Hindu society, but has deeper roots because Europeans in South Africa treat "all of us, Hindus and Muslims, as untouchables; we may not reside in their midst, nor enjoy the rights which they do".
He stated this practice can be eradicated, Hinduism is flexible to allow this, and a concerted effort is needed to persuade it is wrong and by all to eradicate it. According to Christophe Jaffrelot, while Gandhi considered untouchability to be wrong and evil, he believed that caste or class are based neither on inequality nor on inferiority.
Every individual regardless of his or her background, stated Gandhi, has a right to choose who they welcome into their home, who they befriend and who they spend time with. In , Gandhi began a new campaign to improve the lives of the untouchables, whom he started referring to as Harijans or "the children of god".
Ambedkar and his allies felt Gandhi was being paternalistic and was undermining Dalit political rights. Ambedkar described him as "devious and untrustworthy". In , Ambedkar announced his intentions to leave Hinduism and join Buddhism. These views contrasted with those of Ambedkar.
Gandhi and his colleagues continued to consult Ambedkar, keeping him influential. Ambedkar worked with other Congress leaders through the s, wrote large parts of India's constitution in the late s, and converted to Buddhism in However, Gandhi's approach to untouchability was different from Ambedkar's, championing fusion, choice and free intermixing. Ambedkar envisioned each segment of society maintaining its identity group, and each group then separately advancing the "politics of equality".
The criticism of Gandhi by Ambedkar continued to influence the Dalit movement past Gandhi's death. According to Arthur Herman, Ambedkar's hate for Gandhi and Gandhi's ideas was so strong that after he heard the news of Gandhi's assassination, remarked after a momentary silence a sense of regret and then "my real enemy is gone; thank goodness the eclipse is over now".
Gandhi rejected the colonial Western format of education system. He stated that it led to disdain for manual work, generally created an elite administrative bureaucracy. Gandhi favoured an education system with far greater emphasis on learning skills in practical and useful work, one that included physical, mental and spiritual studies. His methodology sought to treat all professions equal and pay everyone the same.
Gandhi called his ideas Nai Talim literally, 'new education'. He believed that the Western style education violated and destroyed the indigenous cultures. A different basic education model, he believed, would lead to better self awareness, prepare people to treat all work equally respectable and valued, and lead to a society with less social diseases. Nai Talim evolved out of his experiences at the Tolstoy Farm in South Africa, and Gandhi attempted to formulate the new system at the Sevagram ashram after In his autobiography, Gandhi wrote that he believed every Hindu boy and girl must learn Sanskrit because its historic and spiritual texts are in that language.
Gandhi believed that swaraj not only can be attained with non-violence, it can be run with non-violence. A military is unnecessary, because any aggressor can be thrown out using the method of non-violent non-co-operation. While military is unnecessary in a nation organised under swaraj principle, Gandhi added that a police force is necessary given human nature. However, the state would limit the use of weapons by the police to the minimum, aiming for their use as a restraining force.
According to Gandhi, a non-violent state is like an "ordered anarchy".
- The Franco Regime, 1936–1975.
- Reward Yourself?
- Au-delà de larche (French Edition).
- Love and Politics - The Engagement (BBW Erotic Romance Book 3)!
- That Which Way.
On returning from South Africa, when Gandhi received a letter asking for his participation in writing a world charter for human rights, he responded saying, "in my experience, it is far more important to have a charter for human duties. Swaraj to Gandhi did not mean transferring colonial era British power brokering system, favours-driven, bureaucratic, class exploitative structure and mindset into Indian hands. He warned such a transfer would still be English rule, just without the Englishman. Democracy meant settling disputes in a nonviolent manner; it required freedom of thought and expression.
For Gandhi, democracy was a way of life. Some scholars state Gandhi supported a religiously diverse India,  while others state that the Muslim leaders who championed the partition and creation of a separate Muslim Pakistan considered Gandhi to be Hindu nationalist or revivalist. In an interview with C. Andrews, Gandhi stated that if we believe all religions teach the same message of love and peace between all human beings, then there is neither any rationale nor need for proselytisation or attempts to convert people from one religion to another.
In Gandhi's view, those who attempt to convert a Hindu, "they must harbour in their breasts the belief that Hinduism is an error" and that their own religion is "the only true religion". He stated that spiritual studies must encourage "a Hindu to become a better Hindu, a Mussalman to become a better Mussalman, and a Christian a better Christian.
According to Gandhi, religion is not about what a man believes, it is about how a man lives, how he relates to other people, his conduct towards others, and one's relationship to one's conception of god. Gandhi believed in sarvodaya economic model, which literally means "welfare, upliftment of all". To both, according to Bhatt, removing poverty and unemployment were the objective, but the Gandhian economic and development approach preferred adapting technology and infrastructure to suit the local situation, in contrast to Nehru's large scale, socialised state owned enterprises.
To Gandhi, the economic philosophy that aims at "greatest good for the greatest number" was fundamentally flawed, and his alternative proposal sarvodaya set its aim at the "greatest good for all". He believed that the best economic system not only cared to lift the "poor, less skilled, of impoverished background" but also empowered to lift the "rich, highly skilled, of capital means and landlords".
Violence against any human being, born poor or rich, is wrong, believed Gandhi. Gandhi challenged Nehru and the modernizers in the late s who called for rapid industrialisation on the Soviet model; Gandhi denounced that as dehumanising and contrary to the needs of the villages where the great majority of the people lived. Gandhi called for ending poverty through improved agriculture and small-scale cottage rural industries. Gandhi refused to endorse the view that economic forces are best understood as "antagonistic class interests".
Further, believed Gandhi, in a free nation, victims exist only when they co-operate with their oppressor, and an economic and political system that offered increasing alternatives gave power of choice to the poorest man. While disagreeing with Nehru about the socialist economic model, Gandhi also critiqued capitalism that was driven by endless wants and a materialistic view of man. This, he believed, created a vicious vested system of materialism at the cost of other human needs such as spirituality and social relationships. He believed that a better economic system is one which does not impoverish one's culture and spiritual pursuits.
Gandhism designates the ideas and principles Gandhi promoted; of central importance is nonviolent resistance. A Gandhian can mean either an individual who follows, or a specific philosophy which is attributed to, Gandhism. Sankhdher argues that Gandhism is not a systematic position in metaphysics or in political philosophy. Rather, it is a political creed, an economic doctrine, a religious outlook, a moral precept, and especially, a humanitarian world view. It is an effort not to systematise wisdom but to transform society and is based on an undying faith in the goodness of human nature.
There is no such thing as "Gandhism", and I do not want to leave any sect after me. I do not claim to have originated any new principle or doctrine. I have simply tried in my own way to apply the eternal truths to our daily life and problems The opinions I have formed and the conclusions I have arrived at are not final.
I may change them tomorrow. I have nothing new to teach the world. Truth and nonviolence are as old as the hills. Gandhi was a prolific writer. One of Gandhi's earliest publications, Hind Swaraj , published in Gujarati in , became "the intellectual blueprint" for India's independence movement. The book was translated into English the next year, with a copyright legend that read "No Rights Reserved". Later, Navajivan was also published in Hindi. In addition, he wrote letters almost every day to individuals and newspapers.
He also wrote extensively on vegetarianism, diet and health, religion, social reforms, etc. Gandhi usually wrote in Gujarati, though he also revised the Hindi and English translations of his books. Gandhi's complete works were published by the Indian government under the name The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi in the s. The writings comprise about 50, pages published in about a hundred volumes.
In , a revised edition of the complete works sparked a controversy, as it contained a large number of errors and omissions. Gandhi influenced important leaders and political movements. In his early years, the former President of South Africa Nelson Mandela was a follower of the nonviolent resistance philosophy of Gandhi.
This legacy connects him to Nelson Mandela Gandhi's life and teachings inspired many who specifically referred to Gandhi as their mentor or who dedicated their lives to spreading Gandhi's ideas. In , notable European physicist Albert Einstein exchanged written letters with Gandhi, and called him "a role model for the generations to come" in a letter writing about him.
Mahatma Gandhi's life achievement stands unique in political history. He has invented a completely new and humane means for the liberation war of an oppressed country, and practised it with greatest energy and devotion. The moral influence he had on the consciously thinking human being of the entire civilised world will probably be much more lasting than it seems in our time with its overestimation of brutal violent forces.
Because lasting will only be the work of such statesmen who wake up and strengthen the moral power of their people through their example and educational works. We may all be happy and grateful that destiny gifted us with such an enlightened contemporary, a role model for the generations to come. Generations to come will scarce believe that such a one as this walked the earth in flesh and blood. Lanza del Vasto went to India in intending to live with Gandhi; he later returned to Europe to spread Gandhi's philosophy and founded the Community of the Ark in modelled after Gandhi's ashrams.
Madeleine Slade known as "Mirabehn" was the daughter of a British admiral who spent much of her adult life in India as a devotee of Gandhi. In addition, the British musician John Lennon referred to Gandhi when discussing his views on nonviolence. I am mindful that I might not be standing before you today, as President of the United States, had it not been for Gandhi and the message he shared with America and the world.
Obama in September said that his biggest inspiration came from Gandhi. His reply was in response to the question 'Who was the one person, dead or live, that you would choose to dine with? He continued that "He's somebody I find a lot of inspiration in. He inspired Dr. King with his message of nonviolence. He ended up doing so much and changed the world just by the power of his ethics. On the basis of a petition, a statue of Gandhi at the University of Ghana was removed on 15 December , because it was viewed by the petitioners as "an homage to a racist".
Time magazine named Gandhi the Man of the Year in The University of Nagpur awarded him an LL. The Government of India awarded the annual Gandhi Peace Prize to distinguished social workers, world leaders and citizens. Nelson Mandela , the leader of South Africa's struggle to eradicate racial discrimination and segregation, was a prominent non-Indian recipient.
In , Time magazine named Gandhi as one of the top 25 political icons of all time. Gandhi did not receive the Nobel Peace Prize , although he was nominated five times between and , including the first-ever nomination by the American Friends Service Committee ,  though he made the short list only twice, in and That year, the committee chose not to award the peace prize stating that "there was no suitable living candidate" and later research shows that the possibility of awarding the prize posthumously to Gandhi was discussed and that the reference to no suitable living candidate was to Gandhi.
Gandhi could do without the Nobel Peace prize, whether Nobel committee can do without Gandhi is the question". Indians widely describe Gandhi as the father of the nation. It was based on the biography by Louis Fischer. Jahnu Barua's Maine Gandhi Ko Nahin Mara I did not kill Gandhi , places contemporary society as a backdrop with its vanishing memory of Gandhi's values as a metaphor for the senile forgetfulness of the protagonist of his film,  writes Vinay Lal. Anti-Gandhi themes have also been showcased through films and plays. The film, Gandhi, My Father was inspired on the same theme.
Several biographers have undertaken the task of describing Gandhi's life. Among them are D. Tendulkar with his Mahatma. India, with its rapid economic modernisation and urbanisation, has rejected Gandhi's economics  but accepted much of his politics and continues to revere his memory.
Reporter Jim Yardley notes that, "modern India is hardly a Gandhian nation, if it ever was one. His vision of a village-dominated economy was shunted aside during his lifetime as rural romanticism, and his call for a national ethos of personal austerity and nonviolence has proved antithetical to the goals of an aspiring economic and military power. Gandhi's birthday, 2 October, is a national holiday in India , Gandhi Jayanti.
Gandhi's image also appears on paper currency of all denominations issued by Reserve Bank of India , except for the one rupee note. There are three temples in India dedicated to Gandhi. Gandhi's children and grandchildren live in India and other countries. Grandson Rajmohan Gandhi is a Professor in Illinois and an author of Gandhi's biography titled "Mohandas"  , while another, Tarun Gandhi, has authored several authoritative books on his grandfather.
Another grandson, Kanu Ramdas Gandhi the son of Gandhi's third son Ramdas , was found living in an old age home in Delhi despite having taught earlier in the United States. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Gandhi disambiguation. Pre-eminent leader of Indian nationalism during British-ruled India. Porbandar , Kathiawar Agency , British-ruled India.
New Delhi , Dominion of India. Lawyer Politician Activist Writer. Kasturba Gandhi m. Harilal Manilal Ramdas Devdas. Karamchand Gandhi father Putlibai Gandhi mother. See also: Indian independence movement. Main article: Champaran Satyagraha. Main article: Kheda Satyagraha. Main article: Non-co-operation movement. Main article: Salt Satyagraha. Play media. Main article: Quit India Movement. See also: Indian independence movement and Partition of India. Main article: Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi. See also: List of fasts undertaken by Mahatma Gandhi.
Main article: Nai Talim. Main article: Swaraj. Main article: Gandhian economics. Main article: Gandhism. Shaw; Timothy J. Demy Gandhiserve foundation Berlin. Retrieved 4 March The Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 12 October Retrieved 31 August Addresses in Durban and Verulam referred to Gandhi as a 'Mahatma', 'great soul'. He was seen as a great soul because he had taken up the poor's cause. The whites too said good things about Gandhi, who predicted a future for the Empire if it respected justice.
An Autobiography. Bodley Head. Reweaving the Web of Life: Feminism and Nonviolence. New Society Publishers. Quote: "With love, Yours, Bapu You closed with the term of endearment used by your close friends, the term you used with all the movement leaders, roughly meaning 'Papa'. Beacon Press. Quote: " Gleanings Gathered at Bapu's Feet. Ahmedabad: Navjivan publications. Yale University Press. Retrieved 1 September By the late s, the League and the Congress had impressed in the British their own visions of a free future for Indian people.
They heard about it on the radio, from relations and friends, by reading newspapers and, later, through government pamphlets. Among a population of almost four hundred million, where the vast majority lived in the countryside, For some, the butchery and forced relocation of the summer months of may have been the first they know about the creation of the two new states rising from the fragmentary and terminally weakened British empire in India. His decision was made suddenly, though after considerable thought — he gave no hint of it even to Nehru and Patel who were with him shortly before he announced his intention at a prayer-meeting on 12 January He said he would fast until communal peace was restored, real peace rather than the calm of a dead city imposed by police and troops.
Patel and the government took the fast partly as condemnation of their decision to withhold a considerable cash sum still outstanding to Pakistan as a result of the allocation of undivided India's assets, because the hostilities that had broken out in Kashmir; But even when the government agreed to pay out the cash, Gandhi would not break his fast: that he would only do after a large number of important politicians and leaders of communal bodies agreed to a joint plan for restoration of normal life in the city.
Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Quote: "The apotheosis of this contrast is the assassination of Gandhi in by a militant Nathuram Godse, on the basis of his 'weak' accommodationist approach towards the new state of Pakistan. Gandhi, Autobiography chapter 1 Dover edition, p. Identity and Religion: Foundations of anti-Islamism in India. Mahatma; life of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. L The Ways and Power of Love: types, factors, and techniques of moral transformation.
Templeton Foundation Press. Gandhi: The Traditional Roots of Charisma. University of Chicago Press. Gandhi: A Spiritual Biography. John Zavos; et al. Public Hinduisms. SAGE Publications. Gandhi before India. Vintage Books. Gandhi, his life and message for the world. Mahatma Gandhi. Allied Publishers. Orissa Review January : 45— Archived PDF from the original on 1 January Retrieved 23 February Chapter "Preparation for England". Gandhi as Disciple and Mentor. Cambridge University Press. In Roxanne Reid ed. New History of South Africa 1st ed. The Journal of Modern African Studies.
Gandhi: a very short introduction. Chapter "More Hardships". Dhiman Chapter "Some Experiences". Chapter "What it is to be a coolie". Other Places Publishing. Concept Publishing Company. The Literature Network. Retrieved 12 February Mathai; M. John; Siby K. Joseph eds.
I found an inspiring bumper sticker with a quote from Mahatma Gandhi Whatever
DiSalvo Infobase Publishing. Archived from the original on 21 October Retrieved 5 October Stanford University Press. Gandhi went from a racist young man to a racist middle-aged man".
Minorities and the State in Africa. Cambria Press. Retrieved 1 January Retrieved March South African Historical Journal. Archived from the original on 2 May Retrieved 20 January Political Science Quarterly. A History of Modern India, — Anthem Press. Based on public domain volumes. Day-to-day with Gandhi: secretary's diary. Hemantkumar Nilkanth translation. Sarva Seva Sangh Prakashan. Archived from the original on 3 June Archived 15 October at the Wayback Machine Chapter " Appeal for enlistment", Nadiad, 22 June Archived 15 October at the Wayback Machine "Chapter 8.
Letter to J. Maffey", Nadiad, 30 April Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Indian National Congress website. All India Congress Committee. Archived from the original on 6 December Retrieved 25 February Gandhi's Rise to Power: Indian Politics — The First World War. Green; Nicholas Szechenyi Paine Jinnah vs. They reveal Tagore's belief that Gandhi had committed the Indian political nation to a cause that was mistakenly anti-Western and fundamentally negative"; Kham, Aqeeluzzafar Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society.
Psychology Press. Ahmed Modern India: the origins of an Asian democracy. Oxford U. Modern India: — Dekar Wipf and Stock. Archived from the original on 1 January Archived from the original on 19 February Ahmedabad: Navajivan Publishing House. Also available at Wikisource. Indian Politics and Society since Independence: events, processes and ideology.
Retrieved 4 April Sahitya Akademi. Newsinger The Blood Never Dried. Bookmarks Publications Ltd. Gandhi and Gandhi and the Mass Movement. New Delhi. Fischer Gandhi and the Mass Movement. Indian Historical Review. City University of New York Press. Mahatma Gandhi: Nonviolent Power in Action. Columbia University Press. Hogg Encyclopedia of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations.
Random House. Archived from the original on 13 September University of California Press. Archived from the original on 22 February Gandhi: Prisoner of Hope. Dirks Princeton University Press. Jawaharlal Nehru, A Biography , p. Allied Publishers Limited. Modern Asian Studies. Orissa Review. Archived from the original PDF on 24 December Retrieved 12 April India's Struggle for Independence. Penguin Books. A Fine Family. Navajivan Publishing House. Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru: a historic partnership.
Publishing Corporation. End of empire. The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi. The New York Times. Archived from the original on 30 April Retrieved 25 March Propaganda and information in Eastern India, — a necessary weapon of war. A History of India. Divide and Quit.
Archived from the original on 1 October A concise history of modern India. Random House Digital, Inc. Empirical Foundations of Psychology. Almanac of World Crime. Why I assassinated Mahatma Gandhi? Surya Bharti Parkashan Reprint: Grove Press. The Indian Express. Retrieved 19 January Time Inc.
The Guardian. Archived from the original on 1 September Retrieved 14 January Gandhi meets primetime: globalization and nationalism in Indian television. University of Illinois Press. Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 5 October Archived from the original on 4 June Gandhi and Non-Violence.
State University of New York Press. The sheer vagueness and contradictions recurrent throughout his writing made it easier to accept him as a saint than to fathom the challenge posed by his demanding beliefs.
101 Selected Sayings of Mahatma Gandhi
Gandhi saw no harm in self-contradictions: life was a series of experiments, and any principle might change if Truth so dictated". The Cambridge Companion to Gandhi. Stuart Brown; et al. Biographical Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Philosophers. Influences: Vaishnavism , Jainism and Advaita Vedanta. Jordens Gandhi's Religion: A Homespun Shawl. Palgrave Macmillan. Long Rita Sherma and Arvind Sharma ed. Orient Paperbacks. Reading Gandhi. Gandhi, —". Asian Profile. Parekh Sterling Publishing. History and Theory. An introduction to Swaminarayan Hinduism.
Patrick Geddes: social evolutionist and city planner. Journal of Asian Studies. Srinivasa Murthy, ed. Mahatma Gandhi and Leo Tolstoy: Letters. Srinivasa, ed.
Archived PDF from the original on 17 September The origins of nonviolence: Tolstoy and Gandhi in their historical settings. Pennsylvania State University Press. Retrieved 17 January Journal of Indian History. Gandhi: An Autobiography Beacon Press ed. Gandhi as Disciple and Mentor 3 ed. Retrieved 23 November Archived from the original on 13 May Retrieved 3 June Gandhi: voice of a new age revolution. The life of Mahatma Gandhi. Davis The "Bhagavad Gita": A Biography. Bibliophile South Asia. The Routledge Handbook of Pacifism and Nonviolence. All Men Are Brothers. Bloomsbury Academic.
David M. Malone; et al. Bruce Gandhi's Philosophy and the Quest for Harmony. Retrieved 13 January Gier Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi. Archived PDF from the original on 28 January Satyagraha: Gandhi's approach to conflict resolution. Retrieved 26 January Taras Liberal and Illiberal Nationalisms. The Man who Divided India. Popular Prakashan. Contemporary South Asia. Political Theory. Gandhi: 3 , retrieved 3 May Cited from Borman, William Gandhi and nonviolence. SUNY Press. Lexington Books.