But when the distinction is unclear, as in the case of some nutrition and disease studies, administrators, regulators, and IACUCs face a dilemma in deciding how to handle such studies Stricklin et al. Regardless of the category of research, institutions are expected to provide oversight of all research animals and ensure that pain and distress are minimized. The protocol, rather than the category of research, should determine the setting farm or laboratory.
Housing systems for agricultural animals used in biomedical research may or may not differ from those used in agricultural research; animals used in either type of research can be housed in cages, stalls, paddocks, or pastures Tillman Some agricultural studies need uniform conditions to minimize environmental variability, and some biomedical studies are conducted in farm settings.
Agricultural research often necessitates that animals be managed according to contemporary farm production practices Stricklin and Mench , and natural environmental conditions might be desirable for agricultural research, whereas control of environmental conditions to minimize variation might be desirable in biomedical research Tillman The Guide applies to agricultural animals used in biomedical research, including those maintained in typical farm settings.
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Information about environmental enrichment, transport, and handling may be helpful in both agricultural and biomedical research settings. Additional information about facilities and management of farm animals in an agricultural setting is available from the Midwest Plan Service and from agricultural engineers or animal science experts.
Continuing IACUC oversight of animal activities is required by federal laws, regulations, and policies. A variety of mechanisms can be used to facilitate ongoing protocol assessment and regulatory compliance. PAM helps ensure the well-being of the animals and may also provide opportunities to refine research procedures. Methods include continuing protocol review; laboratory inspections conducted either during regular facilities inspections or separately ; veterinary or IACUC observation of selected procedures; observation of animals by animal care, veterinary, and IACUC staff and members; and external regulatory inspections and assessments.
Continuing protocol review typically consists of an annual update or review as well as the triennial review required by the PHS. The depth of such reviews varies from a cursory update to a full committee review of the entire protocol. Some institutions use the annual review as an opportunity for the investigator to submit proposed amendments for future procedures, to provide a description of any adverse or unanticipated events, and to provide updates on work progress.
For the triennial review, many institutions require a complete new protocol submission and may request a progress report on the use of animals during the previous 3 years.
How To Prepare For Emergencies
As part of a formal PAM program some institutions combine inspection of animal study sites with concurrent review of animal protocols. Based on risks to animals and their handlers, other study areas may require more or less frequent inspections.
Examples of effective monitoring strategies include. Regardless of the methods used or who conducts and coordinates the monitoring, PAM programs are more likely to succeed when the institution encourages an educational partnership with investigators Banks and Norton ; Collins ; Dale ; Lowman ; Plante and James ; Van Sluyters Animal facilities may be subject to unexpected conditions that result in the catastrophic failure of critical systems or significant personnel absenteeism, or other unexpected events that severely compromise ongoing animal care and well-being ILAR Facilities must therefore have a disaster plan.
The plan should define the actions necessary to prevent animal pain, distress, and deaths due to loss of systems such as those that control ventilation, cooling, heating, or provision of potable water. If possible the plan should describe how the facility will preserve animals that are necessary for critical research activities or are irreplaceable.
Knowledge of the geographic locale may provide guidance as to the probability of a particular type of disaster. Disaster plans should be established in conjunction with the responsible investigator s , taking into consideration both the priorities for triaging animal populations and the institutional needs and resources. Animals that cannot be relocated or protected from the consequences of the disaster must be humanely euthanized. The disaster plan should identify essential personnel who should be trained in advance in its implementation.
Efforts should be taken to ensure personnel safety and provide access to essential personnel during or immediately after a disaster. Such plans should be approved by the institution and be part of the overall institutional disaster response plan that is coordinated by the IO or another senior-level administrator.
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Law enforcement and emergency personnel should be provided with a copy of the plan for comment and integration into broader, areawide planning Vogelweid Turn recording back on. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Search term. The Attending Veterinarian The attending veterinarian AV is responsible for the health and well-being of all laboratory animals used at the institution. Collaborations Interinstitutional collaboration has the potential to create ambiguities about responsibility for animal care and use. Personnel Security While contingency plans normally address natural disasters, they should also take into account the threats that criminal activities such as personnel harassment and assault, facility trespassing, arson, and vandalism pose to laboratory animals, research personnel, equipment and facilities, and biomedical research at the institution.
Investigating and Reporting Animal Welfare Concerns Safeguarding animal welfare is the responsibility of every individual associated with the Program. Committee membership includes the following: a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine either certified e. Protocol Review The animal use protocol is a detailed description of the proposed use of laboratory animals. The following topics should be considered in the preparation of the protocol by the researcher and its review by the IACUC: rationale and purpose of the proposed use of animals.
Special Considerations for IACUC Review Certain animal use protocols include procedures or approaches that require special consideration during the IACUC review process due to their potential for unrelieved pain or distress or other animal welfare concerns. The following are important guidelines for restraint: Restraint devices should not be considered a normal method of housing, and must be justified in the animal use protocol. Animals to be placed in restraint devices should be given training with positive reinforcement to adapt to the equipment and personnel.
Provision should be made for observation of the animal at appropriate intervals, as determined by the IACUC. Veterinary care must be provided if lesions or illnesses associated with restraint are observed. The presence of lesions, illness, or severe behavioral change often necessitates the temporary or permanent removal of the animal from restraint. The purpose of the restraint and its duration should be clearly explained to personnel involved with the study. Examples of effective monitoring strategies include examination of surgical areas, including anesthetic equipment, use of appropriate aseptic technique, and handling and use of controlled substances.
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ILAR J. Apr, A sample postapproval monitoring program in academia. Mitigating risk, facilitating research. Assesment of positive emotions in animals to improve their welfare. Physiol Behav.
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J Virol. Newcomer CE. Hazard identification and control. Bernard B, editor. Washington: National Academy Press; Washington: National Academies Press; Biotechnology Research in an Age of Terrorism. Emergencies are frightening and stressful even for adults — and can be even more so for children. Acknowledging their natural feelings and providing age-appropriate information can help children feel less anxious.
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