Precisely because the Arabs lacked human rights, the Europeans felt at once superior to and secure from them. Islam is now helping to undo what it once helped to create. A classical geography is organically reasserting itself, as the forces of terrorism and human migration reunite the Mediterranean Basin, including North Africa and the Levant, with Europe.
How Islam Created Europe
The Continent has absorbed other groups before, of course. In fact, Europe has been dramatically affected by demographic eruptions from the east: In the medieval centuries, vast numbers of Slavs and Magyars migrated into central and eastern Europe from deeper inside Eurasia. But those peoples adopted Christianity and later formed polities, from Poland in the north to Bulgaria in the south, that were able to fit, however bloodily, inside the evolving European state system. As for the Algerian guest workers who emigrated to France and the Turkish and Kurdish guest workers who emigrated to Germany during the Cold War, they represented a more containable forerunner to the current migration.
Today, hundreds of thousands of Muslims who have no desire to be Christian are filtering into economically stagnant European states, threatening to undermine the fragile social peace. Meanwhile, the new migration, driven by war and state collapse, is erasing the distinction between the imperial centers and their former colonies.
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Orientalism, through which one culture appropriated and dominated another, is slowly evaporating in a world of cosmopolitan interactions and comparative studies, as Said intuited it might. Europe has responded by artificially reconstructing national-cultural identities on the extreme right and left, to counter the threat from the civilization it once dominated. It was known, however, by his friends that he had left behind in an unfinished state the materials for a volume on Western Europe in the Fifth Century.
Like many other historical students he was much interested in the few historical notices that have survived concerning the events in Britain during the fifth century. He desired to understand them, and as far as possible to fit them in with what we know of the general political development of Western Europe, and he felt that the only way of approaching this subject with any chance of permanent success was to make sure of the events that had happened in Gaul. If we understood clearly what had occurred there we were at least in possession of information which would keep us from wrong ideas as to what might have happened in insular Britain.
The incidents that are recorded are so brief and isolated that, taken by themselves, they fail to give us any idea of what was going on, but when we look at them in the light created by events in Gaul we perceive faint traces of a connection between them; it is the fading influence of the magic name, respublica Romana, and the efforts that were being made, secular and religious, to revive it for the salvation of the island.
It was then for this purpose that he had given as professor two or three courses of lectures on this subject, and it is evident from such portions of his manuscript that remain that he had set out his work with the view to its publication. Some of the chapters he had completed, some were still fragmentary, and for each section he had provided some notes or indications of notes, and in what was meant for an appendix he had discussed at greater length than was possible in the text one or two questions of especial importance.
The manuscript of these lectures, just as it was found, was handed over to his friend, the late Professor York Powell, who very kindly undertook to see the volume through the press.
BBC - History - Ancient History in depth: The Fall of Rome
This, however, he never accomplished, and after his premature death the portions which he had worked off, a rough print of the rest, and such sheets of the manuscript as could be found, were returned to Mr. The order that the Roman Empire had brought to western Europe for years was no more. Antiquity Online At least five distinctive chapters on the fall of Rome can be found at this history buff's website. In-depth essays provide the real info on what happened in Rome, from the political chaos to the rise of Christianity.
Also, visitors can find out what was going on in the rest of the world while Rome was decaying. Report broken link.
Ancient Civilizations 1. How Do We Know?
Geographers and Their Space 2. First Technologies: Fire and Tools 3.
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Women of Ancient Egypt 4. Muhammad and the Faith of Islam 5. The Olympic Games 6. The Fall of the Roman Empire 7.
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