Manual Shock Effect

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In those cases, the HA can stretch its helical structure to avoid breaking. Atomistic simulation snapshots showing a evolution of HA impacted by WH jet. For the cases of broken HA, the WH jet streams are marked in red; otherwise, they are marked in blue b a magnified view of the ruptured HAs, and c damaged location of the ruptured HA. The local bonding evolution in the form of chemical, hydrogen and the van der Waals bonding of HA is revealed in Fig.

Three major events can be observed. First, due to the acidic nature, HA keeps building and losing hydrogen bonds with the surrounding water molecules.

There is no significant increase or decrease of hydrogen bonding before and after shock and jet stream. Second, a strong jet stream can rupture the HA into two or more pieces. As shown in Fig. In the last scenario, the glucose ring structure in HA can also be broken during jet impact. The local velocity profile can be found in Fig. No velocity difference is observed when no bubble is present Fig. At any particular instant of time e. Error bars at each data point indicate the standard deviation. We believe two factors have played role in local velocity variation. One is due to the local dynamics of individual atoms.

Since local fluid velocities at any location are calculated from the sum of atomic velocities, the stochastic nature of atomic velocities is reflected in the local velocity estimation. The relative variations in local velocities are also believed to be influenced by the axial orientation of HA relative to the oncoming shock front. Since we rotated HA about its own axis by 90 degrees when we build model for simulation set 2, and then by another 90 degrees i. Such changes in distance implies shock front lands on HA at slightly different time.

However, we report local velocities at a particular instant of time only. As such, local velocities in different simulation set very at the beginning i. It can be noticed that the degree of deviation reduces once the HA is fully in the thrust zone. It can also be observed that the overall trends in local velocity profiles are very consistent confirming our simulation outcome is reproducible.

For shock velocity of 3. Error bar shows the relative local velocity variation based on the three simulations conducted with the same bubble size and the same applied shock velocity. Note that the axial orientation of HA varied by 90 degrees between the three sets of simulation. The atoms are colored as: white for H, black for C, blue for N, red for O.

It is shown in Eqn. Since the Kinect energy disperses in the radial direction after the impact see Fig. The magnitude of the pressure value will vary if someone space-averages the pressure value at different instant of time.


For all simulations, the evolution of the molecular composition of HA and ions were monitored. We observe that bubble collapse does not induce significant composition change to the HA except the rupture. Also, the ion count was not affected by the collision. By observing how the HA suffered from the water-hammer, it is obvious that the local damaging of the PNN was largely enhanced by the jet formed during bubble collapse.


This is further corroborated from the case with no bubble where we found that even a high-velocity shockwave was not enough to break the HA. Thus, we conclude the following. The results of the research presented herein suggest that larger the bubble size, the bigger the impact is on the HA. Unfortunately, the computational cost for the reactive MD is excessively high a large memory is required. The critical size of a bubble that is able to break HA with minimal pressure drop post-shock and bubble pressure in this case is still unknown.

The estimation method of kinetic energy per frontal area gives a rough guideline for estimating the energy that is required to break HA. The estimation method developed in this research worked for the nine cases tested. If the HA can be broken by a nanobubble collapse, it is highly possible that a blast can disassemble the PNN. More studies on this possibility are underway. Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Husseini, G. Ultrasonically triggered drug delivery: breaking the barrier. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces , — Mager, M. Lipid bilayer deposition and patterning via air bubble collapse. Langmuir 23 , — Kurosawa, Y.

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In Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society , EMBC Goeller, J. Investigation of cavitation as a possible damage mechanism in blast-induced traumatic brain injury. Journal of neurotrauma 29 , — Nakagawa, A. Mechanisms of primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury: insights from shock-wave research. Journal of neurotrauma 28 , — Taber, K. Blast-related traumatic brain injury: what is known?

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The Journal of neuropsychiatry and clinical neurosciences 18 , — Arciniegas, D. Mild traumatic brain injury: a neuropsychiatric approach to diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment.

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Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment 1 , Sosa, M. Blast overpressure induces shear-related injuries in the brain of rats exposed to a mild traumatic brain injury. Acta neuropathologica communications 1 , 1 Kamnaksh, A. Neurobehavioral, cellular, and molecular consequences of single and multiple mild blast exposure. Electrophoresis 33 , — Sivanandam, T. Morawski, M.

Neuroscience , — Lepelletier, F. Neuropathology and applied neurobiology Emmerling, M. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences , — Omalu, B. Journal of forensic nursing 6 , 40—46 Campbell, T. Psychiatric Annals 39 Gogolla, N. Perineuronal nets protect fear memories from erasure. Science , — Tsien, R. Very long-term memories may be stored in the pattern of holes in the perineuronal net. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , — Genovese, R.

Effects of mild TBI from repeated blast overpressure on the expression and extinction of conditioned fear in rats. Bar-Kochba, E.

Strain and rate-dependent neuronal injury in a 3D in vitro compression model of traumatic brain injury. Scientific Reports 6 Chen, Y. In-vitro approaches for studying blast-induced traumatic brain injury. Journal of neurotrauma 26 , — Hong, Y. Experimental Mechanics , 1—13 Sliozberg, Y. Damage in spherical cellular membrane generated by the shock waves: Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation of lipid vesicle. The Journal of Chemical Physics , Adhikari, U. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B , — Santo, K. Shock wave interaction with a phospholipid membrane: coarse-grained computer simulations.

Choubey, A. Poration of lipid bilayers by shock-induced nanobubble collapse. In this condition, feelings of alienation accumulate sharply because of poor adaptation. Consequentially, culture shock occurs, followed by a series of psychological confusion and emotional discomfort. Individuals experiencing cultural shock have to adjust to a complete new way of life.

Customs and beliefs of their homeland do not apply in this new area anymore. Psychological stress begins to emerge. This stress is the starting point to much deeper psychological problems. Therefore, seeking a professional is pivotal when severe symptoms are present. Culture shock can affect any person of any age.

Impact of Cultural Shock on Mental Health

However, through various experiments it has been discovered to have the most damaging effects on international students who are studying abroad. Students, in general, have been found to be more prone to mental health problems than nonstudents. Hamboyan and A. Other studies have shown that depression and suicidal concerns are among the most serious problems facing students. This study does not include depression and suicidal thoughts derived from cultural shock, it is from a raw percentage of students.

Students entering a new country for educational purposes must adapt to the educational system. Workloads may be different in the country of origin compared to the host country. Test taking, homework and topics may be laid out differently as well. Therefore, the student must adapt to this system. The stress derived from being a student alone raises an issue of mental health, let alone being an international one.

In conclusion, it has been noted that these symptoms, which a good percentage of the student population may experience, end up being much higher in international students who are studying abroad. This is a very long process after all. In order to show the transitions that occur throughout cultural shock, this phenomenon has been broken down into four stages. Note that every individual is different, therefore, the time that it takes to complete each process will vary from person to person.

First and foremost, The Honeymoon Stage, which is pretty much what you are probably already thinking. Next, The Frustration Stage starts to kick in. In this stage, guess what starts to take over? You got it, frustration. About this mod Apply a burned, frozen or calcinated skin shader when killing with magic Requirements This mod does not have any known dependencies other than the base game. Author notes This author has not provided any additional notes regarding file permissions.

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