DoDD S The resulting document, Joint Doctrine for Information Operations Joint Publication , emerged in October to implement the new concept of Information Operations. JP repeated S The department is experiencing sophisticated computer challenges now. Bruce A. Computer network attack is a real threat. Wright had in his remarks. First, it furthered the development of doctrine by opening the door to the refinement of CNA.
The Future of Information Operations
It also limited that refinement to the field of information operations, a grab bag of potentially useful capabilities that the Pentagon meant for commanders to employ. Conceived of in this way, CNA promised much, but could deliver little. The result of these experiences was Joint Publication , Information Operations These included several of direct relevance to cyberspace operations.
In its own words, the new JP The latter two points marked a kind of elevation for computer network attack. CNO is one of the latest capabilities developed in support of military operations. CNO stems from the increasing use of networked computers and supporting IT infrastructure systems by military and civilian organizations. CNO, along with EW, is used to attack, deceive, degrade, disrupt, deny, exploit, and defend electronic information and infrastructure.
II-4 and II-5]. The broad category of computer network operations, moreover, possessed offensive, defensive, and intelligence and enabling modes. The new JP added two sub-categories to the older specialty of computer network attack. Information Operations could be and almost certainly would be utilized by any adversary, and therefore had to be recognized as a serious factor affecting the plans of battlefield commanders and the national interest of the United States:.
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Where the version of JP had recognized the potential for computer network attacks on critical infrastructure in the United States, the new JP hinted at the reality that adversaries were already utilizing the Internet against American forces and interests:. The increasing reliance of unsophisticated militaries and terrorist groups on computers and computer networks to pass information to [command and control their] forces reinforces the importance of CNO in IO plans and activities.
As the capability of computers and the range of their employment broadens, new vulnerabilities and opportunities will continue to develop. The Armed Forces must have the ability to operate across the air, land, sea, space and cyberspace domains of the battlespace. Armed Forces must employ military capabilities to ensure access to these domains to protect the Nation, forces in the field and US global interests.
Indeed, it soon proved too complex and important to remain a component of Information Operations as IO doctrine. The actual practice of cyberspace operations in the years after forced the resolution of this mismatch between policy and doctrine.
Joint Publication JP 3-13 Information Operations 13 February 2006
The Joint Staff issued its next revision of JP in November , and though the details of its reformulation of Information Operations doctrine lie beyond the scope of this essay, it suffices to mention that the new version quietly abandoned the idea that computer network operations represented a core IO capability. The Joint Staff had not forgotten doctrine for cyberspace operations. This new JP began by taking pains to explain the doctrinal evolution that had just unfolded. This relationship represents an evolution both in IO, transitioning from a collection of capabilities to a broader integrating function focused on the adversary, and in CO, evolving from its computer network operations roots into a way to operationally integrate CO within joint operations.
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In the past, CO have been considered a subset of IO and those operations incorporated in the terms of computer network operations, computer network attack, computer network defense, and CNE. I-5 and I-6; emphasis added]. JP moved beyond the re-classification of computer network operations and its associated sub-categories to a new terminology that more accurately described the purposes and scope of cyberspace operations.
Two of which—cyberspace defense and cyberspace attack—will sound familiar to readers used to the old CND and CNA of earlier joint publications. The latter two, however, are novel, and correspond to the old CNE category. They are as follows:. These activities synchronize and integrate the planning and operation of cyberspace systems, in direct support of current and future operations. Cyberspace ISR focuses on tactical and operational intelligence and on mapping adversary cyberspace to support military planning.
Cyberspace ISR requires appropriate deconfliction, and cyberspace forces that are trained and certified to a common standard with the IC. ISR in cyberspace is conducted pursuant to military authorities and must be coordinated and deconflicted with other [US Government USG ] departments and agencies. OPE consists of the non-intelligence enabling activities conducted to plan and prepare for potential follow-on military operations. OPE requires cyberspace forces trained to a standard that prevents compromise of related IC operations.
what are information operations
OPE in cyberspace is conducted pursuant to military authorities and must be coordinated and deconflicted with other USG departments and agencies. II 5]. These new types of actions reflect a significant maturation of a cyberspace doctrine. They are not the last word, but they advance the conversation in a more realistic manner than the over-broad category of Information Operations. Doctrine is the application of principles, and not the principles themselves.
As we have seen, doctrine can and does shift for a range of reasons, such as technological advances, foreign developments, and even political concerns. It does not always proceed in a neat, linear fashion. Indeed, the story told here can be read as a twenty-year detour in the development of doctrine for cyberspace operations. The publicly available documentary record is still too thin to say exactly what happened and why, however, and so any conclusions drawn from this chain of events must be considered tentative for now.
The shift should not obscure an important consistency across the period in question. It also became easier to contemplate—again, in doctrine—that information technology had created more than a wide range of new tools and opportunities for militaries to fight one another. This was originally classified but released to the public in an abridged version in late The Cyber Defense Review. What Kind of Warfare? I-3] Specifically, the US military now depended on civilian infrastructure, but in ordinary circumstances DoD could not act directly to protect those key resources that the joint force commander needed to perform his missions: Although DOD information flows depend on civil information infrastructures, the protection of these infrastructures falls outside the authority and responsibility of the DOD.
I-4] But how would this work? Softening the Terms The equivocation over information warfare and its incongruities with C2W could not continue forever. War by Computers? Removes information warfare as a term from joint IO doctrine. Updates the descriptions and interrelationship of the five core IO capabilities electronic warfare, computer network operations, psychological operations, operations security, and military deception and their associated supporting and related capabilities. Establishes the core capability of computer network operations, consisting of computer network attack, computer network defense, and computer network exploitation.
II-4 and II-5] The broad category of computer network operations, moreover, possessed offensive, defensive, and intelligence and enabling modes. II-5] Information Operations could be and almost certainly would be utilized by any adversary, and therefore had to be recognized as a serious factor affecting the plans of battlefield commanders and the national interest of the United States: regardless of their size, adversaries, including terrorist groups, can counter US efforts through propaganda campaigns, or develop, purchase, or download from the Internet tools and techniques enabling them to attack US information and information systems which may result in tangible impacts on US diplomatic, economic, or military efforts.
Where the version of JP had recognized the potential for computer network attacks on critical infrastructure in the United States, the new JP hinted at the reality that adversaries were already utilizing the Internet against American forces and interests: The increasing reliance of unsophisticated militaries and terrorist groups on computers and computer networks to pass information to [command and control their] forces reinforces the importance of CNO in IO plans and activities.
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Joint Publication , The actual practice of cyberspace operations in the years after forced the resolution of this mismatch between policy and doctrine. II-5] The Joint Staff had not forgotten doctrine for cyberspace operations. They are as follows: 2 Cyberspace ISR. US Army Comments Policy. If you wish to comment, use the text box below. Army reserves the right to modify this policy at any time. This is a moderated forum. That means all comments will be reviewed before posting. In addition, we expect that participants will treat each other, as well as our agency and our employees, with respect.
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Comments that make unsupported accusations will also not be posted. The USA Today articles were written by veteran foreign correspondent Jack Kelley , who in was fired after allegations emerged that he had fabricated stories and sources. In October , The New York Times published an article claiming that al-Qaeda had used steganography to encode messages into images, and then transported these via e-mail and possibly via USENET to prepare and execute the 11 September terrorist attack. This was designed to detect the most likely image steganography in transit and thereby provide UK Ministry of Defence Intelligence Staff a realistic approach to "narrowing the field", suggesting that interception capacity was never the difficulty but rather prioritising the target media.
Al-Qaeda has used steganography in such "plain sight" mediums such as Internet pornography to communicate information about their attacks to be carried out on civilian populations. A police search of a British, al-Qaeda member's home, uncovered what is now called "The al-Qaeda Training Manual", a techniques instruction book on deception, forgery, "blending in", hiding places, and the use of covers to blend into the terrorist area of operation usually cities with large civilian populations.
First, US PSYOP targets foreign adversaries and information is coordinated with many other agencies and screened before it is published. Second, while PSYOP by US and coalition forces is "designed to bring an end to violence and save lives, terrorist PSYOP is frequently directed toward promoting violence and threatening civilian populations with death and destruction. Suicide bombers are portrayed as martyrs rather than killers of innocent people.
The Internet is the main resource to spread propaganda with al-Aqaeda and other terrorist groups. Terrorists also like to use the Internet to recruit and persuade children to their cause. As Dorothy Denning has found, "Children are being taught to hate Jews and Westerners, and to take up arms against them [through cartoons and comic-book style web pages, bedtime stories, and computer games]". All terrorists practice a high level of OPSEC since their need to be secret is how they can be successful. Whether it is the al-Qaeda training manual, online magazines targeted for the world, or the training of youth in Jihad camps, OPSEC is one of the first priorities for terrorists.
Secure communications are big as well. The 11 September hijackers, for example, accessed anonymous Hotmail and Yahoo! Three weeks before the attacks, Mohamed Atta reportedly received a coded email message that read: "The semester begins in three more weeks. We've obtained 19 confirmations for studies in the faculty of law, the faculty of urban planning, the faculty of fine arts, and the faculty of engineering.
The list of methods goes on and on and is very similar to the methods used in organized crime around the world.
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