Noah Rodriguez, por hacer todo lo posible para ayudar a mi madre a superar su enfermedad. Gracias a mi hermana Elsa, por manejar todo lo relacionado con este funeral y por darle a mi madre un nieto. Y finalmente, gracias a usted, Mami. I only have five minutes to give this eulogy, even though I need a lifetime. So all I can do is give thanks. Thank you to all of you who are here today to honor my Mami.
Thank you to my grandparents, Jose Miranda and Marcela Fernandez, for raising such a kind daughter. Thank you to my father, Lorenzo, for marrying an amazing woman. Thank you to all the Miranda aunts, uncles, and cousins for always loving my Mami. To the Arellano aunts, uncles and cousins for accepting her as one of your own. Thank you to Dr. Noah Rodriguez, for doing everything possible to help my mother through her illness. To my brother-in-law, Bernie, for being like a third son to my mom. Thank you to my sister Alejandrina, for taking the lead to help my mom this past year. Thank you to my sister Elsa, for handling everything associated with this funeral and giving my mom a grandchild.
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Thank you to my brother Gabriel, for keeping Mami company when she needed it the most. And finally, gracias a usted, Mami. Secondly, narrative theory allows us to see social actors, including translators, as real-life individuals rather than simply theoretical abstractions. Thirdly, narrative theory allows us to explain behaviour in dynamic rather than static terms — it recognises the contradictions produced by being embedded in crisscrossing and sometimes competing narratives, and encourages us to question and reflect on the narratives that come into contact with us and therefore shape our behaviour and worldview.
Finally, narrative theory recognises the power of social structures and the workings of the system, but does not preclude the potential for active resistance as an individual or as a group Baker, This thesis rationalises the use of narrative theory by emphasising the following strengths within the chosen theoretical framework. As established in Baker , narrative theory allows the researcher not to privilege essentialist and reductive categories of identity. One of the main limitations of identity politics has been that it will traditionally group together individuals who share certain characteristics while at the same time, disregarding any variation within the group Baker, This is particularly important inasmuch as these authors are building their life narratives as a place of resistance and radicalism.
Moreover, Baker outlines the ways in which narrative theory allows us to move forward from the dichotomy between foreignising and domesticating strategies proposed by Lawrence Venuti Since narrative theory allows us to explain behaviour in dynamic rather than static terms, there is no need to categorise translation choices into macro-categories, such as foreignising vs. Even within a text, the translation choices may shift between these categories, since the focus here is on reflecting and questioning the narratives that we come into contact with and thinking about how they shape our behaviour.
In the context of this thesis, narrativity as elaborated in Baker will be the main framework underpinning a study of i the construction of the three authors personal narratives of political radicalism and female subjectivity in the source text, ii the English translation of these narratives through a series of para textual comparative analyses between the source text ST and the target text TT , and iii the mirroring practices of peripheralisation and canonisation.
In the context of the core-periphery framework described in Chapter 2, the translation of source texts coming from a place of peripheralisation will be controlled by the consecrating and canonising agency of the world of letters, an agency that could potentially and in fact does select and reframe personal narratives in order to better resonate with those public narratives that a reader from the Anglophone market is assumed to subscribe to. This perspective allows us to take advantage of the second strength of narrative theory, as established by Baker , without necessarily having to focus on whom the person is translating.
This thesis accepts the agency of the translator as an individual and social actor in the circulation and promotion of narratives. Introduction to the Proposed Data Set Somers and Gibson distinguish between four types of narrative: i ontological, ii public, iii conceptual, and iv meta-narratives. This typology allows them to emphasise the role of narratives and narrativity in the construction of social identities, and consequently, their ability to explain the practices of human beings as social actors Somers and Gibson, Public narratives, in turn, are shared stories that are both elaborated and circulated by a group, also shaping their behaviour.
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This group can be as small or as large as necessary i. Third, conceptual narratives are theoretical constructs elaborated within scholarly settings to account for an object of study. Finally, to conclude, meta-narratives are defined as highly influential stories with a very elevated degree of geographical or temporal reach and a high level of abstraction, i.
It becomes clear that personal narratives are both constrained by the frames derived from public narratives without this, it will remain impossible for others to interpret our construction of the self and by the social roles and spaces public narratives invite us to inhabit. However, in addition, it is necessary to note that the maintenance and elaboration of these public narratives can also be undermined by contesting personal narratives Baker, 4. Consequently, Baker briefly states that memoirs and autobiographies and in the case of this thesis, also testimonios of leaders or intellectuals whose personal narratives are at odds with the shared narratives of the target audience offer a rich source of data to be interrogated using the framework of narrative theory.
These personal narratives, particularly in the context of a core-periphery system, serve as a way to also introduce the public narrative in which the author embeds themselves— a public narrative that explains to others who they are, what they do and why they do it Baker, 6.
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However, this is not always the case. However, it is important for the translator and most importantly for a fair-minded reader of the translated text to acknowledge that deploying a domesticating translation strategy means supporting a hierarchised structure that not only perpetuates power structures that maintain the control of the centre, but also hides this practice behind expectations of international recognition and false assumptions of universality. Universal literary capital grows by a process of annexation in which translation is needed, but the mediating agents between the centre and the periphery tend to neutralise or renarrate peripheral works systematically, by imposing central categories of 33This conceptualisation of translation leads Venuti to suggest that translators — and other mediating agents within the publishing field — always exercise a choice concerning the degree and direction of the violence at work in their practice.
Concurrently, renarration has been defined as the enactment of a shift in the interplay between personal and public narratives promoted by the original text. Faced with injustice, war, violence, and gender and sexual inequality, these authors cannot but problematise an interpretation of the past that introduces these circumstances as their only possible option of a present. Their testimonios and fictionalisations of history allowed them to bring repressed histories to the front page.
All three writers began to speak out at a critical moment in which the hegemonic powers had lost their ability to persuade Central American peoples to remain silent and had turned to violence to maintain the social order. In line with this, Chapter 4 seeks to determine if the scope of renarration can be accounted for in terms of the location of the texts and to what extent.
My interest in this work lies in the different positions of the participants as agents within the world of letters. This book has been widely studied as the product of a peripheral writer within the world of literature lending her voice to an already dead Salvadorean guerrilla and to all those other Salvadorean women participating in the struggle and with whom the writer identifies herself. Of course, these analyses of No me agarran viva consciously overlook the collaborative production of this text and the role that Flakoll played in it. It is important to note here how after the triumph of the Sandinista revolution in , cultural politics in Nicaragua focused on democratising culture.
In the context of 35 See Section 4. Her position both within Nicaraguan literature and within the literary world, the status of her translator and the position of the publisher within the world of letters will all form part of the elements studied to locate this text. However, a closer look at the shifts of the narratives in the English translation will show a more complex situation.
On another note, the texts included in my data set also trouble boundaries between literary genres. Not only has the categorisation of literary genres always been part of academic debates about literature, but genericness is also one of the core-features of narrativity discussed in Subsection 3. In the context of this thesis, categorisations such as testimonio, memoirs, autobiographies or fictionalised accounts of these very subgenres are to be understood as part of the paratext that accompanies the text and pre- defines the expectations of the reader.
In line with this, Chapter 5 continues to investigate the scope of renarration as part of the process of canonisation, and it aims to evaluate the role played by genre-specific conventions in this process. Genre-specific conventions are further defined within the confines of this thesis as the set of conventions favoured by the publishing industry to create a framework that guides our interpretation of a text, encouraging us to project certain expectations onto it.
They are professionals, guerrillas, lovers, mothers, etc. In her fictionalisations of history, Belli participates in a deconstructive and reconstructive process, challenging historical representations of female subjectivity and recovering a legacy of resistance. Patriarchal narratives are deeply imbedded in narrative forms and cultural traditions memoirs, autobiographies, bildungsroman, and so on , and Belli appropriates them and toys with them to make them woman-centred. Only then will they be able to challenge stereotypically assigned female roles and start acting as agents of their own personal and national history.
Additionally, La mujer habitada is different from other testimonial novels in that it attacks patriarchy just as much as it does dictatorship. Belli takes a particularly gendered stance in her work, describing the double marginality of her main character, Lavinia, who is both a guerrilla and a woman. I therefore agree with Barbas-Rhoden 57 , in that if pro-Sandinista testimonios in the s often projected a vision of what the revolution would mean for the people in Nicaragua, La mujer habitada problematised that which the Sandinista revolution will come to be.
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I argue here that Belli consciously deconstructed literary genre conventions by using fiction to build her testimonio, a genre otherwise based on the telling of a personal and collective truth, in order to find a space in which to study the limits of the same revolution that she loved and supported. For instance, McGowan , who understands this text to be an autobiography, states that it expands the possibilities of formal autobiography through adding testimonial elements.
She states that testimonio is part of both the poetry and the prose within this text. Kimberley A. From the point of view of narrative theory, this is particularly important because it encourages a study of testimonio as both i promoting personal and public narratives of social and political radicalism with an international reader in mind, and ii being shaped by the political, historical, social and economic context of production that canonised this genre. Mediated testimonios have been traditionally defined as a form of writing in which a professional writer interviews a subaltern subject and uses that material to produce a politically charged life narrative Nance, Taking this mediation as a central element of the production of testimonio, one can argue that this genre erodes the traditional centrality of the author.
The question of authorship is problematised by the ambiguous collaboration between the editor and the testimonial narrator. This editor is generally an intellectual who collaborates with a subaltern subject to produce a written text from a series of oral interviews.
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This collaboration also has big implications when one tries to position this genre either within the field of literature or within that of ethnographical studies. It challenges more conventional literary forms for the representation of subaltern peoples, since it is formed not only on the margins of a colonial situation, but also on the margins of the spoken and written word Gugelberger and Kearney, In line with its fluid definition, the fact that testimonio derives from and overlaps with very different disciplines history, ethnography, literature , crossing literary genre lines and involving eclectic types of discourse, also characterises the critical analysis of the genre as intersectional and liminal.
Therefore, works of testimonio not only sit across different systems, but they have also been critically received by very different scholarly fields and read from a diverse range of perspectives. A second area of interest in the study of testimonio has been its construction as a more or less mediated form of discourse Sklodowska The mediated nature of this genre, in which the narrator is not always the author of the text, encourages academic readings around consciousness-raising and the representation of the Other — approaches undertaken by scholars such as Beverley , Zimmerman , , Sommer , , and Gugelberger , And still, it is also possible to argue that those subversive elements have been appropriated by the Western canon, thus naturalising them.
In this context, after decades of scholarly debate and analysis, the interest in the genre of testimonio has faded, since it no longer conveys the state of emergency that it once held Maier, 4. She claims that translators, historians and ethnographers face the same issues of representation and truth Lather, Unlike that of the translator, the mediation of the ethnographer has raised frequent debates on authority, voice and subalternity. This process is then followed by yet another less-studied moment of intervention, which is that of the translation into English.
Core-Features of Narrativity The analysis of my data set as reviewed in Section 3. This section is concerned with offering a review of the core-features of narrativity that will underpin my analytical chapters. Baker presents and develops eight features of narrative derived from Somers , and , Somers and Gibson , and Bruner , but only four of these features narrativity will be discussed in this chapter, since they are understood as the most productive for the research at hand. Moreover, any of these aspects of narrativity are possibly re framed, undermined or foregrounded through the practice of translation.
Selective Appropriation All the participants in the core-periphery system that defines the limits of this thesis writers, translators, publishers, readers are understood as social actors. As such, they all have a series of beliefs, principles and values to help them compose their worldview, position themselves within society and make behavioural decisions. Whilst Somers suggests that this process of selection is always thematically driven, Baker highlights that there is more to selective appropriation than simply the theme of the narrative.
Acknowledging that all stories are selective representations of reality encourages us to question whether our narration is representing reality in stereotypical terms or whether it is introducing unfamiliar contradictions that promote both critical thinking and a place from where the subaltern subject will be able to speak.
Thus, selective appropriation seems to be one of the central strategies causing what has been defined in Chapter 2 as the internal level of peripheralisation. Moreover, these patterns of omission and addition may also suppress, accentuate or elaborate resonance with a larger narrative in which the narrative promoted by the text could be embedded. This aspect of selective appropriation will therefore respond to the interplay between the personal narratives and the public narratives in which they were originally created and those which they might end up resonating with after the canonisation process.
This statement relates back to the theoretical framework of the thesis: the core-periphery model in which the world of letters is inscribed and, more particularly for this analysis, the external level of peripheralisation that has a direct relationship with the systemic working of the publishing field and the Anglophone market, as explained in Section 2. Baker also claims that, although scholars of literary translation have long been interested in patterns of omission that result from the exercise of censorship and self-censorship, they do not normally approach this issue from a narrative perspective Baker, The assumptions and miscommunications created by the asymmetrical power relations of the world of letters will be problematised in this thesis through the application of narrative theory to a comparative para textual analysis of the selected data set, as the aim of this thesis is to cover this possible gap in previous scholarship.
Causal Emplotment Causal emplotment is necessary for any event to take on narrative meaning. Since causal emplotment charges events with moral and ethical implications, some scholars have argued that narrativity is inherently driven to moralise reality. In brief, causal emplotment means that even people subscribing to two competing narratives could agree on the way certain events took place but disagree on how these events relate to each other and what motivates their participants Baker, Baker argues that causal emplotment is perhaps the most important feature of narrativity, because it is identifying the cause of a set of events that helps us determine the course of action we will take to respond to them.
In addition to this, causal emplotment is often signalled merely through the sequence and ordering of events Baker, Within the chronological order of each of these sections, our source text inserts chapters that break this temporal sequence. Since the causal emplotment of the narrative allows us to weigh and explain the events in order to form an opinion, it is possible to argue that by breaking their temporal sequence, the relations between the different events narrated in this text and their weight within the overarching narrative of the plot has been changed.
Within the context of a very complicated pregnancy, Belli conveys a strong criticism of how the doctors treat all the women as uneducated and clueless girls and withhold important information from them, information that they deserve as subjects and as human beings. It emphasises the agency of women, an agency constrained by the doctors in Chapter 35 and fully embodied by Belli in Chapter This allows Belli to explain her decision of opting for an abortion without breaking her empowering conceptualisation of motherhood discussed in Section 4. Relationality Relationality means that it is impossible for the human mind to make sense of isolated events or of a set of events that are not constituted as a coherent narrative Baker, Relationality has direct implications for translation since a straightforward importation of parts of other narratives into our own is as impossible as the straightforward translation of a text into a different culture.
For example, the use of a term in translation that is already loaded with relational meaning in the target culture can seriously disrupt the significance of the source narrative. For example, the word 38 See Section 5. This connotation is something that works very well in the Central American context where women were claiming not only equality in social and political terms but also in gender and sexual terms. It was used in Cuba after the triumph of the revolution and among Sandinista supporters to signal equality, democratic treatment and respect among fellow citizens.
Me costaba me odd, provocative looks which I did my trabajo creer que lo hiciera bajo las best to avoid. Not only is the translation into English breaking any resonance to this narrative, but it is also using quite a derogatory term, equating women to wives, as if this were the only possible role for them, and presenting them as a possession of their husbands. Moreover, as exemplified by ST3. These acts of translation will be understood within the confines of the analytical chapters as strategies of framing by labelling. Table 3. In , the Sandinista movement saw in him a potential ally, although they were separated by his adamant opposition to armed struggle.
Unfortunately, he was assassinated in Managua when he was on his way to La Prensa. His death prompted the rage of Nicaraguans everywhere, and whilst ST3. Genericness Genericness is one of the features of narrativity proposed by Bruner Bruner defines genres as any recongnisable kind of narrative, and he only provides examples of literary genres such as comedy, tragedy, Bildungsroman, romance, satire, etc. Baker, Paradoxically, the initial construction of testimonio as a genre raises important issues of representativity, authority and truth that should be analysed as part of a first moment of intervention.
It becomes impossible, then, to deny that there is an ideology behind the text. Alternatively, it could also be argued that she is not afraid to tell that whole truth, but resists doing so, claiming her place outside the silence of the periphery by placing strategic secrets that she refuses to reveal Sommer, This thesis will draw on the concept of framing to highlight the strategies that used around and within the translated text, constituting in some instances what I have identified as the internal level of peripheralisation.
Although the first conceptualisation of frames established by Goffman is already accepting the agency of the participants by clarifying that they not only perceive frames, but also act upon them, his interest in the concept of framing seems limited to questions of interpretation by the participant rather than the active intervention to actually frame an event in one way or another. Consequently, any act of framing in this context could be defined as an agential and conscious attempt to activate particular frames and attach specific meanings to a set of texts.
These meanings will be negotiated through the interaction between the source and target context of the cultures, the text itself and the participants in the process of translation and potential canonisation, all of which are included in the core-periphery system in which the world of letters takes place.
Framing mechanisms used by translators operate at different levels and will be structured in this section as i paratextual framing, which will cover the study of titles, images, prefaces, footnotes, and cover blurbs of the text; and ii textual framing, which will cover patterns of text choices and the omission or addition of specific materials to the translated texts. Werner Wolf includes titles, epigraphs, footnotes, and postscripts in her study of paratextual framings.
The first category will include those framing devices used by the author of ST to support her argument, whilst the second category will include all those devices that have been altered or added to the framed — in this case, translated — text, independently of their original design Wolf, And as such the analytical chapters will offer a para textual analysis of my data set. Due to their highly visible and central position, titles function as a compass that guides the readers through the plot. Titles are regularly and deliberately employed by writers, editors, translators and publishers to activate particular narrative frames for them to interpret the work at hand.
Although there is a clear lack of analysis of this work from the perspective of translation studies, the centrality of the English translation in academic and activist circles has led a number of scholars to briefly acknowledge the difference between both titles. It is very expressive in revolutionary slogans because here she talks about revolutionary consciousness, conciencia de lucha, as if the Maya were not conscious of their situation but passive and opposed to change, as Marxist thought would assert.
Indeed, this is the case of all the scholars, in that even those from departments of Latin American Studies choose to cite and reflect on the English translation, sometimes even mentioning that the translation is altering the original, but never reflecting on the impact of this manipulation, whilst paradoxically discussing other elements such as subaltern voices, the position of the intellectual and the narrating subject, truth, and so on.
This thesis understands that the differences between these two titles have significant consequences from the perspective of narrative theory. Textual Framing Textual framing refers to those textual strategies implemented by the translator in order to reshape and manipulate the original narratives. Some examples of labelling have already been studied in this chapter as part of Subsection 3. Finally, Baker presents the positioning of participants as the last example of the textual framing strategy.
The ways in which participants of any interaction are positioned or position themselves in relation to each other and to the event narrated is also fundamental to the feature of relationality. Inasmuch as Baker highlights the fact that individual narratives never exist in a vacuum, in isolation of larger narratives circulating in that society, I claim that the narratives included in this data set are not simply transferred to and promoted in the centre.
They are re framed to better resonate with those narratives circulating in the centre of the world of letters and, in many cases, shared by an assumed reader. Introduction As established in Section 2. Casanova claims that it is necessary to define the position of a text in three ways in order to fully understand its location within the world of letters.
First of all, one has to describe the position that the source language and the target language occupy within the universe of literary languages. Then the translated author needs to be located within the world literary space in two different ways.
Firstly, in terms of the place that they occupy within their national literary space and, secondly, regarding the place that this national space occupies within the world system. And finally, the position of the translator and other consecrating agents needs to be determined. According to these three positions and their centrality or peripherality within the literary field, Casanova designs her study of the different functions of translation, i.
But the position of the translated text and its legitimacy will depend not only on the relation between source language and target language or the location of the translated authors but also on the position held by the translator-consecrator Casanova, In the latter case, the translated piece requires the involvement of mediators with greater symbolic capital to be fully legitimised, whether in the form of a preface by a recognised writer or a positive critique from a prestigious critic.
The paratextual analysis of the dataset will bring light to this type of strategies. However, in this framework, Casanova overlooks the scope of the consecration process: a process that is always controlled by the centre. The location of these texts as understood by Casanova is quite different. Their publishing context is also different: the first was published by a small and independent UK publisher, whilst the latter was released by one of the largest US publishing houses.
English holds a central position. For a discussion of the world system of translation see Section 2. Although she has been in voluntary exile for a long part of her life, she considers El Salvador as her homeland. Craft 3 points to Cenizas de Izalco — her first novel, written in collaboration with her husband Darwin J. Her work is highly recognised within academic circles, but it is important to note that her poetry has traditionally received more critical attention than her prose, where she frequently collaborated with her husband Flakoll Velasquez, 2.
US foreign policy during the sixties in Latin America and Vietnam further discouraged him to the point that he finally left. The reasons behind this decision are never openly explained, nor has the fact itself ever been acknowledged by other academics. Table 4. After the first novelistic chapter, in which the last hours of Eugenia are fictionalised 43, the format of the testimonio changes and each chapter is organised around a theme: induction to revolutionary activities, married life, machismo, motherhood and children in the revolution, etc.
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Therefore, this effort of remembering, of narration, is a collective one Barbas-Rhoden, And it is in this context of collectivity that the disappearance of Flakoll within the English translation is most difficult to understand from an academic perspective. Bearing the above in mind, I advocate here the usefulness of applying to this text the concept of location Casanova, , as discussed in Section 4. The position of the source and target language has been answered from the outset of this thesis, since all the texts analysed are translated from a semi-peripheral language into a central one.
The location of the authors within the World of Letters has been established in the paragraphs above. Thus, it is time to turn our attention to the third level of location posed by Casanova. Firstly, as has been explained, the English and canonised translation completely erases the presence of Flakoll, preventing Anglophone readers from understanding this work as a collaboration.
Secondly, this decision can be considered to be a conscious one. It is easier to market such a politically and sexually subversive text if it is written by a Salvadorean woman, and not by her husband, particularly when this husband is a US citizen, the very country whose Cold War master narrative this book is trying to disrupt. When comparing Figure 4. Information copied from the following directory: www. And even there, as seen in Figure 4.
The narrating testimonial voices lack cultural and epistemological authority, partly because they are circumscribed to orality rather than the written word. Consequently, the genre of testimonio, its production and reception, can be understood as a means to authorise voices from the periphery Beverley, This is therefore a literary genre characterised by its ethical and political commitment, foregrounding not only the personal narratives of the narrator but also the public narratives of the political radicalism they seek to promote.
Therefore, it charges the events depicted with moral and ethical significance, it allows people to moralise reality, and as such it becomes a central part of a socio-narrative study of a politically charged genre such as testimonio. The comparative readings of the paratextual elements introduced in Figure 4.
Therefore, this section is in no way denying the political nature of the original No me agarran viva , but rather establishes the ways in which shifts in causal emplotment of the translated narrative are highlighting the role of the US as facilitator of the violence faced by the people in El Salvador and emphasising the importance of armed resistance as the only means to end the struggle. Figure 4. On the other hand, the labelling of the ST centres the narrative in the abnegated role of women that would do and have done everything and anything to liberate their people, as seen in Figure 4.
And thus, it is established that even if one might not agree with their political ideology, it is impossible not to value their heroic and absolutely selfless actions. These two sections continue to frame this narrative in the same manner as the elements previously discussed. Hopkinson discusses more than once throughout her introduction how the legacy of this event has created, promoted and maintained certain stereotypes from both sides. She also analyses the ways in which this colonisation fostered a national situation in which the levels of poverty and brutality were unbearable.
Hopkinson focuses her preface on the ways in which the tactics of intimidation by the army had changed from the moment in which ST had been written, even though the carnage is still taking place However, indiscriminate bombings sponsored by the United States are now taking place in the countryside with a large number of civilian casualties. Hopkinson ends her preface arguing that this very change in the tactics employed by the army has been mirrored by those within the guerrilla movement.
However, even though their tactics may change, the ideology remains the same and therefore the narrative presents them as justified. At the end of , they produced their first operation and massacre in Chinanmequita and student unrest started anew. But mostly, Hopkinson explicitly underlines that the US involvement was there from the beginning, in ideology and in practice.
This added section ends establishing that it was against this very US-inspired narrative that various student organisations — like those with whom Eugenia was working with — were rebelling. This added information does not contradict the one that appears in ST, but it frames it in a way that reinforces the position of the participants in the narrative. It defines once again the Salvadorean army as mostly a mere puppet of the US, and both the army and the US are presented as reasons for the actions of the guerrillas, who were ultimately acting in self-defence.
To summarise, the para textual analysis above demonstrates how TT showcases the original public narrative that in ST claimed the uprising of the Salvadorean people and the armed struggle were the only and ethical alternative in that context. However, it also changes its causal emplotment to not only define the horrors perpetrated by the Salvadorean army and the oppression suffered by the people as cause for the uprising, but also to strongly underline the role of international politics in general, and the US in particular, in promoting such an oppressive context in the first place.
The rest of this section will be concerned with how the role of women was portrayed in the original text and then translated into English, particularly their participation in the armed struggle and the FMLN. In her feminist reading of No me agarran viva , Mary J. Tracey underlines that this symbol of new woman combines both a traditional feminine beauty with the masculine power granted by carrying her gun Tracey, These woman warriors have been frequently represented as willing to shift their sensuality, love and loyalty from just one man to the greater but still masculine whole of the nation state.
Instead, there are several instances, in which these women writers created a space in which the voices of real women from the guerrilla could be heard by publishing their interviews in books and magazines. However, and because most of the interviews with these guerrilleras were quite short, there was not enough space to comment, elaborate or contradict a life story that was now expected by the readership. As a result, the personal narratives of Latin American guerrilleras, even when from different countries and engaged in different struggles, seem to blend together into one collective voice that discusses all or most of the following elements: the guerrilleras are proud of developing their physical strength, they are confident leaders of both men and women, and they are quick to address the sexism that emerges in their units.
However, this is a decision only taken for the English translation, since the Spanish text does include a couple of black-and-white photographs that can be seen in Figure 4.
Moreover, and from the perspective of narrative theory, the aforementioned similarities between the narrated lives of different guerrilleras are easy to explain. Baker 29 defines personal narratives as the stories that we tell ourselves about our place in the world and our own personal history. These stories help us make sense of our own lives. In concrete terms, this means that the narrated lives of these guerrilleras contain labels and identifiable structures that have been disseminated through the revolutionary society to make sense of their own national experience.
This issue is discussed further in section 5. This testimonio promotes a public narrative of organisation and incorporation to the revolutionary struggle in which the gendered subject is constituted as a full participant, as an equal one. Did the participation of Central American women in the national liberation movements lead them to escape other forms of gender inequality, as had been promised to them?
Consequently, to say that women are to liberate themselves by means of incorporation into the revolutionary struggle is not a simple or full truth. Thus, some questions remain: What about their femaleness? Does femaleness have a place in the armed struggle, in the revolutionary public sphere?
These love letters are of considerable interest, since they create the only moment in this text where the reader has direct access to Eugenia and her personal narrative. I aim to highlight here the way in which in ST the language of these letters clearly divert from that of the rest of the text. In contrast with the rest of this testimonio, the language used in the letters is more sentimental, and less pragmatic or journalistic.
After visiting several Spanish cities this year, the Experiencia Verema travels to Alicante and Barcelona. The inscription is free but it must be done before November After the debate, there will be a showroom of producers and wine tasting paired with some snacks served by local restaurant Los Portales. A tour of the Cooperative Albariza in Trebujena has been organized for the following day. The proceeds of the event will be donated to build lodgings for 40 orphan children belonging to the Maasai community in Arusha Tanzania.
It is an opportunity to taste wines from the latest vintage made by 30 bodegas from different regions and paired with tapas and dishes made by a bunch of restaurants in the neighbourhood. The tasting also includes some of the wines made by the same team under the brand Sandhi, with Chardonnay and Pinot Noir.
The tasting will start with two Sandhi whites, Dom. Dj Bohemian Soul will play some tunes during the day. Hours and As well as the wine tunnel, the event will feature the 1st Tasting in Teams Championship whose winners will represent Spain in the Championnat du Monde de Degustation , organized by La Revue du Vin de France. Hours: for the wine tunnel and for the championship.