Question: Who is it who has never been told about him who will "see" and "understand"? Who is it these people did not know before Paul and the Apostles? Answer: Before the ministry of Paul and his companions in Christ the Gentile nations did not know Christ but through the power of the Gospel of Jesus Christ they came to "see" and to "understand" Christ and to received the gift of salvation. This Isaiah passage is from the Fourth Song of the Suffering Servant which takes up the theme of suffering and the persecution which the "Servant" of God will endure.
Paul also quoted the next verse, Isaiah in Romans Paul does not mean to compare himself with Christ by quoting this passage'he means to say that he is sent by Christ to those who have never seen or heard about the Savior and he leads them to understanding by the power of the Holy Spirit. This verse will, however, become prophetic for him in the coming spring and the next two years when Paul will witness before governors and kings: Isaiah , " Please read Romans : Paul's future plans.
For if the Gentiles have been given a share in their spiritual possessions, then in return to give them help with material possessions is repaying a debt to them. Again Paul announces his intention of visiting the Roman Christians as he previously mentioned in the opening of his letter in Romans Question: What mission does Paul write that he must complete before coming to visit them? See Romans ; Acts ; 1 Corinthians Answer: He must deliver the Gentile's contributions to the mother Church in Rome. This is a mission that has been planned since Paul first wrote about it in 1 Corinthians and repeated the plan in 2 Corinthians chapters Question: Notice that twice, in verses 26 and 27 Paul stresses that the donation of the Gentiles to the Church in Jerusalem is voluntary.
What debt or obligation does Paul consider the Gentiles have to the Church in Jerusalem and why? Answer: Paul considered it the obligation of the Gentiles as younger brothers who have been welcomed back into the family of God and therefore now have a share in the spiritual blessings of the covenant to express their solidarity with the Jews as their older brothers and sisters in faith by support the members of the Church in Jerusalem who were in need of material support.
Many orthodox Jews of the Diaspora would come to Jerusalem to die, leaving behind their widows and orphans. Many of these abandoned widows became Christians and were a financial burden for the Jerusalem church. In this gesture of solidarity from the Gentile Christians is also the reminder that the Gentiles are the "wild olive branches" that have been grafted on to the original root'the Patriarchs, the fathers of the Jews [see Romans ], and the "wild branches" have an obligation to share not only in the blessings but in the suffering.
Notice the title given to those who suffer in Jerusalem in verse 26 , "to the poor among God's holy people. Blessed are you who are hungry now: you shall have your fill. Blessed are you who are weeping now: you shall laugh. Question: Where does Paul plan to go after visiting the Romans and what is he hoping the Roman church will give him? Answer: He plans to spread the Gospel in Spain and is his hoping for their emotional support and probably for their financial support'what every missionary evangelist needs for the success of his mission.
Answer: That they will pray for the success of his mission to Jerusalem and the preservation of his life. Please read Romans : Greetings to Roman Christians.
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Greetings to my dear friend Epaenetus, the first of Asia's offerings to Christ. Greetings to all the household of Aristobulus. All the churches of Christ send their greetings. This special greeting again illustrates the position of honor of the Roman church whose "faith is talked of all over the world. In Romans Paul commends to the Roman congregation the deaconess Phoebe who Paul writes of endearingly not as "his" sister but as "our" sister, meaning "our sister" in the precious Blood of Jesus the Christ'it is a kinship affiliation that is stronger than the physical bond in the natural family.
The title he assigns her, deaconess, identifies Phoebe to the Roman church as a woman of importance "in service" to the Church in the East. She may have been a woman of independent wealth because Paul mentions that she has come to the aid of many people, including himself. From this passage most scholars believe Phoebe was entrusted by Paul with delivering this most important letter to the Roman church. Paul must have placed great confidence and trust in this holy woman.
After his request for Phoebe's welcome Paul greets a large number of Roman Christians'with many of whom he has strong ties and some are apparently only acquaintances. We may have wondered how Paul could speak so boldly about the "weaknesses" within this community which needed to be overcome'now we know how Paul was so well acquainted with the problems that threatened the unity of this faith community'he had inside information! We will look more closely at this list after Paul sends greetings from his co-workers in Corinth in , but Prisca and Aquila deserve special mention.
Question: When did Paul first meet this devoted Jewish couple in whose home the Church gathered in Corinth? What was the probable date of their first meeting? Hint: see Acts Answer: Emperor Claudius' expulsion of Jews and Christians from Rome is generally dated to 49AD so Paul's meeting with Pricilla and Aquila must have been sometime after the eviction of Jews and Christians from Rome and after the Council of Jerusalem which is also dated to 49AD'an opportune time to meet since the Church leadership Peter and others had also been expelled from the Roman capital.
Sometime after meeting these holy Jewish Christians from the Roman Church, Paul was brought before the Roman governor of the province of Achaea [Greece] in the city of Corinth for charges leveled against him by the Jews. An inscription discovered at Delphi, Greece, helps to approximate the date Junius Gallio was Roman proconsul of Achaea. His appointment could not have been earlier than the late spring of 50 and he must have continued in that position [if he served a two year term] not later than the early summer of 54AD. During Claudius' reign as Emperor, an official like Gallio normally left Rome in the early spring and arrived at his post by the late spring or early summer.
Such men usually served for a term of 1 year but it was not unusual for them to serve 2 years, as in the case of Roman governor of Judea-Samaria-Galilee, Marcus Antonius Felix. Pontius Pilate was governor for 10 years from AD]. In what other ways did they serve the Church and support Paul in his ministry? See Acts , ; 1 Corinthians Pricilla and Aquila are the model Christian couple devoted to God, to serving the Gospel of Jesus Christ and devoted to each other. Paul stayed with them in Corinth where they worked together in the trade of tent-making [or prayer shawl making; tillit in Hebrew can mean "tent" or "prayer shawl"]; their home was the first Christian gathering place in Corinth.
According to Acts when Paul's mission was competed in Corinth they left with him and traveled to Ephesus where they also established a church-home [ 1 Corinthians ]. In Ephesus they met a gifted Christian orator named Apollos and gave him more complete instruction in the Word. They returned to Rome some time after Claudius' edict was revoked [54AD] where they also offered their home as a "church-home" to Roman Christians.
During their years of friendship and service in the Church they willing risked their lives for Paul and were most likely his best source of information concerning the spiritual health of the Roman faith community. Question: What request does Paul make in Romans and what is the significance? Such was the kiss with which Joab greeted Amasa when he stabbed him 2 Samuel and the kiss of betrayal that Judas used to identify Jesus to the Temple police Matthew ; Mark ; and Luke This ancient greeting survives in the Catholic Mass in the ritual of the Pax: the sign of peace, a rite described in St.
Paul appeals to the Roman Christians for their prayers as he prepares for the journey to Jerusalem that he planned to make in what would probably be the spring of 58AD, and he gives them a final warning. Please read Romans : Paul's final warning. Avoid them. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. This final warning is similar to Paul's parting words in other letters; for example, see Galatians He is probably referring to the Jews who try convince Jewish Christians to reject the New Covenant or Jewish Christians who cannot accept a unified brethren and reject the Gentile Christians [see Galatians ; Philippians ].
In this case, Paul advises, debating the issues can only go so far'there is a point when such discord can become harmful to the believer and he should walk away. It is wise in such cases to remember Paul's warning in Romans : " In Romans Paul again compliments the Roman Christians: "Your obedience has become known to everyone, and I am very pleased with you for it..
Question: To what Old Testament promise is Paul alluding in this verse? Answer: He is recalling God's promise in Genesis that the "seed of the Woman" will have the power to "crush the head of the serpent". Jesus has fulfilled this promise with His Resurrection, but Christians, as the collective "seed of the Woman, Mary" are still in battle against Satan but we have take courage because we have already been promised the victory!
Before Paul concludes his letter he names members of the Corinthian church who are friends as well as his companions and fellow workers in Corinth. Many scholars do not believe this section of Paul's letter from is part of the original document, arguing that verse 20 is the original closing formula of the letter. Perhaps that is possible but these verses are included in all but a few of the ancient copies of Paul's letter to the Romans and some of those omit the entire list of names, perhaps because those copies were used in the liturgical readings just as we omit parts of Scripture from certain passages of Scripture used in our liturgical readings [i.
Isn't it also possible that those with Paul'maybe even looking over the shoulder of his secretary, wanted to be included and suggested that their greetings be added along with the greeting of Paul's secretary, Tertius which made it necessary to close the letter with the lovely doxology which follows the greeting of the Corinthian Christians in verses ? Haven't we all had such an experience? Isn't it likely that Paul's fellow laborers in the "great harvest of souls" would take an interest in his letter to the very important Roman Christian community where many of them had friends who were serving Christ in the center of the pagan Roman Empire?
Please read Romans : Last greetings from Christians in Corinth "Timothy, who is working with me, sends greetings to you, and so do my kinsmen Lucius, Jason and Sosipater. I, Tertius, who am writing this letter, greet you in the Lord. Greetings to you from Gaius, my host here, and host of the whole Church. Erastus, the city treasurer, sends greetings to you, and our brother Quartus".
It was unusual for a wife to be given preference over her husband in this way, and he does not use her formal name nor refer to her simply as Aquila's wife, giving her status in her own right. Paul first meant this Jewish couple in Corinth, Greece, during his second missionary journey which lasted from circa 50 AD. Paul was very fond of this couple and knew them for years, often stayed in their home which also served as a church for believers.
He credits themn with saving his life. When Paul first meant them the couple had recently been driven out of Rome by Claudius edit banning both Jews and Christians that the Roman historian Suetonius mentions in his history of Rome. This edict was enacted circa 49 or 50AD. The couple practiced the trade of tent or prayer shawl making as did Paul. This couple actively preached salvation through Jesus Christ and offered their home to the faithful for the celebration of the Eucharist. These various spellings all mean "highly desirable" in Greek.
Epaphras was a Christian of Colossae, Greece see Colossians who founded the Christian Church of Colossae and who was also a faithful companion during Paul's imprisonment in Rome see Philemon He brought gifts to Paul from the church at Philippi Philippians and was later sent by Paul back to Philippi after Epaphroditus become ill Philippians No other information is available on this Roman Christian probably the Jewish "Miriam" but could be the Latin feminine for Marius. John Chrysostom identifies them as a married couple.
Paul experiences imprisonment on several occasions before writing this letter and would be imprisoned afterward as well Acts chapters ; 2 Corinthians ; 2 Timothy This name seems to have been a common slave name and has been found in several Latin inscriptions from this period. This name appears in several very early Latin inscriptions from this period.
Their names mean "delicately and delicate" and are names that are found in Greek inscriptions. Paul identifies them as women who labor in the service of the Lord. He may possibly be one of the sons of Simeon of Cyrene who became promiment in the Church [see Mark ] and who were known to Mark when he was in Rome, or he may be Rufus Prudens, a Roman Senator who sheltered the Church in his palace [see 2 Timothy ].
Paul is fond of his mother who became a spiritual mother to him. There was a Hermas who is believed to be the younger brother of Pope St. Clement who will become a priest of the Church in Rome. He wrote "The Shepherd" and is listed among the successors of the Apostles in Rome. The great 3 rd cent. Scholar Origen believes this is the same man. Timothy joined Paul as a missionary companion on his second missionary journey. He was part of Paul's team in the evangelization of Corinth; he was sent by Paul to both Philippi and Thessalonica to strengthen those communities.
Paul will write Timothy two letters. He is one of Paul's most intimate and trusted friends. See Acts ; ; ; ; 1 Cor. Lucius may be the Lucius of Cyrene mentioned as a teacher in Acts Jason may be Paul's host in Acts Sosipater Sopater is perhaps the same companion as Acts He may be the brother Paul sent on a mission in Acts ; also see 2 Timothy A 1 st century AD Latin inscription has been discovered in Corinth naming the city official Erastus as donating the funds to pave the city square.
Let's study Paul's list of ancient Christians in detail. Of the ten women Paul mentions in Romans , it appears that seven are singled out as actively serving the Church in leadership positions: Prisca Pricilla , Maria Mary , Junia, Tryphaena, Tryphosa, and Persis, and Rufus' mother'all in Rome; and Phoebe who is the only woman given the title "deaconess" and who is the only woman mentioned in a leadership role from among Paul's companions in Greece.
John Chrysostom writes that "men should be put to shame" by such holy women as these listed by Paul in Romans. In mentioning so many women in positions of leadership within the Church, Paul obviously does not condemn but encourages women to actively serve Christ. John Chrysostom, Archbishop of Constantinople [m. He means to prevent a woman from coming forward publicly and preaching in the pulpit; he does not stop them from teaching altogether. If this were the case The women of those days were more spirited than lions, sharing with the Apostles their labors for the Gospel's sake.
Homilies on Romans Six men are Paul's countrymen'Jewish Christians, some of whom came to acknowledge Jesus as the Messiah prior to Paul's conversion; some may even be "kinsmen" in the flesh as well as in the spirit according to the early Church scholar Origen and others [we know that Paul had a sister in Jerusalem and a nephew; see Acts ].
The other names are less common and may reflect the ethnic diversity of the Roman population from the far reaches of the Empire. Many of those mentioned are probably either slaves or former slaves. Paul names some Roman Christians who appear to be slaves from the households of two pagan Romans, Aristobulus and Narcissus. Before discussing this ambivalence and its relationship to the witness-people tradition, this chapter will offer a brief survey of the rise of modern dispensational premillennialism among conservative Christians.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. Since the conception of a divine Trinity is not amenable to tawhid , the Islamic doctrine of monotheism, Islam regards Christianity as variously polytheistic.
However, the worship of Jesus, or the ascribing of partners to God known as shirk in Islam and as shituf in Judaism , is typically viewed as the heresy of idolatry by Islam and Judaism. Judaism and Islam see the incarnation of God into human form as a heresy. All the Abrahamic religions affirm one eternal God who created the universe, who rules history, who sends prophetic and angelic messengers and who reveals the divine will through inspired revelation.
They also affirm that obedience to this creator deity is to be lived out historically and that one day God will unilaterally intervene in human history at the Last Judgment. All Abrahamic religions believe that God guides humanity through revelation to prophets, and each religion recognizes that God revealed teachings up to and including those in their own scripture. An ethical orientation: all these religions speak of a choice between good and evil, which is associated with obedience or disobedience to a single God and to Divine Law.
An eschatological world view of history and destiny, beginning with the creation of the world and the concept that God works through history, and ending with a resurrection of the dead and final judgment and world to come. Jerusalem is considered Judaism's holiest city. Jews thrice daily pray in its direction, including in their prayers pleas for the restoration and the rebuilding of the Holy Temple the Third Temple on mount Moriah, close the Passover service with the wistful statement "Next year in built Jerusalem," and recall the city in the blessing at the end of each meal.
It has been majority Jewish since about and continues through today. Jerusalem was an early center of Christianity. There has been a continuous Christian presence there since. Kenan, Jr. The six parts to Jesus' trial—three stages in a religious court and three stages before a Roman court—were all held in Jerusalem. His crucifixion at Golgotha , his burial nearby traditionally the Church of the Holy Sepulchre , and his resurrection and ascension and prophecy to return all are said to have occurred or will occur there.
Jerusalem became holy to Muslims, third after Mecca and Medina. The Al-Aqsa Mosque , which translates to "farthest mosque" in sura Al-Isra in the Quran and its surroundings are addressed in the Quran as "the holy land". Muslim tradition as recorded in the ahadith identifies al-Aqsa with a mosque in Jerusalem.
The first Muslims did not pray toward Kaaba , but toward Jerusalem this was the qibla for 13 years : the qibla was switched to Kaaba later on to fulfill the order of Allah of praying in the direction of Kaaba Quran, Al-Baqarah — Even though members of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam do not all claim Abraham as an ancestor, some members of these religions have tried to claim him as exclusively theirs.
For Jews , Abraham is the founding patriarch of the children of Israel. God promised Abraham: "I will make of you a great nation, and I will bless you. Similarly, converts, who join the covenant, are all identified as sons and daughters of Abraham. According to Jewish tradition, Abraham was the first post- Flood prophet to reject idolatry through rational analysis, although Shem and Eber carried on the tradition from Noah. Christians view Abraham as an important exemplar of faith , and a spiritual, as well as physical, ancestor of Jesus.
In Christian belief, Abraham is a role model of faith, [Heb. Christian commentators have a tendency to interpret God's promises to Abraham as applying to Christianity subsequent to, and sometimes rather than as in supersessionism , being applied to Judaism, whose adherents rejected Jesus. They argue this on the basis that just as Abraham as a Gentile before he was circumcised "believed God and it was credited to him as righteousness" [Gen.
This is most fully developed in Paul's theology where all who believe in God are spiritual descendants of Abraham. Also, the same as Judaism, Islam believes that Abraham rejected idolatry through logical reasoning. Abraham is also recalled in certain details of the annual Hajj pilgrimage. The Abrahamic God is conceived of as eternal , omnipotent , omniscient and as the creator of the universe.
God is further held to have the properties of holiness, justice, omnibenevolence and omnipresence.
Proponents of Abrahamic faiths believe that God is also transcendent , but at the same time personal and involved, listening to prayer and reacting to the actions of his creatures. In Jewish theology , God is strictly monotheistic. God is an absolute one, indivisible and incomparable being who is the ultimate cause of all existence. Jewish tradition teaches that the true aspect of God is incomprehensible and unknowable and that it is only God's revealed aspect that brought the universe into existence, and interacts with mankind and the world.
It also represents God's compassion towards the world. In Jewish tradition another name of God is Elohim , relating to the interaction between God and the universe, God as manifest in the physical world, it designates the justice of God, and means "the One who is the totality of powers, forces and causes in the universe".
In Christian theology , God is the eternal being who created and preserves the world. Christians believe God to be both transcendent and immanent involved in the world. Around the year , Tertullian formulated a version of the doctrine of the Trinity which clearly affirmed the divinity of Jesus and came close to the later definitive form produced by the Ecumenical Council of The theology of the attributes and nature of God has been discussed since the earliest days of Christianity, with Irenaeus writing in the 2nd century: "His greatness lacks nothing, but contains all things".
Islamic belief in God is distinct from Christianity in that God has no progeny. He does not beget nor was he begotten. Nor is there to Him any equivalent". All these religions rely on a body of scriptures, some of which are considered to be the word of God—hence sacred and unquestionable—and some the work of religious men, revered mainly by tradition and to the extent that they are considered to have been divinely inspired, if not dictated, by the divine being. These are complemented by and supplemented with various originally oral traditions: Midrash , the Mishnah , the Talmud and collected rabbinical writings.
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The Hebrew text of the Tanakh, and the Torah in particular is considered holy, down to the last letter: transcribing is done with painstaking care. Latin Bibles originally contained 73 books; however, 7 books, collectively called the Apocrypha or Deuterocanon depending on one's opinion of them, were removed by Martin Luther due to a lack of original Hebrew sources, and now vary on their inclusion between denominations.
Greek Bibles contain additional materials. The New Testament comprises four accounts of the life and teachings of Jesus the Four Gospels , as well as several other writings the epistles and the Book of Revelation. They are usually considered to be divinely inspired , and together comprise the Christian Bible. The vast majority of Christian faiths including Catholicism, Orthodox Christianity, and most forms of Protestantism recognize that the Gospels were passed on by oral tradition, and were not set to paper until decades after the resurrection of Jesus and that the extant versions are copies of those originals.
The version of the Bible considered to be most valid in the sense of best conveying the true meaning of the word of God has varied considerably: the Greek Septuagint , the Syriac Peshitta , the Latin Vulgate , the English King James Version and the Russian Synodal Bible have been authoritative to different communities at different times. The sacred scriptures of the Christian Bible are complemented by a large body of writings by individual Christians and councils of Christian leaders see canon law.
Some Christian churches and denominations consider certain additional writings to be binding; other Christian groups consider only the Bible to be binding sola scriptura. Islam's holiest book is the Quran, comprising Suras "chapters of the Qur'an". However, Muslims also believe in the religious texts of Judaism and Christianity in their original forms, albeit not the current versions. According to the Quran and mainstream Muslim belief , the verses of the Quran were revealed by God through the Archangel Jibrail to Muhammad on separate occasions.
These revelations were written down and also memorized by hundreds of companions of Muhammad. These multiple sources were collected into one official copy. After the death of Mohammed, Quran was copied on several copies and Caliph Uthman provided these copies to different cities of Islamic Empire. The Quran mentions and reveres several of the Israelite prophets, including Moses and Jesus , among others see also: Prophets of Islam. The stories of these prophets are very similar to those in the Bible.
However, the detailed precepts of the Tanakh and the New Testament are not adopted outright; they are replaced by the new commandments accepted as revealed directly by God through Gabriel to Muhammad and codified in the Quran. Like the Jews with the Torah, Muslims consider the original Arabic text of the Quran as uncorrupted and holy to the last letter, and any translations are considered to be interpretations of the meaning of the Quran, as only the original Arabic text is considered to be the divine scripture.
Like the Rabbinic Oral Law to the Hebrew Bible, the Quran is complemented by the Hadith , a set of books by later authors recording the sayings of the prophet Muhammad. The Hadith interpret and elaborate Qur'anic precepts. Islamic scholars have categorized each Hadith at one of the following levels of authenticity or isnad : genuine sahih , fair hasan or weak da'if. By the 9th century, six major Hadith collections were accepted as reliable to Sunni Muslims. Shia Muslims, however, refer to other authenticated hadiths instead. The Hadith and the life story of Muhammad sira form the Sunnah , an authoritative supplement to the Quran.
The Quran contains repeated references to the "religion of Abraham" see Suras ,; ; ,; ; ; In the Quran, this expression refers specifically to Islam; sometimes in contrast to Christianity and Judaism, as in Sura , for example: 'They say: "Become Jews or Christians if ye would be guided to salvation. I would rather the Religion of Abraham the True, and he joined not gods with God. In the major Abrahamic religions, there exists the expectation of an individual who will herald the time of the end or bring about the Kingdom of God on Earth; in other words, the Messianic prophecy.
Judaism awaits the coming of the Jewish Messiah ; the Jewish concept of Messiah differs from the Christian concept in several significant ways, despite the same term being applied to both. The Jewish Messiah is not seen as a "god", but as a mortal man who by his holiness is worthy of that description. His appearance is not the end of history, rather it signals the coming of the world to come.
Christianity awaits the Second Coming of Christ, though Full Preterists believe this has already happened. Islam awaits both the second coming of Jesus to complete his life and die and the coming of Mahdi Sunnis in his first incarnation, Shia as the return of Muhammad al-Mahdi. Most Abrahamic religions agree that a human being comprises the body, which dies, and the soul , which is capable of remaining alive beyond human death and carries the person's essence, and that God will judge each person's life accordingly after death.
The importance of this and the focus on it, as well as the precise criteria and end result, differ between religions. Judaism's views on the afterlife "the Next World" are quite diverse. This can be attributed to the fact that although there clearly are traditions in the Hebrew Bible of an afterlife see Naboth and the Witch of Endor , Judaism focuses on this life and how to lead a holy life to please God, rather than future reward.
Christians have more diverse and definite teachings on the end times and what constitutes afterlife. Most Christian approaches either include different abodes for the dead Heaven , Hell , Limbo , Purgatory or universal reconciliation because all souls are made in the image of God.
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A small minority teach annihilationism , the doctrine that those persons who are not reconciled to God simply cease to exist. Those who obey God and submit to God will be rewarded with their own place in Paradise.
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While sinners are punished with fire, there are also many other forms of punishment described, depending on the sin committed; Hell is divided into numerous levels. Those who worship and remember God are promised eternal abode in a physical and spiritual Paradise. Heaven is divided into eight levels , with the highest level of Paradise being the reward of those who have been most virtuous, the prophets, and those killed while fighting for Allah martyrs.
Upon repentance to God, many sins can be forgiven, on the condition they are not repeated, as God is supremely merciful.
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Additionally, those who believe in God, but have led sinful lives, may be punished for a time, and then eventually released into Paradise. If anyone dies in a state of Shirk i. Once a person is admitted to Paradise, this person will abide there for eternity. Worship, ceremonies and religion-related customs differ substantially among the Abrahamic religions. Among the few similarities are a seven-day cycle in which one day is nominally reserved for worship, prayer or other religious activities— Shabbat , Sabbath , or jumu'ah ; this custom is related to the biblical story of Genesis, where God created the universe in six days and rested in the seventh.
Orthodox Judaism practice is guided by the interpretation of the Torah and the Talmud. Before the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem , Jewish priests offered sacrifices there two times daily; since then, the practice has been replaced, until the Temple is rebuilt, by Jewish men being required to pray three times daily, including the chanting of the Torah , and facing in the direction of Jerusalem 's Temple Mount. Other practices include circumcision , dietary laws , Shabbat , Passover , Torah study , Tefillin , purity and others. Conservative Judaism , Reform Judaism and the Reconstructionist movement all move away, in different degrees, from the strict tradition of the law.
Jewish women's prayer obligations vary by denomination ; in contemporary Orthodox practice, women do not read from the Torah and are only required to say certain parts of these daily services. All versions of Judaism share a common, specialized calendar, containing many festivals. The calendar is lunisolar, with lunar months and a solar year an extra month is added every second or third year to allow the shorter lunar year to "catch up" to the solar year. All streams observe the same festivals, but some emphasize them differently.
As is usual with its extensive law system, the Orthodox have the most complex manner of observing the festivals, while the Reform pay more attention to the simple symbolism of each one. Christian worship varies from denomination to denomination. Individual prayer is usually not ritualised, while group prayer may be ritual or non-ritual according to the occasion.
During church services, some form of liturgy is frequently followed. Rituals are performed during sacraments , which also vary from denomination to denomination and usually include Baptism and Communion , and may also include Confirmation , Confession , Last Rites and Holy Orders. Catholic worship practice is governed by the Roman Missal and other documents. Individuals, churches and denominations place different emphasis on ritual—some denominations consider most ritual activity optional, see Adiaphora , particularly since the Protestant Reformation.
The first pillar is the belief in the oneness of Allah, and in Muhammad as his final and most perfect prophet. The second is to pray five times daily salat towards the direction qibla of the Kaaba in Mecca. The third pillar is almsgiving Zakah , a portion of one's wealth given to the poor or to other specified causes, which means the giving of a specific share of one's wealth and savings to persons or causes, as is commanded in the Quran and elucidated as to specific percentages for different kinds of income and wealth in the hadith.
The normal share to be paid is two and a half percent of one's earnings: this increases if labour was not required, and increases further if only capital or possessions alone were required i. Fasting sawm during the ninth month of the Muslim lunar calendar, Ramadan , is the fourth pillar of Islam, to which all Muslims after the age of puberty in good health as judged by a Muslim doctor to be able fast without incurring grave danger to health: even in seemingly obvious situations, a "competent and upright Muslim physician" is required to agree , that are not menstruating are bound to observe—missed days of the fast for any reason must be made up, unless there be a permanent illness, such as diabetes, that prevents a person from ever fasting.
In such a case, restitution must be made by feeding one poor person for each day missed. Finally, Muslims are also required, if physically able, to undertake a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in one's life: it is strongly recommended to do it as often as possible, preferably once a year.
Only individuals whose financial position and health are severely insufficient are exempt from making Hajj e. During this pilgrimage, the Muslims spend three to seven days in worship, performing several strictly defined rituals, most notably circumambulating the Kaaba among millions of other Muslims and the " stoning of the devil " at Mina. At the end of the Hajj , the heads of men are shaved, sheep and other halal animals, notably camels , are slaughtered as a ritual sacrifice by bleeding out at the neck according to a strictly prescribed ritual slaughter method similar to the Jewish kashrut , to commemorate the moment when, according to Islamic tradition, Allah replaced Abraham's son Ishmael contrasted with the Judaeo-Christian tradition that Isaac was the intended sacrifice with a sheep, thereby preventing human sacrifice.
The meat from these animals is then distributed locally to needy Muslims, neighbours and relatives. Finally, the hajji puts off ihram and the hajj is complete. Judaism practices circumcision for males as a matter of religious obligation at the age of 8 days old, as does Islam as part of Sunnah.
Western Christianity replaced that custom with a baptism  ceremony varying according to the denomination, but generally including immersion , aspersion , or anointment with water. The Council of Florence in the 15th century  prohibited it. Paragraph of the Catholic Catechism calls non-medical amputation or mutilation immoral. Catholic scholars make various arguments in support of the idea that this policy is not in contradiction with the previous edicts.
The Catholic Church currently maintains a neutral position on the practice of non-religious circumcision,  and in it banned the practice of religious circumcision in the 11th Council of Florence. Many countries with majorities of Christian adherents have low circumcision rates, while both religious and non-religious circumcision is common in many predominantly Christian countries such as the United States ,  and the Philippines , Australia ,  and Canada , Cameroon , Democratic Republic of the Congo , Ethiopia , Equatorial Guinea , Ghana , Nigeria , and Kenya , and many other African Christian countries,   Circumcision is near universal in the Christian countries of Oceania.
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See also aposthia. Male circumcision is among the rites of Islam and is part of the fitrah , or the innate disposition and natural character and instinct of the human creation. Judaism and Islam have strict dietary laws , with permitted food known as kosher in Judaism, and halal in Islam. These two religions prohibit the consumption of pork; Islam prohibits the consumption of alcoholic beverages of any kind.
Halal restrictions can be seen as a modification of the kashrut dietary laws, so many kosher foods are considered halal; especially in the case of meat, which Islam prescribes must be slaughtered in the name of God. Hence, in many places, Muslims used to consume kosher food. However, some foods not considered kosher are considered halal in Islam. With rare exceptions, Christians do not consider the Old Testament's strict food laws as relevant for today's church; see also Biblical law in Christianity. Most Protestants have no set food laws, but there are minority exceptions.
The Roman Catholic Church believes in observing abstinence and penance. For example, all Fridays through the year and the time of Lent are penitential days. Therefore, they do not eat pork, shellfish, or other foods considered unclean under the Old Covenant. The "Fundamental Beliefs" of the SDA state that their members "are to adopt the most healthful diet possible and abstain from the unclean foods identified in the Scriptures". In the Christian Bible , the consumption of strangled animals and of blood was forbidden by Apostolic Decree [Acts —21] and are still forbidden in the Greek Orthodox Church, according to German theologian Karl Josef von Hefele , who, in his Commentary on Canon II of the Second Ecumenical Council held in the 4th century at Gangra, notes: "We further see that, at the time of the Synod of Gangra , the rule of the Apostolic Synod [the Council of Jerusalem of Acts 15] with regard to blood and things strangled was still in force.
With the Greeks , indeed, it continued always in force as their Euchologies still show. Jehovah's Witnesses abstain from eating blood and from blood transfusions based on Acts — The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints prohibits the consumption of alcohol, coffee, and non-herbal tea.
While there is not a set of prohibited food, the church encourages members to refrain from eating excessive amounts of red meat. Sabbath in the Bible is a weekly day of rest and time of worship.
It is observed differently in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam and informs a similar occasion in several other Abrahamic faiths. Though many viewpoints and definitions have arisen over the millennia, most originate in the same textual tradition. Judaism accepts converts, but has had no explicit missionaries since the end of the Second Temple era. Judaism states that non-Jews can achieve righteousness by following Noahide Laws , a set of moral imperatives that, according to the Talmud , were given by God  as a binding set of laws for the "children of Noah "—that is, all of humanity.
Moses Maimonides , one of the major Jewish teachers, commented: "Quoting from our sages, the righteous people from other nations have a place in the world to come if they have acquired what they should learn about the Creator". Because the commandments applicable to the Jews are much more detailed and onerous than Noahide laws, Jewish scholars have traditionally maintained that it is better to be a good non-Jew than a bad Jew, thus discouraging conversion.
In the U. Christianity encourages evangelism. Many Christian organizations, especially Protestant churches, send missionaries to non-Christian communities throughout the world. See also Great Commission. Forced conversions to Catholicism have been alleged at various points throughout history. Forced conversions to Protestantism may have occurred as well, notably during the Reformation , especially in England and Ireland see recusancy and Popish plot.
Forced conversions are condemned as sinful by major denominations such as the Roman Catholic Church, which officially states that forced conversions pollute the Christian religion and offend human dignity, so that past or present offences are regarded as a scandal a cause of unbelief.
According to Pope Paul VI , "It is one of the major tenets of Catholic doctrine that man's response to God in faith must be free: no one, therefore, is to be forced to embrace the Christian faith against his own will. Dawah is an important Islamic concept which denotes the preaching of Islam. Da'wah activities can take many forms. Some pursue Islamic studies specifically to perform Da'wah. Mosques and other Islamic centers sometimes spread Da'wah actively, similar to evangelical churches. Others consider being open to the public and answering questions to be Da'wah.
Recalling Muslims to the faith and expanding their knowledge can also be considered Da'wah. This section reports on writings and talks which describe or advocate dialogue between the Abrahamic religions. He describes the situation in this way: "A Muslim says, 'I am superior to all. Amir Hussain In , a book called Progressive Muslims: On Justice, Gender, and Pluralism contains a chapter by Amir Hussain on "Muslims, Pluralism, and Interfaith Dialogue" which he shows how interfaith dialogue has been an integral part of Islam from its beginning.
From his "first revelation" for the rest of his life, Muhammad was "engaged in interfaith dialogue. Hussain gives an early example of "the importance of pluralism and interfaith dialogue" to Islam. When some of Muhammad's followers suffered "physical persecution" in Mecca , he sent them to Abyssinia , a Christian nation, where they were "welcomed and accepted" by the Christian king. In "Christians and Jews were involved in the Royal Court and the intellectual life of the city.
Trialogue The book Trialogue: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Dialogue puts the importance of interfaith dialogue starkly: "We human beings today face a stark choice: dialogue or death! Learned Ignorance In the book Learned Ignorance: Intellectual Humility Among Jews, Christians and Muslims , the three editors address the question of "why engage in interreligious dialogue; its purpose?
Divisive matters should be addressed In , a PhD thesis Dialogue Between Christians, Jews and Muslims argues that "the paramount need is for barriers against non-defensive dialogue conversations between Christians, Jews, and Muslims to be dismantled to facilitate the development of common understandings on matters that are deeply divisive.
He noted that the Church is already engaged in "bilateral talks with Jewish and Muslim religious leaders. Yet, Koch added, "we hope that we can go in this [direction] in future. In it, Safi said that his life had been trying to combine "love and tenderness" which are the "essence of being human" with "social justice. In most of their common history, the three Abrahamic religions have been "ignorant about each other, or worse, especially in the case of Christians and Muslims, attacked each other.
They have "kept their distance from one another, or were in conflict. It features the works of Maimonides Jewish philosopher and Averroes Muslim philosopher. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A group of religions that claim worship of the God of Abraham. Main article: Jewish history. Main article: History of Christianity. Main article: History of Islam. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
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