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Evaluation questionnaire and report of the Oporto Meeting, Portugal. Evaluation Questionnaire and report of Raahe Meeting. Raport ewaluacyjny ze spotkania w Finlandii raport ewaluacyjny ze spotkania w Raahe w Finlandii. Raport ewaluacyjny ze spotkania w Turcji Raport i kwestionariusz ewaluacyjny ze spotkania w Turcji. Raport ewaluacyjny ze spotkania w Grecji raport i kwetionariusz ewaluacyjny ze spotkania w Grecji. Raport ewaluacyjny ze spotkania w Hiszpanii raport i kwestionariusz ewaluacyjny ze spotkaniaw Hiszpanii.

Power Point Presentation. Vierailijat harjoitttelivat tansseja: "Pasodoble" ja "Bolero". Opettajana tanssijat Amparo Belda ja Vicent Mengual. Power Point sunumu. Projektikoordinaattorin suunnittelema kierros vierailijoille vanhassa Valnenciassa. Voicethread: ladatut kuvat, tekstit ja puhe Voicethread: kuvat, puhutut ja kirjoitetut kuvaukset arkkitehtuurista. Strona: www. Acceso a Voicethread: www. IT4ID profile on Facebook. IT4ID profile on Facebook The group of the participants of the project: students, teachers and coordinators. The dishes prepared were subsequently presented and tasted by all those present.

Os pratos confeccionados foram posteriormente apresentados e degustados pelos presentes. Los platos preparados fueron consecuentemente presentados y degustados por todos los presentes. Ruokalajit esiteltiin ja maistatettiin muilla partnereilla. Visit of the Parliament, Portaits Gallery and main rooms. Visita ao parlamento, galeria de retratos e salas principais. Ceremonia de Bienvenida, presidida por el Presidente del Parlamento Valenciano. Vastaanottoseremonia Valencian Parlamentissa Vastaanottoseremonia, Valencian Parlamentin Presidentin esittely, parlamenttivierailu, galleria ja huoneet.

Meclis, portre galerisi ve ana salon ziyareti. A workshop about ancient tragedy was held on Tuesday afternoon in our school, which involved teaching, video projection and activity. Sophocles' "Antigone" was analysed and a chorus speech and movement was taught. On Wednesday morning we visited the museum and the Ancient theatre of Epidaurus and after permission was granted, the chorus was presented in the theate by the group.

Students and teachers from all countries participated in the presentation. Keskiviikkoaamuna vierailtiin museossa ja antiikin teatterissa Epidauruksessa, luvan saatua pidettiin teatterissa kuoroesitys. Opettajat ja oppilaat osallistuivat esitykseen. Also they wore a charachteristic outfit for it. Oppijat pukeutuivat tanssin tyypilliseen kansallisasuun. Para ello los participantes llevaban puesto el atuendo tradicional turco. A barraca is a rectangular-shaped building and consists mainly of a long corridor between two doors, one facing north, the other facing south.

In the heat of the summer both dodrs are open to allow the breeze in. The kitchen and dining room are in the corridor. And because of the torrencial rains the roof is triangular. The barraca, made from clay, mud and straw, is the tradicional dwelling of Valencia farmers. Una barraca es un edificio de forma rectangular y se compone principalmente de un largo pasillo entre dos puertas, hacia el norte y el sur, una frente a otra. Y a causa de las lluvias torrencial el techo es triangular.

Se construye con arcilla, barro y paja. This bullring was built within the Neoclassic style between and So too were the other efforts of the MNR government to make major changes in the education system in the late s contained in the Libro Blanco and Libro Rosado produced by the ministry of education. The major changes proposed were to unify rural and urban education, to decentralize education and introduce curric- ular changes to develop a more reflexive and critical individual. The liberals implemented the first reform in the early s and the Education Code initiated the second one during the National Revolution.

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Of all the twentieth century reforms, the present one involves the most changes in the education system. A common feature of all three reforms is that they were initiated in moments of economic crisis, of changes in sociopolitical structures and of major transformations in the world system.

These changes have been supported by international events such as the World Conference on Education for All held in Jomtien in It established the priorities of basic education and the basic needs for learning. Such conferences generated a wave of concern for education throughout the world and highlighted in academic circles the role of education as a means to development. In part, such events, along with support from political and multilateral international organizations, promoted a need for educational reform as well as influencing the contents of the reform itself.

Education appeared to be the best way to increase the quality of life and to improve the distribution of income, making educational reform an attractive option for achieving these goals. With this in mind, it is impor- tant to note that during the formulation of the current education reform, it was the ex-minister of planning and coordination who provided the needed leadership, an aspect that will be later analyzed in more detail.

As stated, the deficiencies in the Bolivian educational system had been widely acknowledged for at least two decades yet, surprisingly, nothing was done to overcome them. The current Bolivian educational reform has several unique characteris- tics, one of which is that its preparation relied on a task force outside the Ministry of Education.

The reason for this was that the ministry of education lacked the human resources required to carry out the reform and was not interested in assuming the responsibil- ity for reforming a markedly deficient educational system because doing so meant clashing with the unions.

Moreover, the control teachers unions had in naming authorities in the ministry of education hampered any real possi- bility of reforming the very structural problems that required modification, such as teacher training and hiring. Changes in the historical context and in the development model required an educational reform that would not only concentrate on the pedagogical aspects, but would also develop concrete actions and proposals to modernize the educational system, starting with the Ministry of Education. It worked in close coordination with the minister of planning and in many instances had to pursue the design of the reform despite government opposition.

The Paz Zamora administration was not fully convinced of the full-scale reform that ETARE and the Ministry of Planning thought the education system needed, fearing opposition from teachers unions and the social unrest that might ensue. The process was not an easy one, and there were several disagreements between ETARE and the World Bank on issues of administrative and cur- ricular emphasis. To what degree would the reform be an administrative effort at modernizing the Ministry of Education and the organization of the educational system and to what degree would it provide a new cur- riculum and pedagogy and seek changes in the classroom?

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It considered the expansion and improvement of schooling as a means to further regional and national development. In the long term, the reform sought changes in four main areas: coverage, quality, equity and efficiency. Second, quality was important and it was expressed in terms of the social, cultural and linguistic relevance of education. A third goal, equi- ty, refers to a leveling of opportunities for access to the same quality of education between men and women, rural and urban areas and between populations of Spanish-speakers and of vernacular language-speakers.

The fourth goal was efficiency in the use of resources, whose assignment, moreover, must bear a direct relation to the priorities of national develop- ment. These provisions effectively eliminated the monopoly within the teaching community that teachers have historically held. Through Supreme Decree , the reform proposed free unionization by ending payroll reductions that formerly fed unions. The execution strategy was based on two programs: transformation and improvement. By , the reform was being implemented in 2, schools that covered 16 per cent of primary school enrollment.

This figure increased to 6, schools in and 9, schools, or two thirds of the total 13, schools, in In , 12, of the 12, were in the process of transformation. In its institutional component, the transformation program includes the institutional reorganization-administrative unification of urban and rural education, the design of administration and information systems and the transfer of infrastructure to prefectures and municipalities. Moreover, it contemplates the creation of district and center schools, the training of non-teaching and administrative personnel and the physical reconditioning of certain administrative infrastructure.

The improvement program, on the other hand, was designed to cover educational deficits on a short-term basis, ensuring its universal coverage. Under this pro- gram, 6. What changes are taking place in the classrooms? In the same way, we observed enthu- siasm of teachers in their work and development of initiatives differ- ent to those offered by the Reform and oriented towards active and participatory learning in the children.

Undoubtedly, a variation in attitude is significant, especially considering that the reform has been carried out for only a short time. However, an eval- uation of whether changes in attitude are producin g changes in learning is necessary. The main problems in establishing the reform and the source of the most radical criticism arose from the sector most affected by the plans of the reform: the teachers. Several attempts were made to achieve this: meetings, seminars, congresses and the establishment of councils.

Undoubtedly, many of these efforts were useful, although in my view, there are three reasons that explain why greater agreements were not reached. He who receives today the social codes and the ade- quate knowledge, benefits from them as trustee of this knowledge and this knowing. Those who proposed the Education Reform knew which system to construct; those who criticized it did not have a clear idea of which system political and economic they favored; and, therefore, their proposals were weak. Many of these issues cannot be overcome through negotiation.

For instance, while for the government education is a means to achieve development, for the unions its means to overturn the state. Opposition is greater at the leadership level. By way of illustration, the union leadership has unsuc- cessfully tried to prevent teachers from participating in the new training programs, especially those offered in private universities and in the cours- es for pedagogical advisors who are the facilitators of the reform imple- menters in the classroom. However, union opposition has not been uni- form.

There has been less opposition in eastern regions, somewhat more in the valleys and the most opposition has been in the highlands. Urban unions still presented much criticism and opposition. Despite union opposition, there is evidence that the pedagogical propos- als of the reform are being adopted and adapted to fit with current prac- tices. This incorporated 4, new teachers and increased the workload of 4, primary teachers. Namely, greater salaries do not account for better results. In over 9, schools participated and 1, schools were awarded incentives.

Because of both Popular Participation and education reform, 11, juntas escolares school boards have been established to have oversight over the school and seek to improve both administrative and pedagogical issues. As a result of Popular Participation more resources haven been invested in education at the municipal level and there is evi- dence that local priorities are being better met.

There are no systematic studies of these aspects. The short-run effects appear to be greater clientelism at the local level that is hampering the establishment of a competent and professional regional and local level education system. The introduction of bilingual education has presented significant challenges in developing appropriate educational materials and training teachers. They thought that their children were not going to be taught Spanish and, therefore would be excluded from the development process. There is no doubt that enroll- ment is increasing.

According to the Ministry of Education, based on administrative data, net enrollment in primary schools increased from But, according to the Ministry, retention has increased by 30 per cent from to Net enrollment rates are hampered by: a late entry into the school system, when children are eight or nine years old, rather than six; and b high drop out rates, at 11 years of age in rural areas and 12 or 13 in urban ones. Problems are concentrated in specific municipalities also; a well-targeted policy may be best to address these issues.

In the light of the above, Urquiola estimates that at real GDP growth rates of five to six per cent per annum, Bolivia would attain full coverage of primary education in Recent evidence in four municipalities, where To overcome this, the Bolivian government is working on a program of school expansion, increase teacher availability and a new school attendance subsidy to stimulate demand.

As can be seen in Figure After , it oscillated around 4. Also, there has been an increase in resources devoted to investments in the sector. Indeed, for the first time ever, schools have received classroom libraries, teaching materials, sports equipment and other pedagogical aids. The recurrent costs of these investments will require that significantly more resources be allo- cated to education. How has the reform been doing in this respect?

As shown in Table It is surprising and worrisome that over a quarter of students do not reach the minimum level of learning for third grade mathematics. If we compare urban and rural schools, as might be expected, urban schools per- form better than rural ones in language. This is not the case in mathematics, where a greater percentage of students in rural schools If we contrast achievement lev- els between children in schools under reform with those not under reform the results are very similar.

Children in schools under reform have a slightly greater success rate in both language and mathematics than children in schools not yet under reform Table The breakdown of those that do reach the minimum level is very similar though. Given the new materials dis- tributed and the innovative pedagogical approach that supposedly is taking place in the schools under reform, one would have expected a greater per- centage of students at higher achievement levels.

A is a lower level of achievement than C. One reason is surely the need for more time to propagate and consolidate the results. But we must also continue to remind ourselves that changes in the education- al systems are never uniform and consistent across schools. So much so that in a survey of July , 59 per cent of the population thought that education had improved due to the education reform.

This chapter has shown that the rate of growth of enrollment in primary schools in the revolutionary period was not greater that the growth of the decade before the revolution. Similarly, the rate of growth of rural com- munal schools before the revolution is very similar to that after the revo- lution. What educational expansion took place in rural areas was more a result of the greater mobility of Indians after the Agrarian Reform.

In terms of its effects, birth cohort analysis of years of education completed within the population aged 20 years or older in also shows no signif- icant effect of a greater number of years of education between those born in and who went to school before the revolution and those born in and who went to school during the revolution.

I have argued that what expansion of education occurred in the rural areas was of very low quality and the ideals of the revolution could not be accomplished because of a lack of resources and the impossibility of changing teaching conditions in schools. There was no effort to introduce new curricula, new teaching materials or teaching methods. This code enshrined a divided edu- cation sector between urban and rural with Spanish as the sole teaching language.

All these aspects were very harmful for development of the education sector and would not change until the Education Reform abolished the code. Unlike the Cuban Revolution, for all its educational rhetoric, the Bolivian Revolution was not able to mobilize society around education and make education an arena for reform and a contributing factor to change society. And, for the first time in a five-year period there have only been two ministers of education in the Banzer-Quiroga administration. The first minister served for four continuous years and was succeeded in the last year by his vice-minister of initial, primary and secondary Education, ensuring complete continuity.

This illustrates well that educational policy has become state policy and the importance attached to the current reform. In contrast to the Reform, which was not able to modify educa- tion to the new demands of the social forces unleashed by the revolution, the present one is more in accordance with the new economic neoliberal- ism and political democracy reality of Bolivia.


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Unlike the Reform the current reform has a more participatory approach in its implementa- tion and seeks to incorporate parents in the educational process. Another significant difference between the two is the amount of resources assigned to the current effort. As we have seen, it is an ambitious project to change the way children are educated which has developed a new curriculum, textbooks and teacher training. It has also modified the way the education sector is structured and has decentralized education to the departmental and municipal level.

It has introduced bilingual and multicultural education. Not unlike other reforms in the region, its greatest challenge is to gradually incorporate a hostile teacher corps into its practice and effectively change what is going on in the classrooms. Only then will it be able to improve learning.

This will be a gradual and long process; meanwhile the jury is still out on whether the education reform is effectively improving student learning and what will be its overall effect on the education system and society. All opinions and viewpoints expressed are my sole responsibility and in no way compromise the Inter-American Development Bank or its member countries 1 This section draws on Contreras b, The Evolution of a Multi- Ethnic Society and There is some limited reference to edu- cation issues in Jerry R. Ladman ed. Modern-Day Bolivia. Legacy of the Revolution and Prospects for the Future b.

World Bank V, nos. Schwartz eds. Alexander, R.. Antezana E. Bernstein, Marvin D. Berry, L. Besse, Susan Restructuring Patriarchy. Malloy and Richard S. Thorn eds. Bolivia since Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. Booth, John and Seligson, Mitchell A. Rienner Publishers , pp. Boyer, Christopher R. Brading, D. Cariaga, Juan I. Josefa Ruis Davila, escritura de dote, Lima, [46 leaves]. Receipts accounts signed by Jacinto Naranjo, [4 leaves]. Heath, Dwight B.

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Gandarillas, B. May report to Chester W. Creighton, David Witt. Paz Estenssoro, Victor. Amazon Wireless Telegraph and Telephone Company. Secretary of State for aid in protecting Company's rights and concessions in Brazil," 7 December From the law firm Ivins, Mason, Wolff and Hoguet. Blanco, Miguel Coronel. Passage of Federico Froons[? Powers, Joshua B. Superior Oil Company. Compagnie Aramayo de Mines en Bolivie. Annual reports of directors and speeches of chairmen, Barradas, Isidro.

Unsigned report of expedition to reconquer Mexico with 4, troops, purportedly written by a participant. Banco Real, S. Documents, Notarized copies of documents related to the bank's founding as the Banco de Lavoura de Minas Gerais, its history , balances , structure, and statutes. Report on pottery recovered in Cholula, site plans, 2 volumes of colored drawings and typed descriptions of pottery. Fikes, Robert Jr. Karttunen, Frances. Carta a Guadalupe Victoria, 3 January [photocopy].

School record from Nuevo Leon, Mexico, 31 January Alessandri, Arturo. Carta a Jorge Silvia Yoacham, 20 December Correspondence log.

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Alamillo, J. Rodriguez, Santiago. Decree of governor of Coahuila, May Lima, Pereina. Cochrane, Thomas. Correspondence, [ pages]. Hanna, John. Journal [] and Letterbook [], Rivas Morel, Nicasio. Hermosa, [2, 8 pages]. Hacienda del Nacimiento, Coahuila.

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Title papers, Northwestern University Venezuelan Project, Feminiflor magazine [Bolivia], letter and images, Papers, [1 inch]. Typed correspondence from party officials, printed announcements, propaganda sheets, posters, and newsclippings. Kidder, Howard J. Family letters from Mexico, etc. Cochabamba, Bolivia.

Consejo Municipal and Consejo Departamental. Letters to national officials regarding taxes, road building, education, and similar matters. Table of contents. Prefectura del Departamento. Official resolutions, circulars, orders, appointments, and decrees, received or sent by the prefecture.

Aguirre, Juan. Copybook of letters written by Spanish merchant in Lima between July and March to suppliers and customers in Peru, Chile, Ecuador, Mexico, and Europe, with business, shipping and other news; also notes on receipts, deliveries, sales, orders of goods, and prices. Villagran Kramer, Francisco. Documents, , [photocopies]. Funeral oration for Generalisimo Dr. Rafael Leonidad Trujillo Molina [copy and translation], , Taliaferro, N. Report to Arizona Oil Company on geology and oil exploration in Tamaulipas.

Includes drilling and production histories, descriptions of regions and selected wells, and maps of concessions. O'Brien, W. Stines, Norman C. Describes mining claims, prices, operations, productivity, local mining history, and geology along the Tapaje, Maqui, and Sipi rivers. Organization of American States. Carta de la Organizacion de los Estados Americanos, Bogota, Various manuscripts, , , , , Anita Mining Company.

Various documents, Embajada de Chile Washington, D. Telegramas oficiales, enviados [2 bound volumes]. Indians of Tequisquiac. Mckellar, Maud. Henriques, Alfonso. McSwain, Mary Brown. May, Ruth A. Articles titled "Esmeraldas" and "Mina Capillita," c.

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Cooper, Donald B. Vellum bound, l. Includes wills, inventories, etc. Some certified copies. Goldstein, Marcus S. Typescript, 89pp. Santa Rita Mining Company Zacatecas. Letter copy books, Circulars and directives, Primer libro de providencias , Leather folder, 52l. Segundo libro de providencias , Leather folder, Leather folder, 41l. The indian burial record is the final [such?

Archeological items from the Mexican-American War , Los Pastores. Photocopy, l. Samples of rocks and minerals, Presented to the Latin American Collection in Stored in Realia Collection. Terminan hasta con una carta dirigida a Don Felix Cuevas a Cocolapan. Manuscripts, A collection of manuscript documents related to nationalized Church properties in Mexico. Espinoza, Manuel. Both were originally found in the book Manuel Espinoza : obras : metaforas de utopia cataloged at ND E85 A4 Heard, Dorothy Whitehurst. The original is cataloged at GZ Jourdan, Nell.

Morales , Heritage Press, Xylographs from Paraiba, Brazil, N. Hidalgo Insurgency. Documents regarding the Hidalgo Insurgency, , 4 items. Cuesta, Jorge, Paz, Octavio, A collection of manuscript documents related to Juan E. Pellicer, Carlos, ? Letters and works, Torres Bodet, Jaime, Correspondence with Octavio Barreda, Gaceta extraordinaria de Mexico 6 julio Typescript copy. Typescript in English. Paredes R. Photocopy of manuscript and typescript, both in English. Merigo, Juan.

Collection of documents, Photostats of documents loaned by Sr. Juan Merigo, Mexican Consul. Documents from AGN relating to foreigners in Mexico, Typescript copies of various expedientes from the Secretaria de Relaciones Exteriores. Archivo Nacional de Colombia. Salon de la Colonia Caciques e Indios. Minas del Choco. Bound photocopies of documents. Paso y Troncoso Collection. This is an RG, but the original is not at UT. Letters from Catarino E.

Garza, Miguel A. Hoops, Richard. Collection on revolutionary government of El Salvador, Rodman, Selden, Selden Rodman was an American author and art critic. A collection of his papers may be found at the Yale University Library. Lacerda, Carlos. Correspondence on Haiti, [3 folders]. Correspondence with Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. Weaver, Kathleen. Interview with Magda Portal, [3 folders]. Muro Arias, Luis F. Farias, Luis. Don Andres Lopes de La Ara en [leather bound account book].

Evans, David LeCount. Documents on the possibility of oil deposits in Haiti, , Correspondence and reports on the possibility of oil in Haiti. Correspondents include Evans, Laurence Hammond, C. Zivley, V. International Consultants, Inc. Very early original diary from San Antonio, Texas, written by Florencia Leal through at least , perhaps another hand Westminster School District of Orange County, et al" Collection of Mexican documents that originated from missionaries working on the Mexico Mission of the Presbyterian Church.

Robinson Family. Haiti correspondence, Group of 37 letters written by Mrs. Robinson and her teen-age daughter Lill the wife and child of U. Marine Officer A. Robinson stationed in Haiti during the American occupation. They write from Port Au Prince, telling in detail of their life in Haiti at the time. Letters from Mrs.

Robinson to James Marshall Robinson, Articles, Daves, Larry.