The Havona N. The H. Generates courage and confidence despite n. Mankind has been very slow to. The nature and extent of a civilization is in. Sleeping, n. The income from n. God hears the petition of his child, but when the. But no matter what the n. By the n. Military and n. For they shall all know. Jesus secured an education and received a. Jude had got into slight trouble several. The acquired spirit identity of the man of N. Joseph had persuaded Mary that it.
Jesus said little;. God in all. God in the mouth but far from him in. Jesus and to know. Nodite settlement. Roman guards had appeared on. Collectively the Master Spirits n. Galilean, and he. Jerusalem, the crowd became more. Nebadon — noun — see Nebadon, in; Nebadon, of. I do not. Nebadon, of or Nebadon, universe of ; see Michael.
The swing of the local star cloud of N. Slaves— n. I remind you that they who are whole n. Cosmic insight interpreted in terms of planetary n.
(Reading a Page of Scripture with a Little Help from Derrida)
You shall not n. The N. Jacob owned in partnership. You shall not steal y. To love y. Paradise monota nor spirit,. Perfectors of Wisdom nor Divine Counselors are. Creators nor creatures. Creator nor creature—. Some abstracting and indexing services, such as ERIC and Psychological Abstracts , provide a list of authorized indexing terms in the form of a printed or online thesaurus. Compare with identifier. See also : aboutness , controlled vocabulary , and descriptor group.
In book and nonprint collection s, the process of identifying title s for weeding , usually on the basis of currency , usage , and condition. The opposite of selection. Deselections can be made at any time in the GPO online database by using the depository library number and a unique password assigned to the library click here to see the appropriate screen on the FDLP Desktop.
Confirmations are sent via e-mail. Amendment s appear within two weeks in the Item Lister. A different device is required to desensitize magnetic media audiocassette s, videocassette s, etc. Because desiccants release moisture when heated, they can usually be reused. See also : molecular sieve. Synonymous in this sense with waiting list and want list. Also refers to a list of subject s or topic s on which a writer or researcher requires information.
Executed as part of a design process, design drawing is distinct from art drawing and drafting. This type of binding began to appear in trade edition s in the second half of the 19th century and remained popular into the early 20th century. Click here to see examples of 19th-century gold- stamped publisher's binding s done in designer-style Rare Books and Manuscripts Library , Columbia University.
Click here and here to see other contemporary examples. An examination copy may become a desk copy once an instructor decides to assign the work as required reading. Entries usually indicate orthography , syllabication , pronunciation, etymology , and definition. Synonym s, antonym s, and brief biographical and gazetteer information are included in some edition s.
Synonymous with college dictionary. Click here to connect to the online version of Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary and Thesaurus. Compare with pocket dictionary and unabridged dictionary. See also : rotation. An example is VeloBind, an electric punch and strip, hot-knife process often used to custom bind legal documents up to three inches sheet s thick. Used extensively to produce in-house brochure s, flier s, newsletter s, poster s, etc.
See also : self-publishing. For paper records, the most common methods are shredding and pulp ing. Incineration is used for records in other physical format s. Electronic records may be rendered inaccessible by deletion , an operation that removes the pointer from an index without overwriting the data , but for more sensitive information in electronic format, the data must be overwritten several times or physically destroyed to render recovery impossible.
The remedy is rebinding. Compare with broken hinge. A few loose pages can often be tipped in but when entire section s have detached, the remedy is rebinding. Sherlock Holmes, the eccentric sleuth created by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, has become a household word in many English-speaking countries. The hard-boiled detective, at home in the criminal underworld, first appeared in pulp magazine s in the s and was brought to life in such film noir classic s as John Huston's The Maltese Falcon , based on the novel by Dashiell Hammett.
Period detective novels may qualify as historical fiction example : The Chronicles of Brother Cadfael by Ellis Peters. For more information , see Classic Crime Fiction. See also : suspense. The category includes binding s weakened by adhesive s that dry out and crack, printing paper s em brittle d by acid , paper document s discolored by the growth of mildew under damp conditions, and the chemical decay of nitrate and acetate film base. Data recorded on some digital storage media also deteriorates over time, a phenomenon known as " bit rot.
Deutscher Bibliogtheksverband e. Click here to connect to the DBV homepage. Also refers to an insignia used as a publisher 's identifying mark, for example, the small design of a house stamped on the spine and printed on the title page of book s published by Random House. Click here to view the anchor-and-dolphin device of Aldine press in a 16th-century edition of Ovid's Metamorphoses Edinburgh University Library , Dd. See also : colophon. Examples include Byzantine icon s, holy card s, and Sunday school card s, which may include a brief text.
Portraits of actual human beings declared saints may become devotional images example. Dewey, Melvil One of the founders of the American Library Association , Melvil Dewey served as editor of Library Journal from to , published the Dewey Decimal Classification system in , and served as librarian at Columbia University from to , where he founded the first professional library school in He became the director of the New York State Library in Albany in , taking the library school with him.
Dewey was also a spokesman for professionalism in librarianship , for library education , and for equality of opportunity for women in the profession. A dynamic man, he also advocated standardization of library education, methods, tools, equipment , and supplies and was an advocate of spelling reform. Dewey Decimal Classification DDC A hierarchical system for classify ing book s and other library materials by subject , first published in by the librarian and educator Melvil Dewey , who divided human knowledge into 10 main class es, each of which is divided into 10 division s, and so on.
In Dewey Decimal call number s, arabic numeral s and decimal fractions are used in the class notation example: Click here to see a list of DDC summaries. If a component fails on startup, a warning message appears on the screen. Also, a drawing , sketch , or plan that shows the steps in a process or the relationship of the parts of an object or structure to the whole, usually simplified for the sake of clarity and utility.
Click here to see examples in a 12th-century manuscript copy of Boethius' De Musica National Library of Australia and here to see a copy of one of the first book s to contain printed diagrams University of Sydney Library. A diagram is usually accompanied by a line or two of explanation or by explanatory text , and the various parts of the illustration may be keyed to the text or caption by means of number s or letter s, with or without lines or arrows pointing to the appropriate features, as in this diagram of the skeleton of a bird.
Established in , DIALOG led the market for many years in online information retrieval and remains strong in business, science, and technology. Now owned by Thomson, the company also provides technical support for Internet users and e-commerce. A dialog box differs from a window in being neither movable nor resizable. Some application s are designed to open a dialog box automatically when certain operations are selected, but this feature can usually be set "off" when not desired.
Also spelled dialogue box. Also refers to a written work in the form of a conversation between two or more people or to the portions of a work of fiction novel , short story , play , etc.
Big Book Concordance
In the text of a narrative work, dialogue is set apart by the use of quotation mark s. Compare with monologue. Dial-up access requires a modem to convert the digital signals produced by a computer into the analog signals used in voice transmission, and vice versa. A lozenge is a rhombus-shaped decorative design with one axis longer than the other. Click here to see an example on the cover of a late 19th-century morocco binding Otto G. Richter Library , University of Miami, Florida.
To see other examples, try a search on the keyword "diamond" or "lozenge" in the British Library 's Database of Bookbindings. Diamond Sutra The earliest-dated printed book known to exist, the Diamond Sutra was discovered in by British archaeologist Sir Marc Aurel Stein in the walled city of Dunhuang, an important military base on the Silk Road.
Earlier examples of block printing survive, but this Chinese translation of a work originally written in Sanskrit is the first bearing a date. Decorated with an elaborate frontispiece , the scroll has a colophon at the inner end, establishing the date of its creation as A. May 11, Click here to view an image of the Diamond Sutra , courtesy of the Silkroad Foundation.
The scroll is in the collections of the British Library. Diapering is also used in decorative bookbinding , as in these these binding s in calf and morocco University of Miami Libraries. Also refers to the blankbook or notebook in which such experiences are recorded. Diaries are sometimes published posthumous ly, and some have become famous literary and historical work s, for example, the Diary of Samuel Pepys and more recently that of Anne Frank.
Click here to see a collection of 19th-century women's diaries, courtesy of the Archives of Ontario, and here to see a 17th-century example, courtesy of the Connecticut State Library. Compare with journal and memoirs. The UV light is blocked by the dark lines of the original, leaving the coating beneath the lines unexposed.
When the coated sheet is exposed to ammonia vapor, the lines appear in blue, black, or brown against a white or clear background see this example. Compare with blueprint. Synonymous with blueline print , diazotype , and dyeline print. To see examples, try a search on the keyword "diced" in the British Library 's Database of Bookbindings. Dickinson classification A library classification scheme , developed by George Sherman Dickinson , used to catalog and classify printed music, in which composition s are arranged according to five main categories and then by medium, form, and composer. A single dictabelt can hold recordings of several conversations.
Sound quality was better than on belts made by IBM which used a magnetic coating instead of grooves. Edison produced a similar product, the Voicewriter, which cut grooves into a thin, flat disc. Because the format is obsolete , preservation requires duplication in another medium. The entries in a dictionary are usually shorter than those contained in an encyclopedia on the same subject, but the word "dictionary" is often used in the title s of works that should more appropriately be called encyclopedias example : Dictionary of the Middle Ages in 13 volume s.
See also : biographical dictionary and reverse dictionary. Compare with classified catalog. A dictionary stand is narrower than an atlas case and may contain shelves for storing other volume s. Small revolving table-top models are also available from library supplier s. To see examples of various models, try a keywords search on the term in Google Images. The category includes cautionary tales and morality tales. See also : fable and parable. Also refers to the practice in Europe of charging North American subscribers a rate substantially higher than normal, presumably because they can afford to pay more.
In libraries , such works are cataloged under the title , with an added entry for the first-named person or body. In AACR2 , if three or fewer persons or bodies are primarily responsible for the work, main entry is under the heading for the first-named author, with added entries for the other principal authors. Compare with unknown authorship. See also : mixed responsibility and shared responsibility. Heading s and subheading s may be added to facilitate reference.
In law, a summary of existing laws, reported cases, and court decisions arranged systematically for quick reference. The earliest digests, treatise s on Roman law compile d by classical Roman jurists, were copied by medieval scribe s in manuscript form, sometimes with gloss es and illumination. In digitized text , each alphanumeric character is represented by a specific 8-bit sequence called a byte. The computers used in libraries transmit data in digital format.
Compare with analog. See also : born digital. Reclamation techniques vary. A digital archive may use a variety of preservation methods to ensure that materials remain usable as technology changes, including emulation and migration. Compare with digital archives. See also : digital repository. A prime example is American Memory , a project undertaken by the Library of Congress to make digital collection s of primary source s on the history and culture of the United States available via the Internet.
Also refers to information originally created in electronic format, preserved for its archival value see digital archive. The content is usually locally owned and controlled, rather than licensed from a third party. The rapid pace of archival and special collections digitization projects has created the need for DAM systems. Synonymous with digital object management. Compare with electronic resources management.
Biblical Markings and Harry Potter
Digital Audio Broadcasting DAB Radio broadcast ing technology, developed during the s and launched by the BBC in , in which analog audio is converted into digital signals for transmission on an assigned channel in the AM or FM frequency range. DAB provides higher quality sound than analog transmission and offers more radio programs over a given spectrum than FM radio, but is not as robust. For this reason, although DAB is used in several countries, particularly in Europe, it has not replaced FM transmission in popularity.
Synonymous with digital radio and high-definition radio. Also, library materials produced in electronic formats, including e-zine s, e-journal s, e-book s, reference work s published online and on CD-ROM , bibliographic database s, and other Web -based resources. In the United States, the Digital Library Federation is developing standards and best practices for digital collections and network access. Digital Compact Cassette DCC A digital magnetic tape audiorecording medium introduced in by Philips and Matsushita as a successor to the standard analog audiocassette see this example.
In the same year, SONY introduced the digital MiniDisc MD , but despite their technical superiority neither format seriously challenged the analog audiocassette, which was eventually superseded by the digital compact disc CD. Digital curation entails verification of the integrity of digital data, selection of authoritative digital data for its long-term value, creation of digital object s and associated metadata , transfer of digital objects to reliable digital repositories for secure storage , provision of access to designated users, and periodic re-evaluation of digital format s to avoid obsolescence.
Public libraries are helping to bridge the gap between information "haves" and "have-nots" with the assistance of substantial grant s from industry leaders such as Bill Gates of Microsoft. The E-rate established by the Telecommunications Act of TCA has helped schools, public libraries , and rural health care institutions bridge the gap. Digital Divide Network is a Web site devoted to the issue. Synonymous with information gap. Resolution depends on the distance between adjacent grid points.
Geological Survey publishes 7. DEMs can be combined with other digital data to provide additional visual detail see this example of a digital orthophoto overlaid on a DEM. Click here to learn more about digital elevation models, courtesy of the USGS. Click here to see a practical application of digital elevation modeling in the conservation of the mountain gorilla. Synonymous with digital terrain model. See also : National Elevation Dataset. The data of which a digital image is comprised can be stored on a computer, manipulated, transmitted electronically, printed , reproduced on film , or display ed on a computer monitor or television screen.
Digital imaging is a rapidly developing technology. In libraries , image s of text document s are created for electronic reserve collection s and digital archives. They are also available in full-text bibliographic database s and reference resources. Click here to connect to the digital imaging program the Library of the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Digital Libraries Initiative DLI A multi- agency interdisciplinary research program of the National Science Foundation NSF that provides grant s to facilitate the creation of large knowledge bases, develop the information technology to access them effectively, and improve their usability in a wide range of contexts.
Click here to see a list of projects funded by DLI Phase 2. The digital content may be locally held or accessed remotely via computer network s. In libraries, the process of digitization began with the catalog , moved to periodical index es and abstracting service s, then to periodical s and large reference work s, and finally to book publishing. Abbreviated d-lib. Compare with virtual library. Digital Library Federation DLF A consortium of major libraries and library-related agencies dedicated to promoting the use of electronic technologies to extend collection s and services, DLF is committed to identifying standards and best practices for digital collection s and network access , coordinating research and development in the use of information technology by libraries, and assisting in the initiation of projects and services that individual libraries lack the means to develop on their own.
Click here to connect to the homepage of the DLF.
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DLGs can be viewed without any background image or overlaid on orthophotograph s and other images click here to see a DLG of Lake Tahoe. They require much less file space than image data and can be resized without loss of clarity, in contrast to raster data , which becomes pixilated if enlarged too much. Large-scale , or , , intermediate-scale , , and small-scale ,, DLG data files are available from the U.
Geological Survey for various categories of data hydrography, hypsography, transportation, political boundaries, Public Land Survey System data, etc. Compare with digital raster graphic. DMLs are often Mac -based. Staff training is required. The bill was supported by the software and entertainment industries and opposed by the library , research , and education communities.
A summary is available from the U. Copyright Office at www. See also : digital asset management and Digital Object Identifier. Digital Object Identifier DOI A unique code preferred by publisher s in the identification and exchange of the content of a digital object , such as a journal article , Web document , or other item of intellectual property. The DOI consists of two parts: a prefix assigned to each publisher by the administrative DOI agency and a suffix assigned by the publisher that may be any code the publisher chooses.
A DOP has uniform scale and can be used like a map. DOPs can also be combined in a photomosaic to create a single image of a larger area, or with other digital products such as digital elevation model s DEMs to provide additional detail. Click here to see digital orthophotograph s used in a study of the Waller Creek floodplain in Texas.
Click here to learn more about orthoimagery, courtesy of the U. Abbreviated digital orthophoto. See also : digital orthophoto quadrangle. Each DOQ includes an ASCII keyword header containing descriptive information about the image data , including photograph ic source type, date taken, software systems used in creating it, and production date of the digital elevation model DEM metadata used in the orthophoto rectification process.
Synonymous with digital orthographic quadrangle and digital orthophoto quarter-quadrangle DOQQ. Broadcast ing is specifically exempted from the DPRA. Click here to read the text of the DPRA. The task is compounded by the fact that some digital storage media deteriorate quickly "bit rot" , and the digital object is inextricably entwined with its access environment software and hardware , which is evolving in a continuous cycle of innovation and obsolescence.
Also refers to the practice of digitizing materials originally produced in nondigital formats print , film , etc. Click here to learn about the National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program, a collaborative initiative of the Library of Congress. Synonymous with e-preservation and electronic preservation. Robert Darnton, historian and university librarian at Harvard University, has been one of the strongest public voices in support of the concept.
Click here to learn more about DPLA. In , the Pennsylvania State University Libraries formed a partnership with Penn State Press to create an Office of Digital Scholarly Publishing which will use new media technology to advance scholarly communication at Penn State and within the wider academic community. One goal of the new Office will be to make research publication s available online by moving existing print journal s and monograph s to a digital environment.
Geological Survey , including all marginal data , optically scanned at high resolution or more dots per inch. The image inside the neat line is georeferenced to the surface of the earth, with horizontal positional accuracy and datum matching that of the source map click here to see a DRG of Lake Tahoe. DRGs can also be combined with other digital products, such as digital elevation model s DEMs and digital orthophoto quadrangle s DOQs to provide additional visual detail.
Compare with digital line graph. See also : raster data. For an example, see Ask a librarian Synonymous with chat reference , e-reference , online reference , real-time reference , and virtual reference. Usually locally author ed or produced, content can be either born digital or reformat ted. Access is generally unrestricted, in compliance with the Open Archives Initiative OAI protocol for metadata harvesting , which makes such archives interoperable and cross-searchable see this example maintained by the University of Texas Libraries.
Click here to learn more about the role of digital repositories in scholarly communication , courtesy of the Association of Research Libraries ARL. Digital rights management DRM uses technologies specifically designed to identify, secure , manage, track, and audit digital content, ideally in ways that ensure public access , preserve fair use and right of first sale , and protect information producers from uncompensated download ing copyright piracy. DRM systems typically use data encryption , digital watermark s, user plug-in s, and other methods to prevent content from being distributed in violation of copyright.
Special playback equipment is required. DTBs enable the target population to receive information as human or synthetic speech, refreshable Braille , or alternative visual display e. Most universities require a paper or microform copy for archival purposes, but for some hypermedia theses, a print version may not be an accurate representation of the original or even possible. Preservation dilemmas posed by the rapid obsolescence of digital equipment and format s underscore the need for standards.
In information system s, digitization usually refers to the conversion of printed text or images photograph s, illustration s, map s, etc. In telecommunication , digitization refers to the conversion of continuous analog signals into pulsating digital signals. The Association of Research Libraries ARL has endorsed digitization as an accepted preservation reformat ting option for a range of materials. Hundreds of thousands of title s, written according to formula, were issue d before this pulp fiction genre waned in the early 20th century. Judson, writing under the pseudonym Ned Buntline.
The influence of the dime novel on popular culture is studied by literary historians. Compare with penny dreadful and yellowback. See also : height and width. Prime examples are the incipit page s in the Lindisfarne Gospels , an illuminated masterpiece produced in Northumbria at the end of the 7th century, currently in the custody of the British Library. Special lighting and recorded sound effects are often added to make the impression more realistic.
Small portable examples are made for traveling exhibits. To see examples, try a keyword search on the term in Google Images. Diplomas are normally awarded at an annual graduation ceremony and may be acquired by libraries as part of the personal papers of the recipient of the degree. Diplomatics requires detailed examination of the internal and external characteristics of documents, such as the materials on which they are written, the script or hand used by the writer, and the language in which they are written vocabulary , usage , literary style, etc.
When warm, the wax surface could be easily erased by rubbing, then written over. Although disk s and CD-ROM s are still used for some application s, most libraries in the United States have shifted to networked digital resources available from vendor s on subscription. Compare with remote access. Also refers to the ability to use information without need of an intermediary.
Faster than a dial-up connection, a direct connection can also be used at any time of day. Direct delivery is practical for special libraries located on the premises of the host organization. It is also used by public libraries on a limited scale to serve homebound users. Used mainly for work s that cannot be produced economically from type. See also : signage. Military directives may be classified at time of issuance. Direct mail items are typically publication s that must arrive as quickly as possible.
As more federal document s have become available electronically on the date of issuance via FDsys , the number of direct mail title s has been reduced by including them in regular shipments to save postage costs. Click here to learn more. Compare with producer , and screenwriter. See also : library director. The percentage of orders placed in this manner has declined as wholesalers and subscription services have positioned themselves to offer economies of scale to their customers and services that add value.
Some publishers no longer accept direct orders and sell only to wholesalers example : Random House. Under rules established by the Directors Guild of America DGA , directors have at least ten weeks after completion of primary shooting to prepare their first cut. If additional shooting is required, the editing process may take longer. See also : final cut. In most libraries , current directories are shelved in ready reference or in the reference stacks. See also : city directory , telephone directory , and trade directory.
Directory of Open Access Journals DOAJ Launched in May from Lund University in Sweden, DOAJ lists over 1, fully peer-reviewed open access journal s reporting original research in the sciences, social sciences, and humanities in all language s, with record s that can be easily download ed by librarian s and entered in an online catalog. Approximately 25 percent of the journal s are searchable at the article level. Click here to connect to the DOAJ homepage. The opposite of clean copy.
A clean proof contains no errors or corrections. Well-prepared libraries have a disaster plan in place for handling various kinds of emergencies. Click here to see the damage to the Hamilton Library caused by the flood at the University of Hawaii, Manoa. See also : disaster preparedness. In archival records management , securing vital record s in the event of disaster is one of the highest priorities. An effective disaster plan begins with a thorough risk assessment to identify the areas most vulnerable to various kinds of damage and to evaluate measures that can be taken in advance to ensure preparedness.
Both an initial action plan and a recovery plan should be included. Compare with contingency plan and emergency plan. Compare with unbound. Also, an alternate spelling of disk "optical disc" or "optical disk". Also refers to any item withdrawn for disposal, usually stamped "discard" to avoid confusion. Materials are usually withdrawn when they become outdated , cease to circulate , wear out, or are damaged beyond repair.
When shelf space is limited, duplicate s may be discarded to make room for new acquisitions. Withdrawn items may be exchange d or given as gift s to other libraries , but the most common method of disposal is in a book sale. Unsold items may be given to a thrift store or thrown away as trash, depending on the policy of the library. See also : weeding. Compare with charge. See also : patron record. A discipline may be divided into subdisciplines, for example, biology and zoology within the biological sciences. In Western scholarship, the disciplines are traditionally organized as follows: Arts and humanities : archaeology, classical studies, communication, folklore, history, language and literature, performing arts dance, film, music, theater , philosophy, religion and theology, visual arts Social sciences : anthropology, criminology and criminal justice, economics, international relations, law, political science, psychiatry, psychology, public administration, social work, sociology, urban studies, women's studies Sciences : astronomy, biology, chemistry, computer science, earth sciences, mathematics, medicine and health, physics In Dewey Decimal Classification DDC , the class es representing subject s are arranged according to discipline example : for Psychology.
In the information sector, disclosure is usually made by the provider in a voluntary statement informing the user of any financial or personal interest in the content provided or in its provision, for example, payment made by the owners of a Web site to a Web search engine to get the site listed or payment received by the owners of a Web site from the manufacturer or distributor of a product or service recommended by the site.
Lack of disclosure, a common problem on the Internet , may affect the credibility of information available online. Synonymous with public use file. Each entry in a discography provides some or all of the following descriptive elements: title of work, name of composer and performer s , date of recording, name of manufacturer , manufacturer's catalog number, and release date see this online example. Also refers to the systematic cataloging of audiorecordings and to the study of sound recording as a medium of expression.
The person who compile s such a catalog is a discographer. Compare with filmography. A note is added to explain the shift or removal, and the discontinued number is enclosed in square bracket s. See also : relocation and schedule reduction. In the catalog record for the title , the library's holdings are indicated in a closed entry. See also : canceled and ceased publication. A discontinued number is enclosed in square bracket s. See also : schedule reduction. In publishing , a percentage deducted from the publisher 's list price for an item as an inducement to purchase.
Discovery systems use consolidated subject indexing and metadata. For an in-depth discussion of discovery services see the article by William Miller in the March issue of Library Issues. Compare with misinformation. See also : propaganda. See also : mediated search. Compare with disc. See also : magnetic disk and optical disk.
Disk drives can be internal or external. Also spelled disc drive. An employment contract may specify the conditions under which dismissal is warranted and require the employer to give the terminated employee severance pay or a minimum period of notice in which to find other employment. Compare with resignation. Duplicates may be created on paper , microfilm , magnetic tape , or other permanent medium , as part of regular operating procedure. If the records are electronic, the necessary hardware and software must be maintained to access them when needed.
Vital records are often protected in this way because they provide direct evidence of legal status, ownership, obligations incurred, etc. To synchronize sound and picture, the sound track s are not recorded alongside the corresponding images, but instead precede them by a fixed number of frame s that varies with film gauge and type of sound track, for example, for 16mm film the displacement is 28 frames for magnetic track and 26 frames for optical track.
A work is publicly displayed when shown directly at a place open to the public or where a substantial number of persons outside the normal circle of a family and its social acquaintances is gathered; or by transmission to members of the public in the same place or in separate places and at the same time or at different times. A display case can be free-standing, wall-mounted, or built-in. Modern designs are usually lockable. Cases used for perishable museum specimen s may be climate-controlled to prevent deterioration. Click here and here to see examples.
Synonymous with exhibit case.
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Compare with display rack. The display text is not carried in the record but an indication for it based on tag s, indicator s, subfield code s, or coded values is. In MARC 21 , suggested display constants and examples are provided in the separate format s for authority data, bibliographic data, classification data, community information , and holdings data. Use and display of the constants is determined by the individual organization or system. At the end of the event, display copies are sometimes sold to conference participants at a discount , especially if their dust jacket s are no longer in new condition.
Sold by library supplier s, display racks are available in wall-mounted and free-standing designs, from small countertop models to large floor units. Compare with display case. In medieval manuscript s, display script was often used following a large initial letter to emphasize a major division of the work. In some cases, each letter was written in ink of a different color, and the script might be enclosed in a decorative display panel. The corresponding term in printing is display type. The corresponding term in calligraphy is display script.
See also : fancy type. Also used synonymously with disposition. Compare with disposal. See also : disposition schedule. Synonymous with records schedule and retention schedule. See also : sentencing. In most academic libraries , copies of dissertations may be requested on interlibrary loan or ordered via document delivery service. Abbreviated diss. Compare with thesis. Dissertations have been abstract ed since and theses since Paper copies of dissertations can be ordered from Dissertation Express on a fee -per-item basis.
Communication with the instructor is normally by telephone or e-mail. Telecommunication network s and teleconferencing have facilitated distance learning. Libraries are working to support distance learning by providing online catalog s and database s, electronic reserves , electronic reference service , online tutorial s, and electronic document delivery service.
See also : continuing education and Distance Learning Section. Click here to connect to the DLS homepage. Distinctiveness of title is important in registering copyright and makes the entry for a document easier to retrieve from a library catalog or other finding tool in a search by title. In audio systems, the result of unwanted distortion is poor fidelity in the reception or reproduction of transmitted or recorded sound.
Subjectively, some forms of distortion are more objectionable than others. Also used synonym ously in bookbinding with warping.
Also, the sale of a new book or edition by a publisher other than the company that issue d the title , for example, by a publisher in another country. Although the term is sometimes used synonymously with mailing list , the latter generally supports a much larger group, requiring special software for automatic maintenance. In book s, distribution rights are usually indicated in the distribution imprint on the verso of the title page.
In domestic publishing , the distributor is usually but not always the publisher. Foreign publications are often distributed by a domestic publishing company under an agreement with the original publisher. Abbreviated distr. See also : distribution imprint. In the United States, libraries strive to achieve diversity in library school admissions, hiring, collection development , services, and program s. See also : affirmative action and Office for Diversity. Eventually, some libraries divided their catalogs into three sections author, title, and subject.
Divided catalogs have the disadvantage of requiring the user to know in advance which type of entry is needed entries for work s written by a specific author are filed separately from works written about the same person , but once the initial determination is made, the user is spared the time and effort of looking through entries that are not of the type desired. Synonymous with split catalog. See also : classified catalog. See also : pattern heading. Divine Office Literally, a duty performed for God. Prayers performed daily at certain hours of the day and night by priests, clerics, and members of monastic orders.
The practice originated in services performed in the Jewish synagogue and the Apostolic Church, each office consisting of a recitation of Psalms and lessons read from Scripture. Over the centuries, hymns , antiphons , canticles, and other elaborations were added. By the close of the 6th century, the eight canonical hours were fixed at: matins a. The prayers of the Divine office are contained in the breviary. Its lay counterpart is the Book of Hours. Click here to learn more about the Divine Office as it relates to medieval manuscript s. There are divisions in DDC 10 x The next level of subdivision, indicated by a third digit other than zero, is called a section for work s on the history of France.
The verso is normally left blank.
Synonymous with part title and section title. DLG See : d igital l ine g raph. At present, dLIST is entirely grant -supported. Click here to connect to the dLIST homepage. DML See : d igital m edia l ab. Also, a brief written summary of the contents of a document synonymous in this sense with abstract. Some docking stations include built-in peripheral s such as audio speaker s and CD-ROM drive and a network interface card to allow the user to connect to a local area network.
Because no standard exists for docking stations, compatibility with the specific type of laptop is an important consideration in the decision to purchase. To see examples, try a keywords search on the term in Google Images. Compare with as issued. See also : made-up copy. Although some elements may be fiction alized, a serious attempt is made to be historically accurate example : Edward Hopper, the Silent Witness , a film by Wolfgang Hastert.
Compare with documentary and feature film. In the words of the communication theorist Marshall McLuhan , a document is the " medium " in which a "message" information is communicated. Document format s include manuscript s, print publication s book s, pamphlet s, periodical s, report s, map s, print s, etc. Abbreviated doc. See also : core document , documentary editing , document delivery service , false document , government documents , and internal document.
Academy Awards are given annually for the best documentary feature and short subject. Also, a photographer who specializes in a form of photojournalism devoted to producing objective, usually candid photograph s of a particular subject often a person for publication or exhibition. The term was coined by the Scottish filmmaker John Grierson in the late s to describe the cinematic work s of Robert Flaherty, the first person to produce films of social commentary depicting actual people in real-life situations examples : Louisiana Story and Nanook of the North.
When actuality is dramatized for emotional impact, the result is historical fiction or propaganda. Documentaries may include re-enactments, but the category does not include films that use realistic techniques to tell a fictional story. Compare with docudrama and feature film. According to Richard Pearce-Moses in A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology , the early publication of historical documents was motivated, in part, by the wish to ensure their preservation through the distribution of many copies, and to make the works of historic persons more accessible , in keeping with the 19th-century romantic belief in the inspirational nature of historic texts.
Click here to read a brief history of documentary editing , courtesy of the Association for Documentary Editing ADE , the professional organization of documentary editor s in the United States. Click here to learn about a documentary editing project underway at the University of Glasgow. Also refers to a collection of documents pertaining to a specific subject , especially when used to substantiate a point of fact. See also : documentation center. Documentation centers also issue bulletin s on the progress of such work for distribution to interested parties and may also prepare bibliographies on special topic s, make copies or translation s, and engage in bibliographic research.
Document cameras have superseded overhead projector s in well-equipped libraries. In most libraries , document delivery service is provided by the interlibrary loan office on a cost-recovery basis. The patron is usually required to pick up printed material at the library, but electronic full-text may be forwarded via e-mail.
Also refers to the physical or electronic delivery of documents from a library collection to the residence or place of business of a library user, upon request. Click here to connect to DocDel. See also : Ariel and electronic document delivery. A printed list of document suppliers is provided in the front matter of the reference serial Magazines for Libraries.
Document Type Definition DTD A formal description of a particular type of document content , for example, a metadata record in SGML or XML declaration syntax, giving the names of data element s and rules for their use where they may occur, whether they may repeat, etc. Dolby A series of noise reduction systems developed by Dolby Laboratories for use in analog magnetic tape recording, designed to enhance signal-to-noise ratio by employing dynamic pre-emphasis during recording and dynamic de-emphasis during playback. Dolby A was introduced in for use in professional recording studios; Dolby B, a simpler but less effective system, was developed in for the consumer market and by the mids had become standard on commercially prerecorded music audiocassette s.
Widespread adoption of digital audio has rendered Dolby analog noise reduction systems obsolete. DOM An abbreviation of d igital o bject m anagement. See : digital asset management. In a local area network LAN , all the client s, server s, and device s under the control of a single security database , administered under a common set of rules and procedures. On the Internet , all the clients, servers, and devices sharing a common portion of the IP address , the highest level domain being the type of entity serving as network host , indicated by the top level domain code at the end of the domain name.
In database management , all the possible values of the data contained in a specific field present in every record in a file. In the United States, domain names usually consist of three parts separated by the period full stop. In the address www. For the United States, the six basic top level domain codes are:. For example, in the URL www. Other top level domain codes have been approved by ICANN , the technical body authorized to assign globally unique Internet identifiers, but the new codes are not widely used. Domesday Book The earliest surviving public record in England, the Domesday Book gives the results of a comprehensive survey of land-holding and duties to give tax and military service taken in England at the order of William the Conqueror in Written on parchment , the manuscript fills page s and covers over 13, places in England and parts of Wales.
Unprecedented in Europe at the time, the scale of the survey was not matched in Britain until the 19th-century census. In libraries , the term is used synonymously with gift. See also : donor file. A copy of the donor agreement is retained by the recipient in the donor file for purposes of documentation and reference. Synonymous with deposit agreement. As a general rule, the broader the base, the more successful will be the fund-raising campaign. To broaden their donor base, library fund-raisers seek to develop strategies that appeal to diverse elements within the population served.
A well-maintained donor file should document any restrictions on the preservation , use, or disposition of donated item s or file s and provide current contact information. In a weeding project, it is wise to check discard s against such a file to ascertain if a prior agreement was made with the donor concerning final disposition. See also : donor agreement. Memorial bookplate s are often used to indicate the donor of a specific item or collection see this example , or the person in whose name materials are purchased with donated funds.
Memorial nameplates and plaques may be attached to furnishings and equipment purchased in this manner see this example. When a very large gift is received, a room or entire library may be named after the donor, who is normally honored in the formal opening ceremony. The word was originally used in England during the 17th century, in reference to a fool or simpleton "Yankee Doodle". Such items are usually consigned to a storage room in the basement until renovation or a move into a new facility makes disposal unavoidable. DOP See : d igital o rtho p hotograph. DOQ See : d igital o rthophoto q uadrangle.
DOQQ An abbreviation of d igital o rthophoto q uarter- q uadrangle. See : digital orthophoto quadrangle. Because it is non graphic al, line-oriented, and command-driven , the DOS interface is not as user-friendly as Windows. Popular during the 17th century, this style was used to bind in a single volume the New Testament with the Prayer Book and Psalms see this example.
To see other examples, try a keywords search on the term "dos-a-dos" in the British Library 's Database of Bookbindings. Because of its use in intelligence and espionage , the word has acquired a slightly sinister connotation. A dossier may be housed in one or more file folder s or boxes or in some other container , depending on the amount of assembled material.
According to Richard Pearce-Moses A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology , the term is also used interchangeably with "file" in the sense of a case file. One of the earliest and most successful examples is Amazon. Dots of different color can be used on the same map to show the distribution of more than one variable, or different aspects of the same variable. Click here to see a dot map showing the location of the nonmetro poor U. Census Bureau and here to see color-coded symbols indicating bird sightings as a function of time.
Synonymous with dot density map. See also : graduated circle. On a typical computer screen, 72 dpi is acceptable, with 96 dpi the norm. In flat panels displays, to dpi is common. By comparison, to dpi is standard in printing. Medieval manuscript s were often copied in double column format, and sometimes in triple column see this 14th-century example , courtesy of the Koninklijke Bibliotheek. The double dagger is also known as a double obelisk or diesis.
The method is not practical for book s with a text block more than two inches thick. The strength of fan adhesive binding can be enhanced by notching the binding edge, but this technique has the disadvantage of restricting openability. Compare with perfect binding. To see other examples, try a keywords search on the phrase "double hemisphere and map" in Google Images. Compare with planisphere. The same effect can occur in television reception when the signal, travelling over two paths of unequal length, arrives at slightly different times. When such a leaf is unnumbered , it is counted as two pages.
In the bibliographic description of the item , the total number of pages is recorded as in the following example:  pp. Synonymous with double fold. See also : Chinese style. A caption may be printed on the preceding or following page. Compare with double spread and face up. See also : plate. Shelves must be at least 10 inches deep for this alternative to work. The method can potentially double shelf capacity , but it reduces browsability and makes materials more difficult to locate and reshelve.
These drawbacks can be minimized by installing graphic signage or limiting its use to series , such as legal case law, or to the back file s of bound periodical s and report s. See also : flat shelving , fore-edge shelving , and shelving by size. Also, a slipcase divided down the center to accommodate two volume s without contact between their cover s see this example. Click here to see a map printed across facing pages in a 16th-century travel book , courtesy of the Royal Library of Denmark. Compare with double plate.
Morocco doublures were introduced in Europe during the late 15th century by Moorish binder s working in Spain. Click here to see doublures in tooled leather Princeton University Library and here to see a 19th-century example in beautifully decorated paper University of North Texas Libraries. Synonymous with ornamental endpaper. See also : marbling. Some scholars believe the works of William Shakespeare to have been written by another author , but the evidence in support of this contention is inconclusive.
In libraries , downloading bibliographic data to floppy disk is a low-cost alternative to printing the results of an online search , and users are generally encouraged to do so. The opposite of upload. In libraries , the amount of time a public access workstation or system is "down" is a measure of its reliability and can directly affect quality of service , particularly during periods of peak use.
Also spelled downtime. DP See : d ata p rocessing. A rough draft usually provides only a preliminary or sketchy version of the work or plan. The last version of a work that has seen multiple revisions is the final draft. To avoid misunderstanding, a document not yet completed should be clearly marked "Draft. When the endpapers are thin, drag may eventually result in a broken hinge. Roberts and Don Etherington.