They suddenly recognized that what thirty-two camera eyes see is worth a thousand times more than what the two eyes of an individual are capable of perceiving. Now it became clear to millions why the camera must be placed in the service of the community-even, if necessary, by force. An apparatus that intensifies the human capacity for seeing a thousandfold can be used only in the service of pure and noble mass guidance. Otto Kriegk, They put everything on film Film was essential to the Nazi era.
Myth, dreams, memory. Calculating metteurs-en-sce'ne, they em- ployed state-of-the-art technology in a profusion of celebrations, light shows, and mass extravaganzas. Hitler's regime can be seen as a sustained cinematic event, in. Hans Jiirgen Syberberg's famous phrase, "a film from Germany. And those movies are still very much with us today.
German cinema of the 'Third Reich, even a half-century after Hitler's demise, prompts extreme reactions and hyperbolic formulations. Given the atrocities of National Socialism, the movies, newsreels, and documentaries made under its aegis represent for many commentators film history's dark- est hour. The prospect of having to watch the 1, German features premiered from to the end of the war in might well seem like a cinephile's purgatory.
Imagine being strapped to a seat, like Alex in A Clockwork Orange, forced to partake of an unceasing stream of ideological intemperance and kitschy hyper-gemutlichkeit. Mabuse's 1, eyes and 's panoptic state apparatus. Despite its adversaries, however, Nazi cinema has had and continues to have many apologists and admirers. Outraged voices may have demonized this corpus of film in the hopes of exorcising Goebbels' legacy, but their interventions have in decisive ways gone unheeded.
S Nazi features are anything but universally proscribed or detested; they are still shown today in many places. Most of the era's films exist and-with a precious few exceptions-remain in circulation. They have become an integral part of everyday entertainment fare throughout Germany. Take, for instance, the various retrospectives over the last two decades at the Berlin Film Festival. During the late s there were intriguing programs devoted to "Love, Death, and Technology: The Cinema of the Fantastic, " ; "Censorship: Forbidden Germait Films, " ; and "We're Dancing around the World: German Revue Films, " , all of them accompanied by well-researched critical brochures:6 Recent festi- vals have given rise to series on the film years and , as well as a comprehensive portrait of productions made in Babelsberg.
Later in , the seventy-fifth birthday of the Ufa studio occasioned a massive display in Berlin's Historical Museum. Das deutsche Bildimperium" Ufa, The German Empire of Images constituted the largest film exhibit in the history of the Federal Republic, occupying 2, square meters and twenty- one large rooms, featuring a retrospective with 70 of Ufa's features. A twenty-foot-tall Blue Angel, made of styrofoam, lounged on a barrel with her legs crossed and lorded over the proceedings, an awkward concession to public taste. The curators took pains to insist that Ufa was not just Me- tropolis, Mabuse, and Marlene, carefully recalling the darker aspects of the studio's history and documenting the political realities that coexisted with Ufa fantasies, offering historical commentaries and critical perspectives both in the exhibit and in the accompanying literature.
Great effort was expended to avoid nostalgic rhetoric and to be politically responsible. The exhibit received frequent praise for its feats of design, presentation, and research. Ufa-film-the best of all time," effused one visitor in the Historical Museum's guest book, joining appreciative respondents in a host of languages. For other observers, the tribute to "The German Empire of Images" ,caused dismay and irritation; the exhibition seemed to lack analytical reserve and historical distance.
The desire for a native dream factory echoed Wim W enders' complaints that the Federal Republic has been overrun by foreign images fremdbebildert and desperately needs to resurrect its own narrative tradi- tions. Matinee scre,enings in big cities throughout Germany provide weekly opportunities to take in old movies. The "Eva Lichtspiele" in Wilmersdorf, a suburb of Berlin, shows "films people want to see again" on Wednesday afternoons at Across town, in the St. In that same month its choices included Dr. Crippen an Bord Dr.
In Nazi films ac- counted for 8. By the number had risen to Here too local program listings typically left out any reference to the year ofproduction. Popular tunes from Ufa films and hit songs from the epoch by Hans Albers, Willi Forst, and Zarah Leander to name but a few likewise can be frequently heard on the radio and purchased widely.
The few living stars appear on talk shows to reminisce about the "golden age of German cinema. Nazi cinema is also no stranger to the catalogues of American commercial distributors. The advertising copy bills Harlan's Kolberg as "a powerful epic of a Prussian town's rebellion against Napoleon's occupation forces. Based on true story. Produced during the final three years of World War II, using Germany's top talents, artists, and scores of extras. Directed by Veit [Harlan]. Increasingly, Nazi films have been analyzed in American university classrooms and become a topic of scholarly debates and discussions.
IS Neither lost in time nor forgotten, Nazi productions have in fact had a durable and dynamic postwar career throughout Europe and America. Transvestites continue to dress up as Zarah Leander; her films and songs represent nostalgia vehicles for older audiences as well as camp objects fetishized by urban hipsters. Four and a half decades after its premiere, Miinchhausen unreels before thousands of viewers in summertime open-air screenings at the Berlin Waldbiihne.
Impassioned auteurists have ex- tolled "the humanity, sensitivity, and integrity of Leni Riefenstahl. I8 SS uniforms and party regalia provide props for both alternative fads and mainstream trends in fashion. As celebrities go, Hitler's posthumous renown rivals that of Elvis Presley. Ritualized tableaus with leather-clad taskmasters and supine victims reenact a kinky Nazism in arthouse retro chic such as Luchino Visconti's The Damned and Liliana Cavani's The Night Porter.
Jodie Foster has announced plans for a Riefenstahl biopic. American artists pilfer the Nazi legacy with relish. The beautiful divers, dancers, and discus-throwers of Olympia serve as prototypes for television commercials, magazine ads, and photo spreads. The mass ornaments of Nuremberg are reconfigured in the contemporary shape of Super Bowl halftimes, human flags, and hands across America.
To scrutinize Nazi films, then, involves more than indulging antiquarian interests and revisiting a faraway past. Hoberman, "is not only that they represent an absolute evil, but that they pioneered spectacular politics-mass rallies, orchestrated media campaigns, and pseudo-documentaries meant to glorify a star-leader.
Indeed, the incessant recycling of Nazi sights and sounds surely represents a crucial measure of today's postmodernism. How, then, am I, as an American film his- torian writing. What tone should I use, what approach should I take? One thing is certain: this discussion must account for a legacy that extends from the Third Reich into our own lives today. Adversaries and Apologists Popular mythology typically represents the Nazi era as a site of terror, violence, and destruction, as a protracted horror movie in which the devil and his minions set out to conquer the world. In a similar fashion, commen- tators often render films from the Third Reich as the cinema from Hell.
This image, however, seems ill chosen when one actually sits down with what turns out to be occasionally intriguing, but generally unspectacular and rarely exceptional, fare. The customary tropes of the uncanny and horren- dous hardly apply to the vast majority of the epoch's productions, to its generic entertainments, innocuous comedies, frothy melodramas, and his- torical period pieces, films that unfold in settings far removed from the Third Reich, in places where one rarely sees a swastika or hears a "Sieg Heil.
Hitlerjunge Quex Hitler Youth QJlex , Triumph of the Will, Jew Siiss, Kolberg, and other infamous state-sponsored productions may have commanded most of the attention in previous studies of Nazi cinema. Nonetheless, such works were the exception, not the rule; they constituted a very small portion of the era's features. Such works seem to demonstrate that the Nazi regime created space for innocent diversions; they reflect, claim revisionist historians, a public sphere not completely subjugated by state institutions.
Many of these films, as we shall see, have received recognition as noteworthy achievements, as grand hallmarks of German cinema, in some cases even as bearers of oppositional energies. Were they sometimes subversive or, as ideological critics insist, always affirmative? In these matters there exists a dramatic variance of opinion. How one presents Nazi cinema remains above all a question of where one places this problematic and controversial corpus.
Am I to view these films en masse as abominations and cast them into oblivion? Or should I seek to integrate them-or at least some of them-into film history and the German past and, in so doing, to reclaim them as legitimate objects for the present and the future? Even the term "Nazi cinema" would seem to deserve caution: do all German films made during the Third Reich warrant this appellation? I stand before a contested and only partially explored territory, choosing between guides with violently opposed agendas and quite dissimi- lar itineraries.
Let me, at the outset, consider two typical tours through this embattled sector of film history. The first tour takes me to a Teutonic Horror Picture Show. Film played a central role in the operations of the Ministry of Propaganda, serving as a mass mobilizer and an ideological weapon. It "coordinated" institutions and organizations, purging the film world of Jews, socialists, Communists, and anyone else it deemed objectionable or untrustworthy.
The Ministry of Propaganda evaluated film scripts, oversaw activities in the various studios, checking each finished production carefully, determining how films were to be adver- tised and reviewed, deciding which works warranted official recognition. Almost every feature made during the period must therefore be understood as the reflection of party structures and strategic priorities. The second tour offers a much less disturbing view.
In no other art form, argues social historian Richard Grunberger, did "constitute as little of a break as in filmmaking. Had a cinema-going Rip van Winkel [sic] dozed off in the Depression and woken in the Third Reich he would have found the screen filled with the self-same images. Studios were dream factories, not propaganda machines. Goebbels quickly "grasped the fact that conveyor- belt brownshirt epics were box-office poison-not because of the public's political antipathies, but because of its craving for experiences in the cinema which were different from those within it.
The Ministry of Propaganda was not a smoothly running political apparatus; the network of competing instances was in fact so complex that no one really could fully keep track of its workings. Even when the system functioned effectively, it still demonstrated much irrationalism and inconsistency. Nonetheless, Goebbels and his chain of com- mand were neither omniscient nor omnipotent. They enjoyed such large followings, though, that the party was forced to tolerate them.
In this view, most German films made during the Third Reich were not Nazi films; some of them endure today as classics; many of them still grace television, matinee, and festival programs; and only a limited few warrant caution or political sensitivity. Take, for instance, the proprietor of the "Werkstattkino" in Mu- nich, referred to by an interviewer as "Anatol.
He screens them just as he would any other film, without a special introduction or a critical discussion. They were perfectly crafted, they made an optimal use of form. The Nazi era was simply the golden age of German film, there's no getting around it. He knows his words pose a provocation. Fascism fascinates him, but let it be clear: "I hate totalitarian regimes.
International apologists laud the artistry of Leni Riefenstahl's docu- mentaries, Anglo-American enthusiasts claim that Nazi film produced some important auteurs, German cineastes insist that we grant the melodramas of Veit Harlan and Wolfgang Liebeneiner more careful attention. Other com- mentators argue that we should reevaluate films of the Third Reich alto- gether. How are we to distinguish between state-initiated productions such as Jew Siiss and Wunschkonzert Request Concert and light comedies with Hans Moser and Heinz Riihmann without necessarily deny- ing that all contain ideological determinations?
The approach likewise re- duces contemporary audiences to volitionless Cesares and Janes mesmerized by Caligariesque master showmen. Until the ProMi frequently found itself troubled by German film's lack of resonance and its modest public profile. The prospect of an all-encompassing ideological control, of films that overwhelmed audiences and enjoyed unconditional success, was at best a Nazi dream--and a post- war myth. Critics such as Leiser and David Welch speak of films as if they were written scripts rather than complex audiovisual artifacts.
For Albrecht and for Boguslaw Drewniak films represent less objects of critical analysis than raw material for charts, inventories, and statistics. Welch examines "Nazi film production as a reflection of National Socialist ideology" and shows how party priorities and policies became transferred into cinematic docu- ments. The author limits his sampling to overtly political films, broaching entertainment films only in passing, confining their status to that of innocuous escapist vehicles.
Propaganda does not show or suggest; it speaks. Some- times it whispers; usually it shrieks. What about the concerted use of sound and music, I find myself wondering, much less the visual innuendoes and the associations created by dissolves, fades, and cuts? Why do flashbacks figure so rarely in prewar films and show up so frequently after ? How am I to account for the conspicuous use of back projection in wartime productions? To concentrate exclusively on themes, trends, and manifest contents is to ignore these films' semiotic complexity. Such an approach assumes meanings as given rather than produced in-and inextricably bound to-audiovisual presentations and public performances.
The second itinerary, on the other hand, privileges aesthetics over poli- tics, stressing the artistic autonomy and resistant energy at work in the productions of the Third Reich. And regardless of Hans Steinhoff's and Karl Ritter's party allegiances, cineastes such as Francis Courtade and Pierre Cadars still praise these directors' work for its formal power and narrative interest. Aesthetic redemptions, however, also have political consequences.
Seen together with the anecdotal memoirs of stars and directors, revisionist interpretations such as those of Hull, Rabenalt, and Wendtland create the impression that the German film industry amounted to a secret nation of resisters and freedom fighters. If a crucial part of the public sphere during the Third Reich becomes less politically impacted and even in some cases artistically legitimated, then one is well on the way to normalizing and neutralizing significant sectors of the everyday under the Nazi dictatorship.
And if this is the case, perhaps Germans might look at the years with a different regard. Such discourse, be it conscious or unwitting, fits into a larger strategy of exorcism and disavowal; it promotes a rewriting of German history, a 1atterday de- Nazification :of the Third Reich. How am I to mediate these extremes, without on the one hand simply condemning 1, features or, on the other, seeking to reactivate problem- atic entities by obscuring their social and historical functions?
I face an impasse. To repress or to redeem-and at what costs? If the one approach is resolutely dismissive, the other is unabashedly permissive. As I review the era's films, I want to consider how lighthearted shapes and innocuous forms contained political meanings and served ideological purposes, to examine more carefully the cinemas and public spheres in which these fantasies once circulated as well as the venues in which they still urireel today, to remember that these films were-and are!
Nazi cinema is not ; neither is it a nest of resistant potential. Preliminary Answers, Unasked Questions Previous books on cinema in the Third Reich have little to say about Nazi film aesthetics, about the look and texture of these features, about the properties that made some of them so resonant and well-regarded. In what ways did the German dream factory of the s and s appropriate and consciously recycle Hollywood fantasies? What is the place of Nazi cinema in German film history as well as film history at large?
What lessons does film under Goebbels impart regarding the use and abuse of the mass media, and are those lessons perhaps timely? The past decade may well have witnessed many calls for detailed investi- gations of Nazi film aesthetics, but there have been few conclusive re- sponses. Susan Sontag's essay, "Fascinating Fascism," remains the classic statement on the subject. Clearly, Sontag's acute comments about how monumen-. Number of Number of Year ctnemas admissions millions. Fascist aesthetics for Witte represent a function of formal surfaces and channeled fascination, structures of experi- ence encoded in visual and aural signs.
The films of the Third Reich, according to Witte, recycle and transform in a peculiar fashion, converting the concrete into the abstract, movement into static pattern, open space into bound compositions, overwhelming viewers with "extreme perspectives of extreme uniformity. Following Witte's cue in a quest for other routes of access to Nazi cinema, I encounter a host of historical and theoretical challenges as I traverse un- charted or at best sketchily mapped terrain.
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If I am to speak more conclu- sively about the special character of German films of the Third Reich, I need to consider the relation of Nazi cinema to films made during the Weimar Republic and the postwar era", to focus on continuities of careers and genres. I also need to be mindful of the conscious way in which German feature films , of the era look to Hollywood and emulate classical cinema. And if I write as a child of the Allies and not, like Witte, as a German coming to grips with and critically confront- ing a collective legacy, clearly I operate from a different situation and speak in a different voice, with other emphases and inflections.
Beyond Witte, only a small number of commentators Oulian Petley, Mihal Friedmann, and Stephen Lowry have combined history, theory, and analysis in their discussions of the Third Reich's films. Previous work has all but ignored the period's vast theoretical and technical discourse about the media. I encounter a few case studies of important directors, but no in-depth under- standing of the relations between ideology and style, political function and artistic resolve, accommodation and resistance. Nor do I find any sustained and nuanced discussions of Nazi film's audiences, cqunterparts to Patrice Petro's and Miriam Hansen's accounts of female spectators and the early German cinema.
At best there exist several recent analytical discussions of women's central function in the films of the Third Reich. Rather than reducing them to ideological containers in which the Ministry of Propa- ganda packaged affirmation and falsehood, I aim to read them as ambiguous and complex entities, as still resonant portrayals of an age's different incli- nations and disparate wishes, works that have given rise to divergent official and popular responses since the Third Reich.
In other words, I will consider not only what Nazi films wanted to show the viewer but also what they actually disclose about National Socialism. Points of Departure As I begin my own tour of Nazi cinema, let me make my emphases known and my premises apparent: Premise 1: The cinema of the Third Reich is to be seen in the context of a totalitarian state's concerted attempt to create a culture industry in the service of mass deception.
The Ministry of Propaganda endeavored to discipline distraction, to instrumentalize sights and sounds in the hopes of engineering and orchestrating emotion, to remake German film culture in the service of remaking German culture and the nation's political body. Film ,theorists have often speculated about the ideological effects of the "dominant cinema," proposing that classical narratives seek to mesmerize and mystify viewers by means of imaginary seductions.
And films did not exist in isolation, but indeed circulated and resonated in a state-regulated public sphere. Premise 2: Entertainment played a crucial political role in Nazi culture. The era's many genre films maintained the appearance of escapist vehicles and innocent recreations while functioning within a larger program.
From the start Goebbels articulated a desire to create a cinema that could both satisfy the domestic market and function as a foreign emissary. Film was redesigned as a mechanized means to animate primal emotion, a modern technology to stir the soul's inner speech. It was to move the hearts and minds of masses while seeming to have little in common with politics or party agendas.
Nazi features were more a showplace for strong feelings and cheerful diversions than they were a forum for realistic tableaus or topical thematics. Reflecting about the medium's most essential calling, a German critic observed in October "In one regard both word- and image-fanatics will agree, namely that the task of film art can only be to bring about the strongest experience possible by means of film-that is, sound film, with all the optical and acoustic possibilities which this art form, like no other, possesses.
Nonetheless, he sought a way "to make today's Germany the dominant setting for our contemporary cinema and not taint contemporary films with the scent of 'Nazi' films. The order came from the top. If Nazi culture often put on a happy face or feigned an innocuous coun- tenance, its cinema provided the definitive embodiment of this agreeable semblance.
Images, maintained Nazi film theorists, should enthrall and enchant audiences just as music should liberate people from the bounds of time and space. Even the most suspicious filmgoers cannot claim that Ger- man films seek to hit them over the head with politics or to impose a world view. Except for portions of the newsreels, cinema in a newly politicized Germany amounts to an unpolitical oasis. A really clever person might , claim that even if there are no propaganda films, there still is propaganda tucked away beneath film's surface details.
This person, though, will have a hard time finding examples to prove his point Leisure pursuits and mass cultural offerings appeared to have little in common with political priorities-and this illusion was carefully cultivated by the party apparatus. Premise 3: Nazi film culture-and Nazi propaganda in general-must be understood in terms of what Goebbels called an "orchestra principle.
Cinema in the Third Reich involved a division of labor between heavy hands and light touches. Propaganda films and entertainment offerings were equally represented in the annual lists of hits. For the season the back-to-the-fatherland opus Fliichtlinge Fugitives shared the spotlight with the peasant farce Krach umJolanthe The Trouble with Iolanthe. A Film-Kurier headline of January , for instance, is literally split: on one side of the page we read "Ufa signs Lilian Harvey," on the other, "The Riefenstahl School.
The Third Reich fostered the modern era's first full-blown media cul- ture, strategically instrumentalizing state-of-the-art technology, introduc- ing radios into almost every household, developing television, staging politi- cal events as grand photo opportunities, replaying military conquests in the form of weekly newsreels. Request Concert, whose inspiration came from Goebbels, provides an idealized self-portrait of National Socialism's society of spectacle. It starts with Hitler's arrival at the Olympics and takes us on a tour of Berlin.
Its subsequent points of interest include the battlefield of war, an affair of the heart, and above all a popular radio broadcast that binds private destinies to an imaginary collective fate. Request Concert de- picts a world in which the media dictate people's feelings, in which everyday experience is above all a function of simulated stimuli and other-directed desires.
Nazi films' political effect, then, is not just the simple function of explicit propaganda transmitted by dialogue, what critics often refer to as the "message" or "manifest meaning. I think we must alsQ speak about mass culture.
Harvard University Press •
When critics talk about a so-called Nazi film aesthetics, they usually have in mind Leni Riefenstahl's party documentaries, linking her films' auratic allure to the impact of Arno Breker's monstrous sculptures and Albert Speer's monumental designs. Riefenstahl's Olympia treats athletes as raw material and transforms their bodies into abstract shapes and mass ornaments. This formalizing process climaxes in the famous diving sequence in which well- known figures become faceless and nameless entities who perform in an unreal space.
We see the sublime forms of divers in mesmerizing slow motion as they descend through the heavens and drop like bombs. These apparitions of life are ideal and definitely not of this earth. Fascist artworks exercise a powerful and persuasive effect: they present seductive intimations of oblivion with visual beauty and operatic glory. In this understanding, fascist art. National Socialism, however, did not rule by external force alone. It also effected means to monitor its citizens from within.
Still, even the most persuasive commentaries such as Sontag's have underestimated the primary role of mass culture and the popular in the Third Reich's hyperstylization of collective will. Nazi aesthetics were not just "official art" and politically correct endeavor; they involved a much wider range of possibility. Critics have by and large brack- eted the popular in their estimations of the era's culture, or simply written it off as kitschy, derivative, and trivial.
Yet the popular clearly played a prominent and ubiquitous role in everyday life, in cinemas, radio programs, dance halls, advertisements, tourist offerings, and the latest consumer items. In its cynical belief that it offered people what they wanted, Nazi mass culture emulated and replicated American patterns of recognition.
It pro- duced an entertainment industry with secondhand popular fare: hit tunes, request concerts, fashion trends, fan magazines, glossy commercials, house- hold appliances, mass audiences, and film fanatics who eagerly awaited each week's new movies.
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Premise 5: When critics decry Nazi cinema as an abomination, they protest too much. They concentrate on the hyperformed and the grotesque proportions of Arno Breker's and Josef Thorak's superhuman bronzes, the excesses of Albert Speer's architectural designs and his spec- tacular light shows. Officially sanctioned painting of the Third Reich is seen as a motley patchwork of neoclassical, romantic, and Biedermeier impulses. Art historians denounce the era's epigonality and provincialism, stressing a lack of formal sophistication and emphasizing trivial content and subject matter.
In the process, the reliance of the era's cinema on classical Hollywood conventions goes unnoticed, as does the recourse of so many productions and so much of Nazi film culture to American techniques and popular genres. As Thomas Elsaesser observes, they "appear readable in terms of classical narrative in much the same way as do Hollywood films of the s. There remains much to learn about its different aesthetic shapes and its various historical func- tions.
Nazi cinema did not suddenly come out of the dark when Hitler rose to power; after his demise it would not simply disappear from view. As a film historian, I cannot isolate these films as hideous anomalies: Nazi film was traditional through and through. Drawing on recent discussions about Nazi culture and the public sphere during the Third Reich, I want to be more nuanced in addressing the relationship between politics and entertain- ment and be less hasty about casting artifacts from the period aside as harmless pieces of fluff or, alternatively, celebrating them as subversive exceptions.
Neither a dumping ground of propaganda nor a moronic cult of distraction and surely not a locus of resistance, Nazi feature production warrants more careful scrutiny.
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My exploration of these films at this moment brings me into a minefield of explosive issues, ranging from the "historians' debate" about the status of Nazi war crimes to recent disputes about the proper place of Nazi art and architecture within contemporary culture. As time passes, the legacy of the Third Reich looms ever larger. The following chapters seek to open up,other routes of access and along the way to suggest sites for ne:w explorations and future interventions.
Here you have found your heaven and in it you will be eternal. Julius Streicher to Leni Riefenstahl, The evil eye is the fascinum, it is that which has the effect of arresting movement and, literally, of killing life. Jacques Lacan. A Master Text No career illustrates Nazi cinema's complex and extensive history as dra- matically as that of Leni Riefenstahl. Debuting as a dancer, she went on to acclaim as a screen star during the Weimar Republic. In the mids she became the Third Reich's most famous director and, after , film history's most controversial filmmaker.
She is still very much with us today; indeed, she is more present than ever, some six decades after she commandeered the cameras that recorded the Nuremberg rally. Stars and dignitaries from all over the world flocked to her ninetieth birth- day party in ; in fashionable Munich circles the event was the talk of the town.
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Stephen Schiff's portrait and Helmut Newton's photographs of the remarkably vital senior citizen graced the pages of Vanity Fair. The Fuhrer's protegee and confidante, the woman who directed the definitive Nazi self-portrait, Triumph des Willens Triumph ofthe Will, , Riefenstahl remains the Third Reich's most visible living celebrity and a constant object of lurid speculation, be it as "Hitler's girlfriend,"4 a "Nazi pin-up girl,''5 or a "fallen goddess. Even Rainer Werner Fassbinder once courted Riefenstahl, asking her in a letter to be his cinematographer for Querelle: "I think you might be able to develop a strong feeling for my work.
And besides, this would make me very proud. For the British film historian Kevin Brownlow, her cause has be- come a crusade: "Art transcends the artist And it is our fault. We have ourselves been the victims of insidious propaganda. Detractors, on the other hand, assert that Riefenstahl's unquestionable artistic powers were put to nefarious purposes, that her pact with Hitler was tantamount to sympathy for the devil, that her hagiographical portraits legitimated the Nazi leadership and helped consolidate the new order.
Nazism's substance has become neutralized in formalistic appreciations; its theatrical spectacles and ritualistic scenarios reappear in fetishized and sexualized appropriations. Aesthetes and camp followers applaud the beauty ofRiefen- stahl's images and divest them of political meaning. The fluid traveling shots in Triumph of the Will, elaborates Karsten Witte, "work with induced movement intended to set inanimate matter into wav- ing motion and make human masses freeze into stone blocks.
The masses are allowed to enter the picture, but only their leaders are allowed to speak. Hitler himself is the main actor, here celebrating his wedding fantasies with the masses. She insists her work was no party to Hitler. Asked by Ray Muller what fascist aesthetics might be, she says that for her the phrase has no meaning. I4 "What do I have to regret, where does my guilt lie? The past plagues her like an albatross. Her life assumes a tragic dimension, according to a recent assessment, "for she seems to have borne the brunt of public shame more openly and more frequently than the real culprits of the regime.
Olympia , financed by the government and overseen by the ProMi, renders Hitler as a modern Zeus with an omnipotent gaze, an Ubermensch with an Uberblick. The Blue Light does not lend itself so readily to political objections. IS Unlike the later documentaries, the mountain film appears to be the work of a naive artist. On full-moon nights a blue light emanates from this secret grotto, luring young men from the valley to seek out the source of. He becomes her protector and falls in love with her.
Following her one blue-lit night, he discovers the way to the cave. He draws a map, thinking that the safe passage to the grotto will serve the best interests of both Junta and the villagers. Finding her private sanctuary ravaged, Junta despairs and plunges to her death. The impetus for The Blue Light, Riefenstahl recalls, came from personal reveries: "I began to dream and my dreams turned into images of a young girl who lived in the mountains, a creature of nature.
I saw her climbing, saw her in the moonlight. In forming her own images, Riefenstahl created her life's fantasy. Speaking to Cahiers du cinema in , she explained how The Blue Light forecast her future: "Well, when her dream is destroyed Junta dies. For that is what was accomplished, much later, in me, after the war when everything collapsed on us, when I was deprived of all possibility of creating. For art, creation-this is my life, and I was deprived of it.
My life became a tissue of rumors and accusations through which I had to beat a path. And the director identifies herself as an artist whose true homeland resides in this sublime and special space. Most commentators view Junta as an embodiment of her creator, an artist who, in the words of an American enthusiast, "had her own intuitive feelings about nature and was destroyed by her naive disregard of the real world around her, the world she set out to avoid.
Justifiably or not, Riefenstahl has come to embody a haunting past that refuses to go away. Postwar controversies about the filmmaker have led to an impasse between moral castigation and aesthetic vindication. She be- comes either an unrepentant Nazi propagandist or a misunderstood artistic genius. Seeing herself as a victim, Riefenstahl aligns herself with a Jew, borrowing Albert Einstein's soothing words as the epigraph to her Memoir: "Se many things have been written about me, masses of insolent lies and inventions, that I would have perished long ago, had I paid any attention.
One must take comfort in the fact that time has a sieve, through which most trivia run off into the sea of oblivion. German dreams, of aesthetic reveries to political realities. Riefenstahl's debut feature and founding myth, The Blue Light, is, without question, a master text. Sell on Amazon Start a Selling Account.
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Ein Querschnitt durch die Werke von Jimmy Liao.
Die Figuren sind oft Kinder, entfremdet von ihrer Umgebung. Wie beste Freunde halt so sprechen], aber…. Stimmungsvolle Kolorierung. Ich konnte mit beiden wenig anfangen — doch mag viele ihrer aktuellen Serien z. Das Ende von Brian K. Und: Die tolle! Eurotrash; alles wirkt epigonal und schon-mal-dagewesen. Panini u. Denn warum sollte es Superhelden nur in den USA geben? Superhelden brauchen Geschichte, Legenden und coole Settings, und von all dem gibt es in Europa mehr als reichlich.
Szenarien und Storys stammen von Harald Havas. Details: Indiekator Goodreads Wikipedia. Wozu ein er-Comic aus dem deutschsprachigen Raum, der immerhin? Es wirkt SO hinterher, gestrig. Undines Charakter-Design blauschimmernde, praktisch nackte Nixe ist ein sexistisches Klischee; und die Undine-Kurzgeschichte im Heft half nicht, die Figur interessanter zu machen. Sein ganz besonderes Talent ist aber, dass er mit Tieren sprechen kann.
Details: Carlsen Manga. Mich nervt die Figur. Der Comic wirkt nicht wie ein Marvel-Comic, sondern wie Comics, die z. Leo ist ein echtes Wunderkind, was man von Ragna nicht behaupten kann. Doch als sie eines Tages ihrem Tod ins Auge blicken, geschieht etwas Unglaubliches.
Ich glaube, hier geht es um Rollenbilder, Fetische, Weiblichkeitsideale, die ich nicht verstehe — und die wahrscheinlich nicht so frisch, originell oder mutig sind, wie ich nach 30 Seiten hoffte. So gut sah Werner noch nie aus! Details: Werner. Details: Goodreads Carlsen. Details: Tokypop Goodreads. Sehr gut! Sie wurde nur aus einem einzigen Grund geboren: um verdammt noch mal endlich einen Kerl zu finden, der es ernst mit ihr meint! Bei Husten, Schnupfen und Pollenallergien gibt es wirklich viel zu tun! Ein lustloser Brei. Details: Band 1 thenextart. Oder noch lernen. Und es gibt das hier.
Egmonts liebloses Micky-Maus-Heft im Vorjahr war bizarr. Um 85 Jahre dieser Figur zu feiern? Grabbelkiste, Dutzendware, kalter Kaffee. Generell kommen die besten aktuellen Donald-Geschichten aus Italien, oder? Gibt es Bestenlisten, Empfehlungen, Tipps? Ich las ab ca. Alles wirkt einfach plumper, beliebiger und billiger als im Original. Der Zeichner hasst Bulma. Und: alle Frauen? Details: Goodreads Wikipedia. Ich habe Respekt davor, wie detailverliebt und konsequent Figuren, Settings, Themen etc.
Ilse erinnert mich an Wonder Womans Erzfeindin Dr. Veronica Cale. Hier wird nicht entlarvt, wie grottig Heldencomics waren, vor ca. Superheldencomics erscheinen als monatliche Heftreihen — ca. Heftreihen mit Frauen in der Haupt- und Heldenrolle verkaufen sich schlechter. Noch vor ca. Oft haben mehrere von ihnen eigene Heftreihen. Der aktuellste Robin ist Batmans ca.
Die meisten solcher Figuren gibt es erst seit den 90er Jahren; viele sogar erst seit ca. Sie ist Muslima, ihre Eltern stammen aus Pakistan. Der Erfolg von Miles, Mrs. Trotzdem sind die meisten kein Erfolg, sondern werden nach 8 bis 15 Monaten beendet. Fast alle handeln von Figuren, die man als Marvel-Kinofan nicht oder kaum kennt.
Und: es klappt. Miles als Sonderfall — in den Comics und im Kino:. Die ca. Nach ca. Bereits die Miles-Morales-Comics machten [anders als z. Kuckt mal — wie wild und unkonventionell! Ich las alle Marvel-Comics mit weiblichen Hauptfiguren, die seit erschienen; und auch viele idosynkraitsch-schrullige Reihen mit oft z. Ein bombastisches, schwungvolles triviales Epos, toll geschrieben und gezeichnet! Marvel-Kinofilm seit Dann also bitte: mehr, bald. Ich lese seit ca. King Link. Angelesen, gemocht und vorgemerkt. Mit einem Mal ist nichts mehr so, wie es war.
Doch manchmal geht das Leben nicht nur irgendwie weiter, sondern es passieren neue, verwirrende und ganz wunderbare Dinge. Trotzdem: Die beste deutschsprachige Jugendbuchautorin, die ich kenne. Starkes Thema, intensives Buch. Melinda freute sich auf der erste Jahr an der High School. Melinda gilt als Zicke, seit sie auf jener Party die Polizei gerufen hat, aber nicht sagen wollte, warum. Es dauert ein Jahr, bis Melinda ihre Sprache wiederfindet — und mit ihr die Kraft, sich zu wehren.
Noch kennen sie sich nicht. Juni Dort, wo irgendwann im Jahr die Liebesgeschichte ihrer Eltern begann und ein Leben lang dauerte. Sie erfuhren die Schrecken der Konzentrationslager und verstanden doch oft nicht, was mit ihnen geschah. Beim Nebenjob im Schnellrestaurant lernen die beiden sich kennen. Ava mag Gideon sofort, weil er anders zu sein scheint. Dann wird aus der Freundschaft Liebe.
Doch wer ist der Unbekannte? Die Zeit im Krankenhaus ist vorbei. Sie verliert gute Freundinnen und Freunde, um an einem unerwarteten Ort neue zu finden. Und arbeitet sich langsam in ein Leben, das mit ihrem alten wenig zu tun hat. Und die, die gestorben sind: Waren die einfach nicht tapfer genug? Doch die meisten Elfen verachten Sterbliche wie sie. Auf der Arche Anima lebt sie inmitten ihrer riesigen Familie. Doch sie soll auf die eisige Arche des Pols ziehen und einen Adligen, Thorn, heiraten. Dabei entstand ein bemerkenswertes, mutiges Buch. Dann verliert ihre Mutter ihren Job. Besteht sie, wird sie Prinzessin des Reiches.
Immer tiefer wird Ofelia in eine phantastische Welt hinein gezogen, die wundervoll ist und grausam zugleich. Was kostet es wirklich, seinen Traum zu leben? August Sind Pornos in Ordnung? Er liest, schreibt, singt und spielt Gitarre. And he meets Sohrab, the boy next door who changes everything. When they lose their apartment in Vancouver, they move into a camper van, just for August, till Astrid finds a job. When he gets to compete on a national quiz show, Felix is determined to win: The cash prize will bring them a home.
Her only friend is a boy in a coma, to whom she tells stories. They meet at the post office. Their obsession threatens to tear their lives apart. In the shade of the grocery store, my three mothers shake their heads in unison. That feeling of belonging remains with readers the rest of their lives—but not everyone regularly sees themselves on the pages of a book.
What is bothering them? When the six are together, they can express the feelings and fears they have to hide from the rest of the world. A cell phone is mistaken for a gun. And shots are fired. After her little sister is taken away, her younger brother disappears. Using forged papers and her fair features, Chaya becomes a courier and travels between the Jewish ghettos of Poland, smuggling food, papers, and even people.
Magdalys Roca and her friends from the Colored Orphan Asylum are on a field trip when the Draft Riots break out, and a number of their fellow orphans are kidnapped by an evil magistrate, Richard Riker. Edmund has fae powers, but lives in secret as a changeling in the World Above. The Childe lives among the fae in the World Below, where being human makes him an oddity at the royal palace, and where his only friend is a wax golem named Whick. When the cruel sorceress Hawthorne takes the throne, the Childe and Edmund need to act.
Mikayla is a wrestler. Some people object to having a girl on the team. Lev is determined to make it to the state championships. Mikayla and Lev work hard together and become friends. But when they face each other, only one of them can win. The word itself means different things—wild? Thirty-three writers, athletes, and artists offer essays, lists, comics, and illustrations that explore their personal experiences with mental illness, how we do and do not talk about mental health.
A white girl coming of age in a repressive society: Tena was born in in a tiny Mississippi town where the legacy of slavery and racial injustice still permeated every aspect of life. Her father was one of the richest men in the state; her mother was a regal beauty. The family lived on a sprawling farm and had the only swimming pool in town; Tena was given her first car—a royal blue Camaro—at twelve. Sara can feel their friendship slipping away. The divide has created much tension between Hindus and Muslims, and hundreds of thousands are killed crossing borders.
Jilly has to learn to be an ally, a sister, and a friend, understanding that life works in different ways for different people, and that being open to change can make you change in the best possible ways. Promising people, who could have contributed much, dying young and dying unnecessarily. Randy Shilts. Ich bin Die Menschen, die damals starben, forschten, aktivistisch arbeiteten, waren oft Mitte Bis dahin soll die Krankheit bei niemandem mehr ausbrechen. Tausend oft interessante Details. Ikonografie, die oft aufs Fremde und Vergangene setzt. Bilder, die zeigen: Das war eine ganz eigene Welt, zu einer ganz anderen Zeit.
Das ist weit weg. Zeitlicher Abstand hilft beim Analysieren. Ein deutsches Pendant fehlt schmerzlich. Erst, als das Buch in Druck ging, sah er sich bereit, den eigenen Status zu erfragen. Aber eigentlich ging es eben nur darum, dass die Seuche nicht von der Randgruppe in die Mehrheitsgesellschaft dringt. Es ist die Natur, die sich wehrt.
Kramer ist auch in B und D eine wichtige Figur.