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The story of Rep. Tom Marino R-Pa. He is the first non-scientist appointed to the position. Myers has lobbied Congress to curtail how much information NOAA shares with the public, so he and companies like his can sell it back to the consumer. Even though your tax dollars paid for it. The Environmental Protection Agency is basically being stripped and sold for parts to the energy lobby and other polluters.

EPA Secretary Scott Pruitt and the Trump budget have gutted many of the environmental programs that serve communities all over the country. He represents the oil industry. Remember the economic crash? An estimated 10 million people lost their homes. Bush, has a history of attacking voting rights. All those coal miners who supported Trump because he would look out for them?

Not so much. In addition to having no education experience, Betsy DeVos has spent her adult life lobbying to dismantle public schools—something that makes her perfect for Secretary of Education, at least under Trump. Former Texas Gov. Rick Perry as Secretary of Energy? While Republicans control the House, the Senate, and the White House, they are facing a potential wave election in that would give control back to the Democrats.

Even though it is.

David Mamet: Chicago

Or refusing to pay for the enforcement of an act. The Morgenthau Plan, in the sense of the plan drafted by Morgenthau or the plan initialled by Roosevelt, was never implemented. Some progress has been made in converting Germany to an agricultural and light industry economy, said Brigadier General William H. Draper, Jr. He explained that Germany's future industrial and economic pattern was being drawn for a population of 66,, On that basis, he said, the nation will need large imports of food and raw materials to maintain a minimum standard of living.


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By February 28, , it was estimated that 4,, German former prisoners of war, by General Dwight D. Eisenhower relabeled as Disarmed Enemy Forces in order to negate the Geneva Convention , were used as forced labor by the various Allied countries to work in camps outside Germany: 3,, in Russia, , in France, , in Britain and 10, in Belgium. In Germany, shortage of food was an acute problem. According to Alan S. Milward, in —47 the average kilocalorie intake per day was only 1,, an amount insufficient for long-term health.

William Clayton reported to Washington that "millions of people are slowly starving". All armaments plants, including some that could have been converted to civilian operation, were dismantled or destroyed. A large proportion of operational civilian plants were dismantled and transported to the victorious nations, mainly France and Russia.

In addition to the above courses of action, there have been general policies of destruction or limitation of possible peaceful productivity under the headings of "pastoral state" and "war potential". The original of these policies apparently expressed on September 15, , at Quebec, aimed at:. Early US plans for "industrial disarmament" included detaching the Saarland and the Ruhr from Germany in order to remove much of the remaining industrial potential. As late as March there were still active plans to let France annex the Ruhr.

I have been disturbed over the arena in which the debate has been carried out. Clay and Draper claim that Germany will go communist shortly after any proposal to infringe on its sovereignty over the Ruhr is carried out.


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The Saar Protectorate , another important source of coal and industry for Germany, was likewise to be lost by the Germans. It was cut out from Germany and its resources put under French control. In , the French, under pressure from West Germany and her newfound allies, held a plebiscite in the Saar Protectorate on the question of reunification or independence. Reunification won overwhelmingly, and on January 1, , it rejoined West Germany as the state of Saarland. As Germany was allowed neither airplane production nor any shipbuilding capacity to supply a merchant navy, all facilities of this type were destroyed over a period of several years.

Everything that could not be dismantled was blown up or otherwise destroyed. A small-scale attempt to revive the company in ended with the owners and a number of employees being thrown in jail by the British. Timber exports from the US occupation zone were particularly heavy.

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Sources in the US government stated that the purpose of this was the "ultimate destruction of the war potential of German forests". Over a period of years, American policy slowly changed away from this policy of "industrial disarmament". Byrnes on September 6, Reports such as this by former US President Herbert Hoover , dated March , also argued for a change of policy, among other things through speaking frankly of the expected consequences.

There are several illusions in all this "war potential" attitude. There is the illusion that the New Germany left after the annexations can be reduced to a "pastoral state". It cannot be done unless we exterminate or move 25,, people out of it. This would approximately reduce Germany to the density of the population of France.

In July , President Harry S. Truman rescinded on "national security grounds" [40] JCS , which had directed the US forces of occupation in Germany to "take no steps looking toward the economic rehabilitation of Germany". In addition to the physical barriers that had to be overcome, for the German economic recovery there were also intellectual challenges.

The Allies confiscated intellectual property of great value, all German patents both in Germany and abroad, and used them to strengthen their own industrial competitiveness by licensing them to Allied companies. The Marshall Plan was extended to also include Western Germany after it was realized that the suppression of the Western German economy was holding back the recovery of the rest of Europe. The last repayment was made in June In Poland agreed to forego further reparations claims against Germany. In West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer wrote to the Allies requesting that the policy of industrial dismantling end, citing the inherent contradiction between encouraging industrial growth and removing factories and also the unpopularity of the policy.

Morgenthau Plan

Historical assessments differ with regard to the nature, duration and effects of Morgenthau's plan and JCS on American and Allied policies. The US diplomat James Dobbins writes that an early draft of JCS had been written while the plan was still understood to be US policy, and "[b]ecause nothing replaced the Morgenthau plan once it had been disavowed, the final version of JCS contained many of the harsh measures and all the intent of a hard peace toward Germany".

Clay's good-willed effort did meet obstacles, like General Marshall forbidding him from relaxing the strict non-fraternization to a more reasonable level. Dobbins remarks that the harsh punitive measures shifted toward reform over time as the US faced with the problem of feeding millions of Germans and the Soviet expansion. This resulted in the German question being postponed to after the final victory over the Axis Powers and Japan.

At most, the short-lived approval of the Morgenthau Plan by Roosevelt might possibly be seen as a guiding principle of his policy toward Germany, especially since important elements of this plan found their way into [JCS ]. Germany needed to be punished for wrongdoing, but it was also essential to revive the German economy for its necessary contribution to European recovery. The stern pronouncement of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Directive JCS that the United States commander should do nothing to restore the German economy above the minimum level necessary to prevent such disease and unrest as might endanger the occupation forces gave way in July to an order to stimulate coal production for export delivery to Belgium, the Netherlands, and France" which did not materialize.

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In May , General Clay's stop-order on the dismantling of plants for reparations marked the first open recognition of the failure of Potsdam. After , when conflicting policies began to be reconciled, economic and social conditions began to be improved. Hudson describes JSC as less harsh than Morgenthau's plan: while core elements of the Morgenthau Plan were incorporated in JCS , it was deliberately diluted, and permitted the military government to be more flexible than envisaged by the Morgenthau Plan.

The German Federal Agency for Civic Education BPD asserts that the Morgenthau Plan was never implemented and was only briefly supported by Roosevelt, [93] and that JSC , while treating Germany as a defeated enemy state instead of a liberated nation and aiming at the dismantling of German industries, also left loopholes that allowed a military governor to later implement more lenient policies. The agency states that the purpose of JCS , which replaced JCS , was to increase German self-government at the regional level, limit dismantling of war industries, raise living standards, and remove dependence on subsidies.

The Norwegian economist Erik S. Reinert , states that "The Morgenthau Plan was abruptly stopped in Germany in ", compares United States policies toward third-world countries at the end of the 20th century with the Morgenthau Plan in the wider sense , arguing that they have the de facto effect of de-industrializing third-world nations; he contrasts such destructive "Morgenthau plans" with more beneficial "Marshall plans".

The relevant volume of the British official history of the Second World War states that the Morgenthau Plan "exercised little influence upon Allied policy after the Potsdam Conference The history argues though that prior to the conference the plan "disastrously bedevilled much military government planning" and led to an ill-judged hardening of Allied plans for occupied Germany as well as disagreements between the US and British governments.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Demilitarization of Germany. This means completely disarming the German Army and people including the removal or destruction of all war material , the total destruction of the whole German armament industry, and the removal or destruction of other key industries which are basic to military strength. Partitioning of Germany. As indicated in part 3 an International zone should be created containing the Ruhr and the surrounding industrial areas. Within a short period, if possible not longer than 6 months after the cessation of hostilities, all industrial plants and equipment not destroyed by military action shall either be completely dismantled and removed from the area or completely destroyed.

All equipment shall be removed from the mines and the mines shall be thoroughly wrecked. It is anticipated that the stripping of this area would be accomplished in three stages: The military forces immediately upon entry into the area shall destroy all plants and equipment which cannot be removed. Removal of plants and equipment by members of the United Nations as restitution and reparation Paragraph 4.

All plants and equipment not removed within a stated period of time, say 6 months, will be completely destroyed or reduced to scrap and allocated to the United Nations. JCS Morgenthau, Henry Box 31, Folder Germany: Jan. Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum published 27 May Archived from the original on 31 May Demilitarization of Germany: It should be the aim of the Allied Forces to accomplish the complete demilitarization of Germany in the shortest possible period of time after surrender.

Basic Books. Retrieved 28 September He published several volumes articulating his stance on various aspects of theatre and film, including On Directing Film , Three Uses of the Knife , and True and False: Heresy and Common Sense for the Actor Compilations of his essays and experiences included Writing in Restaurants , Make-Believe Town , and Bambi vs.

He wrote several plays for children as well. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles.

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