The dynamic range broadened; sometimes Tchaikovsky would mark quintuple fortissimo in his parts!
Adventures in Writing, Speaking, and Music
Composers no longer composed just because some wealthy duke or prince was paying them to, they composed to share their emotions and this struggles, and this is what makes Romantic music so appealing to the audience. They can empathize with the composer and get a glimpse into his world. We are currently in the contemporary period of classical music, where composers are abandoning all tonal, structural, and rhythmical conventions. Contemporary music often sounds harsh and dissonant compared to the lush melodies of the romantic era.
Much like the current artistic and literary movements of the day, classical music has progressed to take on a more abstract form, not confined by the traditional compositional elements and techniques. It is important to always examine a piece within the context of its time period and to consider who was the intended audience, and what was the composer trying to convey through this work. I think most of my exposure to the different eras comes from playing in orchestras and chamber groups.
This is an interesting music history refresher. Music has changed so much throughout the ages, and we are left with some great masterpieces from each era. I have always disliked the description of the modern era as the Contemporary Period. Given the population size of the current world, I am sure that more music in the tradition of all time periods has been written in the last 10 years than in the entirety of the historical periods instead.
Do you play the piano very well? There is little to no classical music for the trombone the best trombone pieces are mostly jazz , so my exposure to classical music has been on the piano. The Classical period moved dramatically away from this dense, intricate compositional style towards clear a melodic line and accompaniment; or homophony. There was a tendency for melody in the Baroque to be highly ornamented. Performers of the time were fully excepted to be good at improvising and familiar with the conventions that surrounded the elaboration of a melody they may be playing.
This in practical terms, created a catalogue of ornamental possibilities that players added to their performances including mordents, trills, acciaccaturas and appoggiaturas to name a few. The addition of these extra notes added the flourish and trim associated with the styles of the time that were dominantly ornate. These musical ornaments became less of a feature in the Classical period as composers strove for the purity of melodic line with balance and poise.
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Classical composers became ever more prescriptive in their use of musical notation. In the Baroque composers regularly supplied a bass line with figures that suggested chords to use and expected the performers to as these as they felt best. Classical composers left far less to the imagination of the performer to the extent where in later concertos, for example, cadenzas the solo passage where the performer traditionally improvises over the given themes , were fully written out.
The addition of volume or dynamic markings was increasingly common in Classical music giving rise to an ever greater range of expressive possibilities in contrast to the step loud to quiet or vice-versa , approach to dynamics that Baroque composers exploited to remarkable effect. Musical structures and forms began to change from Baroque to Classical. The Suite, often consisting of up to six movements based on earlier Renaissance dances, developed into the Sonata. This form was developed in the Classical era with the clear intention of allowing the composer to develop their musical themes more extensively than was expected during the Baroque.
The Sonata became a three-movement form Fast — Slow — Fast , and was a key factor in the advancement of symphonic music in the Classical Era and onwards into the Romantic period of music. What separated forms like the fugue from the sonata is that for the Classical composers, the development of musical material became an increasingly dominant feature rather than the exploration of polyphonic textures. Tonality is a dominant feature of Classical music with a strong pull towards creating musical pieces that rotate around tonic and dominant harmony.
Baroque music was also key centred but in a different way. In the Baroque, we find the harmonic pull harder to define due to the complexities of polyphony. Classical composers strove to create clarity and simplicity in their musical forms often through homophonic textures, that enabled the ear to more easily discriminate the underlying harmonic shapes.
The Concerto continued its popularity into the Classical era but there was a move away from the Baroque Concerto Grosso towards the concerto for a single solo instrument plus orchestra. These concerti became increasingly demanding for the performers for which they were written and far more of a public spectacle than in previous times. What we hear in the Classical period is the rise of the virtuoso soloist that eventually lead to works like the Beethoven Piano Concertos.
Alongside the concerto came the classical Symphony that had its roots in the Italian Sinfonia but dramatically reformed in the 18 th century. Mozart rapidly came to the attention of Haydn, who hailed the new composer, studied his works, and considered the younger man his only true peer in music. In Mozart, Haydn found a greater range of instrumentation, dramatic effect and melodic resource.
The learning relationship moved in both directions. Mozart also had a great respect for the older, more experienced composer, and sought to learn from him. Mozart's arrival in Vienna in brought an acceleration in the development of the Classical style. There, Mozart absorbed the fusion of Italianate brilliance and Germanic cohesiveness that had been brewing for the previous 20 years. His own taste for flashy brilliances, rhythmically complex melodies and figures, long cantilena melodies, and virtuoso flourishes was merged with an appreciation for formal coherence and internal connectedness.
It is at this point that war and economic inflation halted a trend to larger orchestras and forced the disbanding or reduction of many theater orchestras. This pressed the Classical style inwards: toward seeking greater ensemble and technical challenges—for example, scattering the melody across woodwinds, or using a melody harmonized in thirds.
This process placed a premium on small ensemble music, called chamber music. It also led to a trend for more public performance, giving a further boost to the string quartet and other small ensemble groupings. It was during this decade that public taste began, increasingly, to recognize that Haydn and Mozart had reached a high standard of composition. By the time Mozart arrived at age 25, in , the dominant styles of Vienna were recognizably connected to the emergence in the s of the early Classical style. By the end of the s, changes in performance practice , the relative standing of instrumental and vocal music, technical demands on musicians, and stylistic unity had become established in the composers who imitated Mozart and Haydn.
During this decade Mozart composed his most famous operas, his six late symphonies that helped to redefine the genre, and a string of piano concerti that still stand at the pinnacle of these forms. One composer who was influential in spreading the more serious style that Mozart and Haydn had formed is Muzio Clementi , a gifted virtuoso pianist who tied with Mozart in a musical "duel" before the emperor in which they each improvised on the piano and performed their compositions.
Clementi's sonatas for the piano circulated widely, and he became the most successful composer in London during the s. Also in London at this time was Jan Ladislav Dussek , who, like Clementi, encouraged piano makers to extend the range and other features of their instruments, and then fully exploited the newly opened up possibilities.
The importance of London in the Classical period is often overlooked, but it served as the home to the Broadwood's factory for piano manufacturing and as the base for composers who, while less notable than the "Vienna School", had a decisive influence on what came later. They were composers of many fine works, notable in their own right.
London's taste for virtuosity may well have encouraged the complex passage work and extended statements on tonic and dominant. When Haydn and Mozart began composing, symphonies were played as single movements—before, between, or as interludes within other works—and many of them lasted only ten or twelve minutes; instrumental groups had varying standards of playing, and the continuo was a central part of music-making. In the intervening years, the social world of music had seen dramatic changes. International publication and touring had grown explosively, and concert societies formed.
Notation became more specific, more descriptive—and schematics for works had been simplified yet became more varied in their exact working out. In , just before Mozart's death, with his reputation spreading rapidly, Haydn was poised for a series of successes, notably his late oratorios and "London" symphonies. The time was again ripe for a dramatic shift. In the s, a new generation of composers, born around , emerged. While they had grown up with the earlier styles, they heard in the recent works of Haydn and Mozart a vehicle for greater expression.
In Luigi Cherubini settled in Paris and in composed Lodoiska , an opera that raised him to fame. Its style is clearly reflective of the mature Haydn and Mozart, and its instrumentation gave it a weight that had not yet been felt in the grand opera. The final push towards change came from Gaspare Spontini , who was deeply admired by future romantic composers such as Weber, Berlioz and Wagner. The innovative harmonic language of his operas, their refined instrumentation and their "enchained" closed numbers a structural pattern which was later adopted by Weber in Euryanthe and from him handed down, through Marschner, to Wagner , formed the basis from which French and German romantic opera had its beginnings.
The most fateful of the new generation was Ludwig van Beethoven , who launched his numbered works in with a set of three piano trios, which remain in the repertoire. Somewhat younger than the others, though equally accomplished because of his youthful study under Mozart and his native virtuosity, was Johann Nepomuk Hummel. Hummel studied under Haydn as well; he was a friend to Beethoven and Franz Schubert. He concentrated more on the piano than any other instrument, and his time in London in and generated the composition and publication in of three piano sonatas, opus 2, which idiomatically used Mozart's techniques of avoiding the expected cadence, and Clementi's sometimes modally uncertain virtuoso figuration.
Taken together, these composers can be seen as the vanguard of a broad change in style and the center of music. They studied one another's works, copied one another's gestures in music, and on occasion behaved like quarrelsome rivals. The crucial differences with the previous wave can be seen in the downward shift in melodies, increasing durations of movements, the acceptance of Mozart and Haydn as paradigmatic, the greater use of keyboard resources, the shift from "vocal" writing to "pianistic" writing, the growing pull of the minor and of modal ambiguity, and the increasing importance of varying accompanying figures to bring "texture" forward as an element in music.
In short, the late Classical was seeking music that was internally more complex. The growth of concert societies and amateur orchestras, marking the importance of music as part of middle-class life, contributed to a booming market for pianos, piano music, and virtuosi to serve as exemplars. Hummel, Beethoven, and Clementi were all renowned for their improvising. The direct influence of the Baroque continued to fade: the figured bass grew less prominent as a means of holding performance together, the performance practices of the midth century continued to die out.
However, at the same time, complete editions of Baroque masters began to become available, and the influence of Baroque style continued to grow, particularly in the ever more expansive use of brass.
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Another feature of the period is the growing number of performances where the composer was not present. This led to increased detail and specificity in notation; for example, there were fewer "optional" parts that stood separately from the main score. The force of these shifts became apparent with Beethoven's 3rd Symphony, given the name Eroica , which is Italian for "heroic", by the composer. As with Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring , it may not have been the first in all of its innovations, but its aggressive use of every part of the Classical style set it apart from its contemporary works: in length, ambition, and harmonic resources as well.
The First Viennese School is a name mostly used to refer to three composers of the Classical period in lateth-century Vienna : Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. Franz Schubert is occasionally added to the list. In German-speaking countries, the term Wiener Klassik lit. That term is often more broadly applied to the Classical era in music as a whole, as a means to distinguish it from other periods that are colloquially referred to as classical , namely Baroque and Romantic music.
The term "Viennese School" was first used by Austrian musicologist Raphael Georg Kiesewetter in , although he only counted Haydn and Mozart as members of the school. Other writers followed suit, and eventually Beethoven was added to the list. Whilst, Schubert apart, these composers certainly knew each other with Haydn and Mozart even being occasional chamber-music partners , there is no sense in which they were engaged in a collaborative effort in the sense that one would associate with 20th-century schools such as the Second Viennese School, or Les Six.
Nor is there any significant sense in which one composer was "schooled" by another in the way that Berg and Webern were taught by Schoenberg , though it is true that Beethoven for a time received lessons from Haydn. Attempts to extend the First Viennese School to include such later figures as Anton Bruckner , Johannes Brahms , and Gustav Mahler are merely journalistic, and never encountered in academic musicology.
Musical eras and their prevalent styles, forms and instruments seldom disappear at once; instead, features are replaced over time, until the old approach is simply felt as "old-fashioned". The Classical style did not "die" suddenly; rather, it gradually got phased out under the weight of changes. To give just one example, while it is generally stated that the Classical era stopped using the harpsichord in orchestras, this did not happen all of a sudden at the start of the Classical era in Rather, orchestras slowly stopped using the harpsichord to play basso continuo until the practice was discontinued by the end of the s.
What is the difference between Baroque and Classical Music?
One crucial change was the shift towards harmonies centering on "flatward" keys: shifts in the subdominant direction [ clarification needed ]. In the Classical style, major key was far more common than minor, chromaticism being moderated through the use of "sharpward" modulation e. As well, sections in the minor mode were often used for contrast. Beginning with Mozart and Clementi, there began a creeping colonization of the subdominant region the ii or IV chord, which in the key of C major would be the keys of d minor or F major. With Schubert, subdominant modulations flourished after being introduced in contexts in which earlier composers would have confined themselves to dominant shifts modulations to the dominant chord , e.
This introduced darker colors to music, strengthened the minor mode, and made structure harder to maintain. Beethoven contributed to this by his increasing use of the fourth as a consonance, and modal ambiguity—for example, the opening of the Symphony No. Their sense of form was strongly influenced by the Classical style.
Comparing and Contrasting the Baroque and Classical Period in Music Free Essays - uketerinucuz.tk
While they were not yet "learned" composers imitating rules which were codified by others , they directly responded to works by Beethoven, Mozart, Clementi, and others, as they encountered them. The instrumental forces at their disposal in orchestras were also quite "Classical" in number and variety, permitting similarity with Classical works.
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However, the forces destined to end the hold of the Classical style gathered strength in the works of many of the above composers, particularly Beethoven. The most commonly cited one is harmonic innovation. Also important is the increasing focus on having a continuous and rhythmically uniform accompanying figuration: Beethoven's Moonlight Sonata was the model for hundreds of later pieces—where the shifting movement of a rhythmic figure provides much of the drama and interest of the work, while a melody drifts above it.
Greater knowledge of works, greater instrumental expertise, increasing variety of instruments, the growth of concert societies, and the unstoppable domination of the increasingly more powerful piano which was given a bolder, louder tone by technological developments such as the use of steel strings, heavy cast-iron frames and sympathetically vibrating strings all created a huge audience for sophisticated music. All of these trends contributed to the shift to the "Romantic" style. Drawing the line between these two styles is very difficult: some sections of Mozart's later works, taken alone, are indistinguishable in harmony and orchestration from music written 80 years later—and some composers continued to write in normative Classical styles into the early 20th century.
Even before Beethoven's death, composers such as Louis Spohr were self-described Romantics, incorporating, for example, more extravagant chromaticism in their works e. Conversely, works such as Schubert's Symphony No. However, Vienna's fall as the most important musical center for orchestral composition during the late s, precipitated by the deaths of Beethoven and Schubert , marked the Classical style's final eclipse—and the end of its continuous organic development of one composer learning in close proximity to others.
Composers such as Carl Czerny , while deeply influenced by Beethoven, also searched for new ideas and new forms to contain the larger world of musical expression and performance in which they lived. Renewed interest in the formal balance and restraint of 18th century classical music led in the early 20th century to the development of so-called Neoclassical style, which numbered Stravinsky and Prokofiev among its proponents, at least at certain times in their careers. The Baroque guitar, with four or five sets of double strings or "courses" and elaborately decorated soundhole, was a very different instrument from the early classical guitar which more closely resembles the modern instrument with the standard six strings.
Judging by the number of instructional manuals published for the instrument — over three hundred texts were published by over two hundred authors between and — the classical period marked a golden age for guitar. In the Baroque era, there was more variety in the bowed stringed instruments used in ensembles, with instruments such as the viola d'amore and a range of fretted viols being used, ranging from small viols to large bass viols.
Baroque and Classical Periods in Music Essay
In the Classical period, the string section of the orchestra was standardized as just four instruments:. In the Baroque era, the double bass players were not usually given a separate part; instead, they typically played the same basso continuo bassline that the cellos and other low-pitched instruments e. In the Classical era, some composers continued to write only one bass part for their symphony, labeled "bassi"; this bass part was played by cellists and double bassists. During the Classical era, some composers began to give the double basses their own part.
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