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Other Websites. Request Brochure Enewsletter Sign Up. Follow Us Large activation spreads evoked by point stimulation appear ubiquitous, having been observed across various sensory modalities and animal species Grinvald et al. Future research can be pursued to determine whether large cortical activation spreads following point stimulation can be deemed a fundamental principle of functional organization for not just rat barrel cortex but for the cortex in general.

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. We thank Dr. Johnson for helpful discussions, and A. Liu, D. Tran, S. Kassira, K.

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Chang, N. Shum, J. Liang, J. Hakim, and Q. Vu for assistance. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Neural Circuits v. Front Neural Circuits. Published online Nov Cynthia H. Jacobs , 1 Beatrice Lim , 1 and Ron D. Nathan S. Ron D. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Reviewed by: Heiko J. Received Aug 31; Accepted Nov 6. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits use, distribution and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited and subject to any copyright notices concerning any third-party graphics etc.

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Abstract The one-to-one relationship between whiskers, barrels, and barrel columns described for rat barrel cortex demonstrates that the organization of cortical function adheres to topographical and columnar principles. Keywords: vibrissa, whisker, topography, column, intrinsic signal optical imaging, multi-unit, local field potential, lidocaine.

Introduction The rat barrel cortex subdivision of the primary somatosensory system for review see Fox, exquisitely demonstrates two fundamental principles of cortical functional organization. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Materials and methods Intrinsic signal optical imaging and electrophysiology recordings were performed as in previous studies and most details can be found elsewhere Chen-Bee et al. Figure 2.

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Intrinsic signal optical imaging Intrinsic signal optical imaging was used for high-spatial resolution, wide field-of-view mapping of the total cortical activation spread evoked by whisker stimulation; the activation spread can be referred to as a MWFR or SWFR single whisker functional representation depending on the number of whiskers being stimulated.

For the whiskers array, the magnitude of underlying sub-threshold neuronal activity was compared between the MWFR and whisker C2's SWFR obtained within each of 12 rats. Comparison was made for 8 electrodes recording simultaneously from the cortex and spaced 0. Electrodes were positioned such that activity could be sampled on opposite sides of the C2 barrel as well as increasing distances away. Same as Summary 2 above, except for the magnitude of supra-threshold neuronal activity.

Then, reduced chi-squared tests were performed on a pixel-by-pixel basis within a 4. A reduced chi-squared value of 1.

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Obtained chi-squared values ranged 1. Same as Summary 4 above, except the in vivo -MWFR values were averaged across the 10 rats before comparison to the values of the normalized model-MWFR using a least-squares linear regression. Same as Summary 8 above, except for the magnitude of supra-threshold neuronal activity. Same as Summary 10 above, except the in vivo -MWFR values were averaged across the 7 rats before comparison to the model-MWFR normalized values using a least-squares linear regression.

Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Multi-whisker functional representation MWFR findings extend to a different combination of neighboring whiskers Additional in vivo and modeling experiments were conducted to determine whether findings could be extended to a different combination of neighboring whiskers the four whiskers D3, D4, E3, and E4.

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Figure 6. Figure 7. Discussion In the present study, both in vivo and modeling approaches are used to characterize the rat barrel cortex response to stimulating more than one whisker MWFR. Conflict of interest statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

References Bakin J. Suprathreshold auditory cortex activation visualized by intrinsic signal optical imaging. Cortex 6 , — Sensory Inhibition. Comparing the functional representations of central and border whiskers in rat primary somatosensory cortex. Biometric analyses of vibrissal tactile discrimination in the rat. Sensory integration across space and in time for decision making in the somatosensory system of rodents. Optical imaging of a tactile illusion in area 3b of the primary somatosensory cortex.

Science , — The triphasic intrinsic signal: implications for functional imaging. Visualizing and quantifying evoked cortical activity assessed with intrinsic signal imaging. Methods 97 , — Integration of evoked responses in supragranular cortex studied with optical recordings in vivo. Representation of moving wavefronts of whisker deflection in rat somatosensory cortex. Visualizing the cortical representation of whisker touch: voltage-sensitive dye imaging in freely moving mice. Neuron 50 , — Extensive overlap of mu-opioid and nicotinic sensitivity in cortical interneurons.

Cortex 17 , — Barrel Cortex. Functional organization and plasticity in the adult rat barrel cortex: moving out-of-the-box. Large-scale organization of rat sensorimotor cortex based on a motif of large activation spreads. Spatial integration of multiple-point stimuli in primary somatosensory cortical receptive fields of alert monkeys.

Temporal integration of multiple-point stimuli in primary somatosensory cortical receptive fields of alert monkeys. Sensory funneling. Psychophysical observations of human subjects and responses of cutaneous mechanoreceptive afferents in the cat to patterned skin stimuli. Cortical neuronal representation of patterned cutaneous stimuli.

Psychophysical measurements of perceived intensity of single-point and multiple-point cutaneous stimuli in humans and subhuman primates. Nonlinear processing of tactile information in the thalamocortical loop. Optical imaging and electrophysiology of rat barrel cortex. Responses to paired-vibrissa deflections. Cortex 8 , — Cortical point-spread function and long-range lateral interactions revealed by real-time optical imaging of macaque monkey primary visual cortex.

Sensory funneling of liminal multiple- point air-puff stimulation produces dramatic reduction in reaction time but relatively invariant P somatosensory evoked potential. Cortical transformation of wide-field multiwhisker sensory responses. Emergent properties of tactile scenes selectively activate barrel cortex neurons. Neuron 60 , — Distributed representation of vibrissa movement in the upper layers of somatosensory cortex revealed with voltage-sensitive dyes.

Metabolic activity in SmI cortical barrels of adult rats is dependent on patterned sensory stimulation of the mystacial vibrissae.

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Brain Res. In vivo large-scale cortical mapping using channelrhodopsin-2 stimulation in transgenic mice reveals asymmetric and reciprocal relationships between cortical areas. Neural Circuits 6 : 11 Strengthening mechanisms in whisker-reinforced aluminium composites. Authors Authors and affiliations C. Voituriez I.

This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Papazian and P. Adler , Metall. Google Scholar. Nardone and K. Prewo , Scripta Metall. CrossRef Google Scholar. Nardone , ibid. Taya and R. Arsenault , ibid.

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