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He's been great. You add in the fact that on top of the production, he's a guy that we lean on in a lot of ways, that he's just a phenomenal teammate and a guy that everybody pulls for. It's just a great feeling for everyone. He truly, truly deserves it.

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Berrios hopes to find his All-Star form after going winless in his last four starts. The year-old has faced the A's only twice in his career, going with a 6. He didn't get a decision in his only previous outing in Oakland, a loss last September. Berrios will be opposed by A's rookie right-hander Tanner Anderson , 7.

Twins send Berrios to face A's in search of series win

The A's could use an improved outing from the year-old as they've exhausted their bullpen in the first two games of the tightly contested series. With interim closer Liam Hendricks having already pitched two innings in the game, Oakland rushed Blake Treinen back into action in his first day off the injured list, sending him out to pitch the 12th inning of Wednesday's tie game.

Treinen retired just one of the five men he faced, allowing Garver's tie-breaking hit before exiting with one out and the bases loaded. Oakland's eighth pitcher of the game, Brian Schlitter, bailed out his star teammate by getting C. Cron to hit into an inning-ending double play. A's manager Bob Melvin made it clear Wednesday that Treinen will be eased back into action, making it unlikely he will be used in the series finale.

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photographs of twins capture how alike (and different) they really are

Crowd chants 'equal pay,' gets reaction from Morgan. Confusion over testimony as Dems plan Mueller hearings. Wimbledon official calls Duchess Meghan a 'nightmare' due to minor faux pas. This instrument has previously been validated in Denmark, and it has been shown to discriminate levels of functional abilities among community-dwelling elderly persons through the use of questions about tiredness and need for personal assistance with regard to functional abilities 4 The instrument was extended to include assessment of need for equipment or aids in relation to functional abilities, based on results showing that equipment and aids can improve functional abilities in elderly persons All the items from the Katz Index of Activities of Daily Living were included 18 , as well as questions about the ability to see and hear, and about more demanding activities such as running.

The functional abilities section comprised 26 questions, which are summarized in Table 1. All the items referred to what the participant was able to do on the day of the interview.

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To identify meaningful quantitative subscales, we factor analyzed the 26 items in the total twin sample. Therefore, a two-factor solution was adopted Table 1. The first factor loaded highest on items dealing with ability to walk, run, climb stairs, and carry weights and was interpreted to reflect a dimension of strength. The second factor loaded highest on items dealing with ability to dress and wash oneself and get in and out of bed, and was interpreted to reflect a dimension of agility. Scores for the two dimensions were calculated by taking the average response of items loading highest on the factor or having judged to be relevant for that dimension.

The internal consistency reliability estimate for the Strength scale was.

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  • The reliability estimates for the Agility scale were also the same for men and women and equaled. These values indicate very reliable scales. The correlation was. Finally, a total score was computed by summing the items on the Strength and Agility subscales.


    Age-sex effects can bias analyses of twin resemblance Therefore, scores were adjusted for the effects of age and sex by subtracting an age-sex-specific mean Table 2. Because of the small number of dizygotic opposite-sex pairs, all twin resemblance analyses were restricted to same-sex twins. Variance components were estimated from the observed twin variances and covariances by the method of maximum likelihood using the Mx software The observed twin variances and covariances were stratified on sex and age groups.

    To correct for unequal variances between twin 1 and twin 2 in some of the smaller subgroups, we double-entered the data and adjusted the degrees of freedom accordingly. Functional ability scores decreased with age; this result was most pronounced on the Strength scale Table 2. To assess how much of the variability in the functional ability scores that could be attributed to interviewer effect, we completed a one-way analysis of variance ANOVA , with interviewer as independent variable. We found that only a negligible proportion of the variation could be attributed to interviewer effect, although the interviewer effect also included potential regional differences because each interviewer covered only one or two counties.

    For female participants, all the monozygotic intraclass correlations were statistically significantly larger than 0 and consistently exceeded the corresponding dizygotic correlations for all three scales in both age groups Table 3. The female twin correlations were higher compared with the male twin correlations, and the correlations among the female twin pairs aged 80 years and older exceeded those of the to year-old twin pairs. When the analyses were restricted to the monozygotic twin pairs in which the two twins had not lived together for more than 50 years and who currently were in contact only monthly or more rarely, no decrease in monozygotic correlation was observed for either men or women.

    Biometrical analyses revealed that for all three scales Agility, Strength and Total scales , a model including additive genetic factors and nonshared environment was the best fitting model lowest Akaike Information Criteria 22 when parameter estimates were allowed to vary by sex and age group Table 4. Thus, both the dominance D and the shared environment C factors were not needed to account for the observed data. Hierarchical models were analyzed to test whether the relative magnitude of genetic and environmental influences differs across age.

    The fit of the full model estimating separate parameters in the two age groups was compared with the fit of a constrained model specifying equality of the genetic and environmental parameters across age groups.

    Similar analyses were made for sex differences. For the Total scale, both the age and the sex differences were significantly different. For the Strength scale, no significant differences over age were observed, while for the Agility scale, the sex differences were nonsignificant Table 5. As seen in Table 2 , there are age differences in the phenotypic variances and also small sex differences.

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    The heritability estimates were uniformly low in the small male sample. Because functional ability level is associated with mortality and because we found that the heritability for functional abilities increases with age, we would expect the poorest functioning for twins who lost their co-twin at older ages, but not necessarily at younger ages. Therefore, we compared the functional abilities of twins with living versus deceased co-twins Table 6.

    This analysis revealed that the overall significant effect was in both cases due to the relatively poor functioning of twins whose co-twins died at or after age 80, because no significant difference in functioning was observed for those twins whose co-twins had died prior to the age of Moreover, the same pattern of results emerged when the analysis was restricted to those who were 80 years and older, so that these results are not an artifact of the manner by which the data were adjusted for age.

    The estimate that one third to one half of the variation in functional abilities in women aged 80 years and older is caused by genetic factors could be an underestimation for several reasons. This means that temporary deviations caused by current or recent acute diseases or accidents, for example, will introduce additional variability that will tend to decrease twin similarity.

    Second, any measurement error or interviewer effect will also lead to decreased twin similarity although the analyses did not suggest that these had any major impact. As in other studies of nonresponding twin pairs, there seems to be an excess of dizygotic pairs in which the members of the pair were especially discordant in their health profile. Apparently, very dissimilar twins who most often are dizygotic have less interest in participating in twin studies, perhaps to avoid comparisons This selection bias tends to increase dizygotic correlations and hence to provide conservative heritability estimates.

    The survey did not include objectively measured functional abilities, but self-reported degrees of disability have generally been found to be reliable and valid 14 We used an extension of a validated Danish instrument for assessing functional abilities among elderly persons. Twin studies are based on the assumption that the degree of intrapair environmental similarity is equal in monozygotic and dizygotic pairs.

    If, in fact, the environmental similarity is greater among monozygotic twins, an overestimation of the genetic influence occurs. However, it seems unlikely that shared environment should be of importance for these twins, the greater part of whom separated more than a half century ago. This conclusion was supported by the finding that the monozygotic correlations did not decrease when the analyses were restricted to twin pairs who had separated more than 50 years ago and who had limited recent contact. The less pronounced genetic effects found among the to year-old women could reflect true age differences in heritability, although from an evolutionary point of view, there should be no reason to expect large differences between the two age groups because they are both well beyond reproductive age.

    A cohort effect cannot be ruled out, although it seems unlikely that such large changes occurred over one or two decades. Another possible explanation, which is illustrated in Fig. Seller Inventory AAV More information about this seller Contact this seller. Book Description Dodo Press, New Book. Delivered from our UK warehouse in 4 to 14 business days. Established seller since Seller Inventory LQ Shipped from UK within 10 to 14 business days. Seller Inventory M The Japanese Twins Dodo Press.

    Lucy Fitch Perkins. Publisher: Dodo Press , This specific ISBN edition is currently not available.