RSC 2. Augustus AE Quadrans. Lyons Mint. C, BMC Augustus AE Sestertius. Augustus AE Dupondius. Struck circa AD. Augustus AE Semis. Octavian Denarius. Uncertain Italian mint, BC. Octavian AR Denarius. Octavian denarius. Bust of Victoria, personifying victory, right. Brundisium mint? AV Aureus. RIC I, ; Calico Uncertain Italian mint, AD. Octavian, AR denarius, c28 BC. Laureate head of Apollo of Actium right, with features of Octavian. Octavian AR Quinarius. Ephesus mint, 27 BC. Rome mint, 19 BC. P Petronius Turpilianus, moneyer. Petronius Turpilianus, moneyer. Augustus, AR Denarius.
Rome, ca. Struck by Petronius Turpilianus. Rome, 20 mm, 3. Moneyer L. Aquillius Florus. SC in exergue. Rome mint, 18 BC. L Aquillius Florus, moneyer. M Durmius, moneyer.
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SC below. CBN Rustius, moneyer. Augustus AE sestertius. RIC , Cohen Quinctius Cripinus Sulpicianus, moneyer, struck 18 BC. RIC var. AR denarius, 17 BC, Rome. Moneyer P. Licinius Stolo. Struck 16 BC. L Mescinius Rufus, moneyer. Augustus AR denarius, Moneyer L. Rome, 16 BC. Moneyer L Vinicius. Moneyer C. Gallius Lupercus. Augustus, AE Dupondius 28mm, 8.
P Pangerl 81a , both within oval incuses both from Pannonia. RIC I Augustus, Julia, Caius and Lucius Denarius. Augustus and Agrippa Denarius. RSC 3. Rome mint, 12 BC, by Lucius Lentulus, moneyer. Augustus Copper Dupondius. Salvius Otho. Struck circa 9 BC. Augustus AE quadrans, Rome. Moneyers Pulcher, Taurus and Regulus. RIC ; Cohen Struck 8 BC. Pulcher, Taurus, Regulus, moneyers.
Lurius Agrippa. Text Text Text. Struck 5 BC. Moneyers Apronius, Galus, Messalla, and Sisena. Rome, 5 BC. Moneyers: Apronius, Galus and Messalla. Rome mint, 5 BC. Augustus AE quadrans. Naevius Capella. Augustus quadrans. Rome mint, 4 BC. North Peloponnesian Mint, ca 21 BC. Paphos Mint, Cyprus, c 22 BC. North Peloponnesian? Samos or Pergamum? Pergamum or Samos mint. Augustus, AR Cistophoric tetradrachm, Ephesus?
Augustus AR Cistophorus. Ephesus Mint, earlier style, ca BC. Augustus AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm.
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Ephesus mint, ca 25 BC. Ephesus mint, struck in BC. Ephesus mint, ca BC. Uncertain mint in Cyprus or Syria, ca 25 BC. Mint in Asia Pergamum? Pergamum mint, BC. Augustus Cistophoric Tetradrachm.
Pergamon mint, BC. Cyprus or Syria, ca 25 BC. Struck BC, Mysia, Pergamum mint. Augustus AR cistophorus. Asia Minor Mint, c. Pergamum, 8. Augustus Aureus. Pergamon, BC. Augustus, AV aureus, 19 BC, 7.
Pergamum mint. Augustus, AR Denarius, 3. Augustus AE 26mm of Antioch, Syria. Restitution issue under Hadrian. Uncertain Eastern? Paphos Mint, Cyprus. Augustus, AR denarius, after 27 BC. Probably Gaul mint. RIC ; Giard Paris. Rome or Pergamum mint. Augustus, AR denarius, after 30 BC. Caesaraugusta, circa BC. Uncertain Eastern Mint Ephesus? RSC 4. Uncertain mint Emerita? Divus Augustus AE Sestertius. Struck under Tiberius, ca AD. Divus Augustus AE Sestertius 33mm; Struck under Tiberius. RIC 57 Cohen Struck by Tiberius AD. Struck by Tiberius, AD. Divus Augustus AE sestertius. Struck by Tiberius.
AE As. RIC I Tiberius Augustus Memorial Dupondius. Cohen , BMC Divus Augustus AE As. Struck under Tiberius, circa AD. Commemorative by Tiberius. RIC 82 [Tiberius], Cohen Divis Augustus AE As. Struck AD by Tiberius. Divus Augustus AE Dupondius. Struck under Claudius, AD. Restoration by Titus, 80 AD. Restoration by Titus, AD. Augustus AE dupondius, restoration issue by Titus. Augustus AE As, restoration issue by Titus. Struck before AD RIC ; Komnick Struck by Titus. Eagle with wings open, standing three-quarters right on globe, head left.
Augustus AE As, restoration by Titus. Struck under Domitian, AD. Restoration by Nerva, AD. Struck AD under Nerva. Restitution by Nerva. Restitution issue struck under Nerva, 98 AD. Augustus AR Antoninianus. Struck by Trajan Decius. Augustus, AE tessera. Belfort Aug group 2, 13; Cohen Augustus AE Tessera 3. Cohen 13; Belfort Aug group 12, 1; Buttrey 6, 2 var obv. Augustus AE 21mm Tessera. Belfort Aug Group 13, 4. Augustus, struck by Tiberius.
AE Tessera 20mm. Buttrey 1, 7; Cohen -; Belfort -. AE Tessera, Augustus. Belfort Aug group 1, 4; Buttrey 2, 5. Buttrey 2, 6. AE Tessera, Augustus, struck under Tiberius.
Buttrey 2, 7. Buttrey 2, 10; Belfort Aug group 3, 5; Cohen Augustus, AE Tessera. Belfort Aug group 11, 4; Buttrey 2, Augustus AE Tessera. Belfort Aug group 5, 1; Buttrey 3, 1. Tessera, Augustus. Belfort Aug group 5, 2; Buttrey 3, 2. Buttrey 3, 3 missing. Belfort Aug group 5, 8; Buttrey 3, Cohen 89; Buttrey 3, 14 missing. AE Tessera.
Belfort -; Buttrey 5, 2. Augustus, AE tessera, 21mm. Buttrey 5,5 missing ; FAC Augustus, AE Tessera, struck under Tiberius. Buttrey 5, 6; Belfort -; Dancoisne -. Belfort Aug group 11, 1; Buttrey 5, 8. Augustus, struck by Tiberius, AE Tessera 20mm. Buttrey 5,10 X missing ; Belfort -; Cohen -. Anonymous AE Tessera. Time of Tiberius, circa AD.
Belfort Aug group 11, 3; Buttrey 5, 13; Cohen Augustus, Time of Tiberius. AE Tessera 19mm. Belfort Aug group 12, 1; Buttrey 6, 2 var obv. Augustus, AE Tesserae, struck by Tiberius, 21mm. Belfort Aug group 13, 6 var headwear ; Dancoisne 4 var ditto ; Buttrey 6, 7 var ditto. Augustus, AE Tessera, struck by Tiberius.
Buttrey 6,9 var headwear. Dancoisne 6; Buttrey 6, 10 missing and var headwear ; Belfort -. Buttrey 6, 11; Belfort -; Dancoisne -. Dancoisne 8; Buttrey 6, Buttrey 7, 5 V missing ; Belfort -1; Cohen -.
Buttrey 9, 1; Belfort Aug group 13, 1; Cohen 8. Augustus AE21 Tessera. Buttrey 9, 3; Belfort Aug group 13, 2. Belfort Aug group 13, 3; Buttrey 9, 4; Cohen Buttrey, 9, 4; Belfort Aug group 14, 3. Belfort Aug group 13, 5; Buttrey 9, 6; Cohen Belfort Aug. Belfort Aug group 13, 9; Buttrey 9, Buttrey 9, 11; Dancoisne -; Belfort -. Augustus, AE tessera, 2. Buttrey 9, 13; Belfort -. Buttrey 9, 15; Belfort Aug group 14, 7; Cohen Cohen 95; Dancoisne 12; Belfort Aug group 15, 4; Buttrey 10, Time of Augustus. Dancoisne 34; Buttrey 11, Buttrey 11, 14; Goebl Cohen Caligula and Agrippina 3; Dancoisne Struck 23 BC.
Augustus AE33 of Emerita, Spain. Burgos Augustus AE23 of Emerita, Lusitania. Augustus, Emerita, AE semis. Burgos ; RPC RPC 21; Burgos Augustus, posthumous issue of Emerita, Spain. Augustus, AE27, Emerita, Spain. RPC I, 27 var. C A E, Front view of tetrastyle temple. Burgos , SGI Struck after 12 BC. RPC I, Augustus, AE of Ebora, Portugal. Augustus, AE26 of Pax Julia.
RPC 52; Mionnet Bare head right. RPC 53; Burgos RPC 55; Burgos ; Mionnet Sear GIC Osset, Spain, AE Semis 4,32 gr. SNG Cop. Augustus, AE23 of Osset, Spain. Struck under Tiberius, AD. The parliament on the other hand is answerable and accountable to the people through regular elections. The founders of the Australian Federation intended the Westminster-system, although it has not been codified in the Constitution.
It was chosen, because it was a familiar form of government, which had been in effect in the colonies beforehand. Yet we have to take into account that the founders of the Federation not only borrowed from the British system of government, but also from the American.
The fact that Australia was designed as a federation made it necessary to set up a second chamber to give the states reasonable representation on the federal level. The American Senate influenced its Australian counterpart with the concept of a states' house.
Der Senat Unter Augustus () : Theodor Anton Abele :
It was also installed to provide an effective check on the House of Representatives, as a constraint to the federal governments' power. The Senate and the House of Representatives HoR have almost equal powers, however the Senate cannot originate financial bills. This unique design is the origin of the discussion of the role of the Senate in the Australian political system. Commentators who emphasize the Westminster aspect may argue that the Senate, with its extended powers, is an obstacle for the government of the day, in implementing the policies, on the basis it was elected by the people.
This argument comes from the view that if a party or coalition has received a mandate to govern, it should be able to do so without any restrains from another body. This is meant to provide the government with the possibility to react quickly to a changed situation, e. The Senate, as a checks and balances, undermines the principle of responsible government, in the sense that the government is not only answerable and accountable to the parliament and therefore to the people but also to the Senate.
In this case, the democratic values are considered more important than the liberal notions. The counter-argument sees the Senate as an important constraint to the power of the government. It is argued that the HoR, due to the party or coalition in power controls the majority of the House, is not able to fulfil its classic function of scrutinizing the government.
In the Australian system, the Senate takes over this function to serve the liberal idea of protecting the individual, by constraining the power of the state, which is another key feature of a liberal democracy. Have Institutional Access? Forgot your password? PDF Preview. Talbert Series: Impact of Empire , Volume: Table of Contents. Related Content. Arthur Schiller. Editors: Roger Bagnall and William V. Author: Lewis.