We returned to dinner. As Mr. Ensor had many places to go to, he hired a laquais de place, and by those means saved me the expense of a cabriolet. We went first to the Rue du Faubourg St. Say and his family. They were very kind to me, and begged me to stay at their house; I accepted the offer, Mr. Ensor returning to the Hotel. Say said that Mr. Bentham had written two months ago to tell him that I was coming, but that he thought I had passed without calling on him.
Mme Say told me that a young German had come to their house from England two days before the departure of Richard Doane, that he said he was acquainted with me I did not know him by name. Walked out with Madame Say and Mademoiselle Octavie; saw the palace and garden of the Thuilleries, the palace much finer than any I have seen in England, the gardens not so pretty as Kensington, Kew, or Hampton Court. Returned, dined with M. Say, Mme Say, M. Horace and Melle Octavie. The floors are sometimes of tiles and sometimes of polished wood, without any carpet.
Say to the Louvre: the beauty of the architecture struck me very much: we inspected the Museum of Antique Statues etc. The statue which pleased me most was that called the Fighting Gladiator: I saw Edition: current; Page: [ 8 ] some antique Mosaic pavement: The Belvidere Apollo is no longer there. We crossed the Pont des Arts and called on Dr. Swediaur, 9 Rue Jacob No 11; we delivered your letter; he told us that a Spanish gentleman 10 had lately come from Montauban, and advised me to see him before taking my place—At Dr.
Kinloch, who is at Paris under the name of Mr. George Smith: 11 Dr. After leaving Dr. Say to the Louvre. The architecture is very fine; we saw the Museum of ancient Statues, mosaic pavements, etc. Struck with the beauty of the statue of the Fighting Gladiator, as it is called. Called on Dr. Kinloch, who was at Paris under the name of Mr. George Smith; he gave me his card and begged me to call on him. Say thinks it probable that there may have been treasure concealed in those caverns.
Returned to M. May 21, Sunday. The lower part of the house is occupied by Mr. Clement a chemist.
Sur l'inconséquence du jugement public
In the evening I went to the Palais Royal, with Mr. Ensor, who had dined at M. The P. Jackson, 15 an English gentleman, and another young man. Did not go out on account of the heat: conversed with Mr. Jackson, played at battledoor and shuttlecock with Alfred. Clement, the celebrated chemist, with his family: the young Russian who was in England some time ago and who dined with us is learning chemistry under the tuition of M.
Swediaur came in the evening, and asked me to go with him the next morning to call on the Spanish gentleman, M. There was company in the evening; Mr. Ensor came, and took me with him to the Palais Royal, which was thronged with people throughout the quadrangle, as it always is in the evenings of holidays.
Swediaur to call on the Spanish gentleman M. Buron he was not at home. We went to the public library, but it was shut on account of the Pentecost. Among the books belonging to the Librarian who has the care of the Oriental Manuscripts, he shewed me your history beautifully bound. Swediaur to call on M. Buron, who was not at home; Dr. Returned home to M. Ensor, who sent for my passport: I called on Mr. Ensor added to it his Population and his Answer to the Quarterly Reviewers, 18 and promised to send them to Dr.
Swediaur who would give them to M. Buron to take with him to Spain—Mr. Kinloch desired me to thank you for the interest you had taken in his affair. The man who was sent for the passport returned with word that the passport could not be obtained without Mr. After dinner M. Buron called: he said that Sir S. Say to Rue Salle au Comte and executed the commission of Miss Brown: he then shewed me the Halle aux Innocens, an immense market, or rather a suite of markets, much like Covent Garden and Billingsgate joined into one: Even in the evening, when I saw it, I can safely say it was the most dirty, noisy, and crowded place in Paris—In one part of it is the Fontaine des Innocens, a very handsome fountain—I saw the street where Henri Quatre was stabbed by Ravaillac.
Ensor, who sent for my passport; called on Mr. Edition: current; Page: [ 11 ] Ensor, who added to it his book on population and his answer to the Quarterly Reviewers, and promised to send it to Dr. Swediaur for M. Could not obtain passport without Mr. With Mr. Ensor, Col. Young, and three ladies to see the Luxembourg; the palace and gardens are exceedingly pretty; the gallery of pictures was magnificent; I admired chiefly a painting by David of Leonidas and the Spartans at Thermopylae, and another, I forget by whom, in the miniature stile, of the queen of France giving liberty to slaves.
Returned home to dinner; after dinner M. Buron called, and said that Sir Samuel Bentham and Miss Clara were at Montpellier, but the remaining part of the family at Pompignan, 23 and that it was intended that they should all go to Madrid in winter.
Saw the street where Henry IV was killed. Took place in the diligence for Grizolles for the 27th. Say to make a call, saw M. Ensor, who was not at home. In returning I digested the matter for the first part of a second dialogue as a sequel to yours; and after returning home, I wrote a few pages. After breakfast went in a cabriolet to Arcueil—M. Left Mr. Berthollet; they begged me to go to see them on my return.
Ensor who was not at home. Ensor sent my passport. I could not go out on account of the rain: but I set about my dialogue in good earnest, and brought the subject to a conclusion: but I think several additions will be required. In the evening I went out to tea with M. Say and Madame Say. Ensor sent my passport: Could not go out on account of the rain. Horace and Melle Octavie dined out; M. This day, finished outline of dialogue. Ensor, but he was from home: I went to the public library, which is immense; and any one may read any book he pleases while he remains in the house, or, if known there, he may take it home with him.
There are two immense globes. I also saw a large orrery, and a piece of rock, on which was cut out a facsimile of the pyramids of Egypt and the country round. In a Cabinet adjoining are several curiosities, but that which pleased me most was a suit of ancient armour. In the Jardin is also a Menagerie of wild beasts, which I saw, and also of tame ones, which I did not see. Berthollet, and a letter of Mme B. I saw also the Pantheon, as much as possible, but as the Guardien was not there, I could not see much of the building: I saw however the stile of the architecture.
I returned home in a cabriolet. Besides the number of books, there were several other things worthy of notice: particularly, two globes of such a size as to require two stories to contain them; an orrery; a petra as it was called of the pyramids of Egypt, which seems to be a model in rock of the country round; and a cabinet, where among other curiosities there was a suit of ancient armour.
Ensor and took my leave of him. Afterwards I saw M. Buron, who gave me a packet for Mme Buron at Montauban. I had an early dinner and set off at 2 P. We passed through Longjumeau, the place where one of the mock treaties with the Hugenots was signed. We supped at Etampes. After travelling all night, in the morning of [ continues in the entry for 28 May ]. Buron and received from him a letter to his wife at Montauban. It is built on no regular plan, many of the principal streets are both narrow and dirty. In the heart of the city lie the two islands of Notre Dame and of St. Louis, the former of which formed the ancient Lutetia.
The city is surrounded by a large street, with footpaths, and rows of trees on both sides, which forms the great promenade of the city. On the west side, however, this street is interrupted by the Jardin des Thuilleries. The faubourgs are by much the pleasantest and cleanest part of the town.
This renders walking in the streets as well dangerous as dirty. The principal streets are the Rue St. Antoine, which form a continued line east and west, the Rue St. Denis and the street which continues it, north and south. Parallel to the two last runs the Rue St. Martin and its continuation the Rue St.
Denis Diderot -
The most centrical street for almost all which is worth seeing at Paris is the Rue de Richelieu parallel to the Rue Vivienne where Mr. Ensor lodges. There are many arcades in the city, but chiefly in the Palais Royal. That which bears the greatest resemblance to Burlington Arcade is the Passage des Panoramas. The Places are either squares or triangles, or indeed of any shape whatever. The streets are now lighted with oil; each lamp has large metal reflectors, and is suspended over the street; when they wish to light it they let it down by ropes.
The French number the houses of their streets differently from us; the even numbers are all on one side and the odd numbers on the other, so that we can directly know on which side to find the number we seek. The post horses are wretched and halfstarved: the private ones seem generally good. The hackney carriages are of two kinds; the fiacre, which resembles the English hackney coach and the cabriolet, which is a clumsy gig with a cover. This last, as it is less expensive than the former, having but one horse, and the vehicle itself being less costly, is very convenient for a single person.
The drivers pay every day a fixed sum to the owners of the vehicle; all the surplus belongs to themselves. Say has shewn me a plan of the chamber of deputies, in which is pointed out the place habitually occupied by each member. The liberals are to the left, the ultras to the right, the ministerialists in the middle, and the trimmers and waverers in the intermediate spaces.
The charter granted by Louis on his restoration 35 is daily violated; at present a question is on the carpet with respect to the electoral suffrage. We passed through Longjumeau, leaving Arcueil to the left, and in the evening arrived at Etampes, a pretty town, not very large, population 7, inhabitants. The country south of Paris is much more inclosed than in the north. As far as Orleans, the road is paved. This diligence, unlike the former, has four wheels.
We supped at Etampes, and travelled all night. Here I saw the statue of Joan of Arques. We had a dejeuner, that is to say, a dinner, at Noan, 39 a little place beyond Orleans. At Massay we got out for the night, and had an excellent supper, that is, another dinner still more sumptuous than the first, and excellent beds, very cheap.
Orleans, chef lieu of the Loiret, is one of the largest towns in France; it is well built, and situate on the right bank of the Loire. It is a manufacturing town, and contains 42, inhabitants. On leaving Orleans we pass over a very pretty bridge on the Loire. A troublesome fat marchand de boeuf, who was perpetually smoking tobacco, mounted the diligence here, and as he sat in the cabriolet. I was not a little incommoded by his smoking. We passed the Saudre near Salbris, and arrived at Vierzon. This town situate on the Cher, a considerable river, which, like those I have mentioned, throws itself into the Loire, is Edition: current; Page: [ 16 ] chiefly remarkable for the great number of islands and bridges which we are obliged to cross in passing through it.
We proceeded to Massay, a little village where we got out for the night. The company inside the diligence was excellent, particularly M. Longayrou, a very agreeable young gentleman who speaks English very passably. There were besides four gentlemen, one of them with his daughter. We supped at Massay, and had excellent beds. We dined at a little place called Beaumondai. The country has nothing remarkable in these parts; it is said to be among the most unpleasant in France.
We travelled all night. The population is 8, inhabitants. The town did not appear to me very pretty; I saw it however to little advantage, the morning being rainy. Passed through an uninteresting country, full of woods and ponds, to Argenton on the Creuse. We dined at a place called Beaumondai, but I cannot find this place in the Itineraire. We passed the Creuse, and travelled all night, crossing the river Gartempe at Bessines.
We supped at Uzerches, and travelled all night. Limoges is a very dirty town, and by no means pretty; it is very large, and contains no fewer than 21, inhabitants. I breakfasted here with a very good-natured gentleman from the interior of the diligence. The marchand de boeuf descended here for good and all, but the two places did not remain long vacant, being filled immediately by a lady, with a dirty fille, a boy, and a dog; the fille had an eruption on her face, which made my place none of the pleasantest, particularly on account of the smell.
Passed through a country extremely mountainous, producing scarcely any thing except chestnuts. On account of the hilliness, the road takes many windings, so much so that the length is at least tripled, and I am firmly of opinion that Richard Doane was right when he said that the distance from Paris to Toulouse is miles. This part of France is not very populous. I walked once during the day two leagues and a half before the diligence. Late in the evening we arrived at Uzerche, a town situate on a rock close to the Edition: current; Page: [ 17 ] river Vezere, which we crossed.
Here we supped; and after supper we mounted an extremely steep hill. The country here is very pleasant. At Cresansac, a young attorney leaving the diligence, I took my place in the interior, as it was my right, because I had the first place in the cabriolet. But I found this lady claimed the place, and the conducteur, who took her part, wanted to force me to quit my seat in the inside, but without effect, as I maintained my right and was supported by the gentlemen in the coach.
They at last referred the business to the maire, who decided it in my favour, the young avocat pleading my cause. The company in the diligence was very pleasant, particularly M. Longayrou, an agreeable young man, who speaks English by no means badly. The country from Limoges to Cahors produces scarcely any thing but chestnuts; it is so mountainous that the road is forced to turn and wind so much to avoid the hills, that its length, I think, is at least tripled.
After passing Souillac, the diligence was ferried over the river Dordogne and proceeded to Peyrac, where we slept. I breakfasted here with the same gentleman with whom I had breakfasted at Limoges: walked on to a considerable distance through a very mountainous and picturesque country.
We went on to the beautiful village of Noailles, where I got out again, and walked to Reigeade-de-Nepouls, situate on a hill. We arrived soon after at Cressansac, a little village on another hill. Here a young avocat left the diligence, upon which, having the first place in the cabriolet, I availed myself of my right to take the vacant place in the interior. This, however, I soon perceived to be disputed by the lady in the cabriolet, whose part was taken by the conducteur of the diligence.
He endeavoured to force me to descend but ineffectually, as I maintained my right, and was supported by all the gentlemen in the coach; at last the case was referred to the maire, who decided the question in my favour, the avocat pleading my cause. Accordingly I remained in the coach. I afterwards found that the lady wanted the place for the fille, on account of her eruption; had I known this I should have yielded.
We arrived soon after, having made a very steep descent, at Souillac, near the banks of the great river Dordogne. This town is extremely pretty; it is situate in the valley of the Dordogne between two great mountains. On leaving Souillac, we were ferried over the river in a large ferryboat, there being no bridge, though they are now building one. We then mounted the longest hill I have ever yet known, we were three quarters of an hour in mounting; after passing through as mountainous a country as before we arrived at Peyrac, where we dined and slept.
June 1. Cahors is a very pretty place. We crossed the river Lot; the country here becomes very fertile and pleasant: tobacco is grown near Cahors. She gave me a packet for Sir S. I arrived at Pompignan about 2 in the morning w[here M. Do not write till you hear from me again, because we leave Pompignan in a few day[s]. I have no room to write more. I remain. The morning was very fine. We arrived at Cahors, chef lieu of the Lot, celebrated for its wines; it is a very large town, containing 11, inhabitants; it has a pretty promenade, and is on the whole a very pretty town.
Near it are many Roman antiquities. In the neighbourhood tobacco is grown with considerable success, though very liable to be destroyed by the frequent hail-storms of this neighbourhood. Tobacco is not permitted to be grown everywhere, and the police-generale have made but an indifferent choice of ground for permitting it, since, if they had chosen the Haut-Languedoc instead of Quercy, the crops would not have been so frequently destroyed by hail.
It is not permitted for an unauthorized individual to have in his garden more than three tobacco plants of each species. The country becomes here much less mountainous, and extremely fertile. Vines are cultivated with very good success, and it is fertile also in corn. The river Tarn, on which it is situate, has its waters sometimes almost as red as blood, from the red clay which constitutes the banks, and the bottom. The population of Montauban is 23, inhabitants. I supped with Mme Buron, to whom I delivered the packet. On leaving the town we crossed the river and turning to the left we passed through the Faubourg Villebourbon and skirted the river to some distance.
Here we entered the spacious and beautiful plain of the Garonne, for its fertility and the variety of cultivation, said to be one of the finest in Europe. We passed through Canals, a pretty village, and Grizolles, but as it was late at night I could see very little. Found Mr. George and the servants waiting at Pompignan. Took leave of M. As I thought it best to write to you as soon as I knew where we were going, I have filled up half the sheet with my observations, and a few lines to Richard. We go to Rue St. I hope my mother, James and my sisters are very well, as well as my grandmother, etc.
June 2. After dinner wrote to my father—Drank tea with Mr. George and the young ladies—Finished letter. June 3.
Russell, an English gentleman living at Toulouse 3 —Walked a great deal about the town with Mr. Du Camp, 4 professor of Rhetoric I believe or some such thing, in an Ecole—Called on a very good dancing master, but he was not at home—Dined at Dr. Went to the theatre 5 —I understood a good deal—Slept at the Hotel des Princes. June 4. Breakfasted with Gen.
Partineaux, general of the division. It was very amusing. The crowd was immense. The bands were very pretty. We dined with Dr.
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Russell where we continued till it was time to return to our Hotel for the night. June 5. Completed with Mr. George the catalogue of books. Began, by his advice, to read Millot. Lady B. June 6. George advised me to read—learnt a French fable by rote 10 —Packed up the books, with Mr.
June 7. June 8. Wrote some of Dialogue—learnt a very long Fable by heart—Resolved some problems of West 11 —did French exercises. June 9. Rousse, I believe —Paid a visit to M. Cambronaro, an Edition: current; Page: [ 21 ] emigrant Spaniard, 13 with whom I conversed a great deal—Returned home, and read a comedy of Voltaire. June If good for nothing beside, it is good as an exercise to my reasoning powers as well as to my invention: both which it has tried extremely. Wrote some French exercises.
Began to learn an extremely long Fable. He insisted on my eating something, which I was compelled at last to do, and I assure you it pleased him greatly. After returning, I finished learning the long Fable. You have, I dare say, observed that I have not applied myself much to Mathematics as yet: in this you will say I am right when I tell you that the greater part of Sir S. Read another tragedy of Racine. Took a walk by myself after dinner.
George the maps of the departments; after breakfast, wrote French exercises. I read plays chiefly by the advice of Mr. George and of Lady Bentham, who say that dialogues are better to be read, on account of their giving the 1st and 2nd person of the verbs, and for many other reasons. After dinner, I took a very long walk by myself in the hills behind Pompignan and Grizolles, towards Fronton. The weather is now becoming rather warmer; hitherto it has been very cold for this climate and season.
After breakfast went with Mr. Learnt by heart the departments with their capital towns. In consequence of a conversation with Lady B. Compared the arrangement of M. Russell, Mrs. I walked about the grounds with young Russell, before and after dinner. Wrote a note to M. Say in French, as a parcel was going. There has been a mad dog in the neighbourhood, who bit a great number of persons: This morning a poor old man, of the age of 97 years, came for a remedy for the bite: Dr. This day Mr. After breakfast, took a little walk with young Mr. Went to the library: read something more of the Code Napoleon: wrote the Edition: current; Page: [ 23 ] first page and the concluding part of this letter.
Read some of Virgil; wrote French exercises: I suppose you know as much about the present state of French politics. The chief political question which has been lately considered is that of the Law of Elections. Now after many continued and most furious discussions, a new law has been carried by the ministry which makes the elections to take place at the chefs lieux of the separate arrondissemens of each department, and which gives persons of a much greater estimated income, I do not know the exact number of francs, a vote, I believe, still at the chef lieu of the department in some manner so that they are insured of having the choice of one fourth of the chamber of deputies.
This law has passed, I fancy, by a compromise of some sort, for when a preliminary question was put to the vote, all the members except four being present, the numbers were exactly equal, when as the sentence of the assembly was about to be decided by the casting vote of the president, 21 M. Chauvelin, 22 who was sick was carried into the house, and turned the balance on the side of the Liberaux.
From this result every one expected that, not only the law would be rejected, but there would be a partial change of ministry: the law was nevertheless passed by a majority of more than , as I believe. Chauvelin is since dead. This discussion has been probably of use to the people, as, on account of the severe censure on the daily press, the speeches of the deputies are the only mediums by which the people can get a glimpse of the truth.
The event of this affair has produced great riots at Paris, 23 and the gendarmerie was called out. One life has certainly been lost: and more, as I have been told. On account of some symptoms of the same design at Toulouse, horse patroles were placed in the streets at night. All this was magnified by a courier who passed through Pompignan on the 13th, who said that a dozen deputies had been asassinated and that the people were all in alarm at Toulouse, the gates were shut, and two regiments of infantry with one of horse artillery were placed under arms in the Place du Capitol, the grand square of the town.
All this we found on Dr. I suppose you know that Louvel is condemned to death. Perhaps you are not acquainted with an anecdote which serves to shew the bigotry of the priests. This he for a long time refused to do, but at last consented on condition that there should never be again performance in that theatre: which accordingly there has not been since that time. You are, I dare say, aware of the circumstances which attended the execution of Sand, the assassin of Kotzebue. This was, I daresay, in the English papers.
The local authorities in a provincial town, as in Toulouse, are very numerous. The maire also determines all petty disputes between the inhabitants. Besides these there are the courts of justice. At Toulouse, the military authorities are, the general of the division with his aid-de-camp, the general of the department, with his aid-de-camp, the colonels of five regiments among whom the Marquis de Chesnel is one 28 and several others whom I know nothing of.
Much on this subject I have not yet been able to learn: what I know is only that all, or almost all, the institutions for education, are under the controul of government: for even in the individual establishments nothing can be taught which displeases government. France seems upon the whole much less populous than England. Near Toulouse the population is greater than I have seen it elsewhere: the number of villages is much greater than is common in some parts of France.
On account of the law of inheritance in France, 29 which compels every one to divide his land, with the exception of a certain portion, among his children, is the cause why the division of landed property is carried very far here: each peasant has his piece of land: Pierrotou the domestique has his piece, as well as his neighbours: he has likewise a metairie belonging to M. The peasants have Edition: current; Page: [ 25 ] neither knowledge; nor capital sufficient to introduce any good system of cultivation.
Notwithstanding the number of small proprietors, there is a gentleman in Languedoc near Montpellier who has 35, francs per annum by apples alone: besides what he may have by anything else. Every departement is divided into arrondissements, and every arrondissement into communes. As yet, this is all I have learnt.
You see we are still here, but you will see from the journal that we shall not now be here long. All the observations I have made since my last letter you will find interspersed in the journal. In my last letter I told you where to direct your letters; I shall be expecting one almost as soon as I arrive, since it is now more than a month since I left England, and I dare say something must have happened worthy of notice. We hear a great deal here of the Queen of England; 1 I suppose if she is tried Edition: current; Page: [ 26 ] there will be as much disturbance as we have had about the Election law.
Give my love to my mother, James, my sisters, my grandmother, aunts, uncles etc. After breakfast went into the library, wrote French exercises. George as usual was occupied in packing. Read some of Lucian. Performed an investigation of the Differential Calculus. Took a short walk out of the grounds. After returning dined. Then read a tragedy of Corneille. After breakfast, finished exercises: walked out in the grounds with Mr. Received from Mr. Quelle emphase pour ne dire que des choses communes!
Quels grands mots pour de petits raisonnemens! Rarement du sens, de la justesse; jamais ni finesse, [xii] ni force, ni profondeur. Si vos personnages sont dans la Nature, avouez que leur styIe est peu naturel? Mais cet avantage manque encore ici. Fort bien. Ils sont enfans, penseront-ils en hommes? Ils ne savent rien de tout cela. Un moment: reprenez haleine. Est-ce bien cela? Moi, je persiste.
The French Émigrés in Europe and the Struggle against Revolution, 1789–1814
Les maris, les femmes, les meres de famille Du mal! A qui? Relisez la Lettre sur les spectacles; relisez ce Recueil Vous estimez peu vos contemporains. Monsieur, je suis aussi leur contemporain! Vous y mettrez votre nom? Je ne veux pas passer pour meilleur que je ne suis. Rousseau, Citoyen de Geneve! However, some parts of the website will not work in this case. If you continue without changing your settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive all cookies from our website. More details. Register Log On. In short: Only discussions that contribute to finding solutions and do not aggravate are permitted.
All non-linguistic content will be removed. No duplicate answers are permitted. Legal process document serving. Jennifer White. User Agree. That's exactly the way I understand it too admittedly as a non-specialist! As I understand it, your headword answer does indeed translate the whole of the term queried. David John Watt Agree. Yes, where both parties are heard each side can submit its case.