Interested in a more detailed overview of how to combine narrative with gameplay? Wondering if classic Hollywood storytelling techniques might apply to the creation of serious games and simulations? Nick Iuppa has 40 years experience as a production executive, writer and interactive designer for entertainment and industry. For more about Nick…. End to End Game Development is the second book Terry Borst has co-authored on the subject of serious game and simulation development, based on his narrative scripting and design work in the field during the decade.
For more about Terry…. Game must not be on MSU list. Final grades will reflect the extent to which you have demonstrated understanding of the material and completed the assigned work. The base level grade will be a "B" which indicates that the basic objectives for presentations and project have been met. A grade of an "A" will indicate significant achievement beyond the basic objectives. A grade of a "C" will indicate not all basic objectives were met, but work was satisfactory for credit.
No incomplete grades will be assigned unless there exist exceptional, extenuating circumstances. Attendance Regular class attendance and active participation is expected. Each student could at this time change their degree of agreement or disagreement with each statement. The goal is to verify that the student's experience participating in the 3L game changed his or her knowledge related to the Lean philosophy.
In each statement on this list Appendix A , the participant chose a unique alternative to express their opinion.
Before the 3L game, a range of responses with scores from 1 to 5 was on the list. A value of 1 undesirable was assigned when the student completely disagreed with a true statement or when the student agreed completely with a false statement. On the other hand, the value 5 desirable was assigned when the student completely disagreed with a false statement or when the student agreed completely with a true statement.
The scale was changed in the list delivered after the 3L game. To be able to measure the increase of the student's conviction to agree or disagree with the statement, the range of answers was changed to scores between 0 and 6. The value 0 was assigned when the student, after the 3L game, further increased his conviction agreeing completely with a false statement or disagreeing completely with a true statement. In these cases, the 3L game would have further induced the student to the misinterpretation of the theory. Similarly, the value 6 was assigned when the student increased his conviction about the right choices.
The responses of groups, before and after the 3L game, were compared in order to test whether there was a significant increase in the knowledge of the students. When analyzing the responses before and after each group, it was observed that their average had increased after the application of 3L game, as can be seen in Figure 6. The justification for the use of this test is because samples are paired and nonparametric. The hypothesis test was defined as:. H 0 : The difference between the score obtained after and before the 3L game on group n DG n , is less than or equal to zero;.
H 1 : The difference between the score obtained after and before the 3L game, of group n DG n , is greater than zero. Thus, for all groups, the null hypothesis H 0 must be rejected. This result shows that all groups showed a significant increase in learning. That is, in general, the groups improved their scores significantly, after participating in the 3L game. This change indicated greater knowledge of the subjects covered.
The answers are separated into predetermined groups in accordance with the following criteria: Attention A , Relevance R , Confidence C and Satisfaction S. The answers are scored using a Likert scale from 1 to 5 1 - strongly disagree to 5 - completely agree. The maximum possible score in each criteria is obtained by multiplying the number of statements of this criteria by 5, and the minimum by 1.
The Alpha calculation of all respondents was 0. When the analysis was done by group G 1 , G 2 , G 3 , G 4 , the following respective alpha values were obtained: 0. Considering a desired Cronbach's alpha above 0. The authors of this study normalized these values, thereby generating a motivation parameter MP , as shown in Equation 2. Thus, there has been a satisfactory degree of motivation as shown in Figure 7. In the learning evaluation, the group G 3 , formed by students who had studied Lean philosophy before the 3L game, showed higher scores before the game.
However, their increase in the score was also significant. The group G 2 , formed by students who had not studied Lean philosophy before the 3L game, had the highest increase in scores Figure 6. This result showed that the game developed was able to successfully transmit the theory, even for students who had no prior knowledge on the subject.
These groups had different profiles, different age ranges and different levels of prior knowledge. Even with these different profiles, the results to motivation were similar and highly favorable for educators. The authors of this research attribute the positive results presented in the tests of learning and motivation to the following reasons:. The 3L game presents the theory T group and learning events E group in a well-distributed manner over the levels S group , as shown in Figure 5 ;.
Learning events of the 3L game do not generate obvious results to students, requiring reflection and team discussions on the experiences they had;. Teamwork is a strong point of the 3L game. Students have well-defined functions and can see the impact of their actions on the team result. This research presented a detailed description of an SG developed for teaching Lean philosophy.
The preparation of the levels of this game came from the need to include theoretical elements and predefined learning events. Four groups of students were considered in this study. Each group had different characteristics, such as the age and the level of prior knowledge of Lean philosophy. The results indicated that the four groups showed positive results in learning and motivation. Finally, this study highlights that the use of an SG can improve the process of teaching and learning, allowing a good level of student learning in a pleasant and motivating environment.
That is the after version. In order to obtain the before version must remove the highlight options for each statement Scores 0 and 6. How to cite this article: Leal, F. Learning lean with lego: developing and evaluating the efficacy of a serious game. Production, 27 spe , e Badurdeen, F. Teaching lean manufacturing with simulation and games: a survey and future directions.
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Books End-to-End Game Development: Creating Independent Serious Games and Simulations from Start
Computers in Human Behavior, 27 2 , James, A. Engaging imagination: helping students become creative and reflective thinkers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Keller, J. Development and use of the ARCS model of instructional design. Journal of Instructional Development, 10 3 , Kiili, K. Foundation for problem-based gaming.
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Constructionist Gaming: Understanding the Benefits of Making Games for Learning
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